About the Companions
In the seventh century, Arabia was in a terrible state and had gone out of order. The humanity was savage and monstrous, and was away from nice qualities; there was not a period worse and more deviated from that one in the history of humanity. People were so deviated that they would attack tribes and enslave free people and would kill slave for pleasure. All parts of Arabia were places of debauchery where all kinds of disgrace and immorality were dominant. People used to drink alcohol like water, gamble, prostitute openly and practice usury. The feuds between tribes used to wound people's hearts. Some of them continued for centuries. The situation of the Aws and Khazraj tribes in Madinah was a clear example of it. The enmity between these two tribes lasted for 130 years. Daughters were regarded as means of shame and they used to be buried alive.
People used to worship the idols of stone and wood that they themselves had made, sacrifice animals for them, make vows for them and beg them. These wrong beliefs and customs were so deeply rooted among Arabs that they had blind confidence in them and said, “We found our ancestors in this way. This is the right way. We will not give up this way no matter what happens.”
Who was going to show the way of salvation to these people, who were confused and aberrant? Who were going to direct and improve their feelings and abilities? Who was going to reconcile them and bring them together?
Everybody was in need of somebody who would teach them what the universe meant, what man was, why he was created, why he was sent to this world and what his duty in the world was. He would tell people what the universe, which had become an incomprehensible book and a meaningless roll of paper, meant and teach people what to do in the presence of that magnificent book.
He would teach people how to live humanely, how to take real pleasures from life, what law, justice, equality, love, respect, righteousness and honesty was.
How much more was the humanity going to wait? Not only the humanity but also mountains, stones, all living and non-living beings were longing for that savior. When he arrived, he would free the universe from meaninglessness, idleness and aimlessness.
Allah Almighty did not make those longing eyes wait more. He sent His beloved Prophet, Hz. Muhammad Mustafa (pbuh). His advent was mercy for the realms. Suddenly, the universe started to smile. The universe became meaningful and the humanity came around when he arrived; the real face of everything became known with the light he brought. People found the right path through him. He held the Quran, the greatest miracle given to him, and read the universe with it and also made others read it:
He said: “Look at this magnificent universe, the sky embellished with wonderful stars, the sun and the moon and see how delicately they are rotated. Look at the night and the day and see how they follow each other. Look at the mountains, plains, streams, rivers and the endless plants that are buried under the ground and that are revived again. Look at your own creation. Think of the being that created you out of a drop of water.
Come to your senses. They are not coincidental things; they cannot occur on their own. They are organized by the knowledge, power and will of a creator. Realize them and give up worshipping idols, which cannot harm or help anybody. Do not ridicule yourselves with these meaningless and nonsensical beliefs. Believe in your Lord, who created you as human beings; thank your Creator, who makes you live with endless bounties and worship Him only."
Those who used their brains accepted this divine call. The land of eternity opened for their suffocated spirits. They entered the Paradise of oneness by getting rid of polytheism. They started to turn around the light of guidance. They became stars that orbit this sun of prophethood.
The obstinate people who did not want to read the universe could not get rid of the darkness of denial in which they stuck. Sometimes their obstinacy deceived them and sometimes their conceitedness made them deviate. Their inability to use their brains deprived them of this bliss.
The gap between belief and unbelief got bigger and bigger just like darkness and light, and day and night.
That person made such a unique and unmatchable revolution that the most civilized people emerged from those predatory, slovenly and savage people. He changed hundreds of customs and habits of them deeply rooted in them. He transformed this nation which recklessly shed the blood of one another into another nation which became so merciful and compassionate as not to hurt a fly.
Those distinguished people were brought up within the luminous circle of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh). The Messenger of Allah told them who man was, where he was coming from, where he was going and what his duties were. He told them that they would not be left unattended, that they were sent to this world for testing and that the good and the bad would be distinguished from each other.
Such great people emerged out of them that everybody, whether they were friends or enemies, appreciated them. For instance, Hz. Abu Bakr became the most superior person in the world people after prophets. He devoted his life to the way of Allah Almighty and used all of his property in the way of Allah. He became distinguished with his mercy, compassion, politeness, foresight and wisdom
Umar, who was so hard-hearted as to bury his own daughter alive, was recorded in golden letters in the history books with his justice after he believed in the Prophet and was educated by him; besides, the Prophet appreciated him by saying, “If a prophet were to come after me, it would be Umar Ibn Khattab.”
Thanks to his education, people like Hz. Uthman, in the presence of whom the angels felt shy, and Hz. Ali, a real hero, a lover of knowledge and a statue of asceticism and piety, were brought up.
Khalid bin Walid, who was an ordinary soldier but suddenly became “Allah’s sword” Amr bin As, who became a genius in politics, Zayd bin Haritha, who was an ordinary slave but became the commander of the Islamic army, and his son Usama, Salman al-Farisi, who was a shepherd but became the governor of Iran and despite this lived like an ordinary man, were the people who became prominent after being taught by the Prophet (pbuh).
Those lucky people received such a spark from that sea of light that they became the most civilized and considerate people, rising high to the horizons out of reach; they became exuberant with the abundance they received and travelled to country after country to spread the truth; they became teachers of civilization for the most civilized people.
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Thousands of Companions are mentioned in the resources of the Islamic history. Only the names of some of Companions are mentioned; the lives of some Companions are narrated briefly or in detail. In this work, we tried to write about the lives of only 213 Companions, in whose lives were exemplary lessons and stages.
Instead of giving dry encyclopedic information, we preferred a style that will make reading and learning easy. We found it appropriate to narrate the lives of the Companions like the Four Caliphs, which can be written as separate books, in summary.
We referred to the existing Turkish and Arabic resources and studied them while searching the life of each Companion. In appropriate places, we included the explanations and determinations made by Badiuzzaman Said Nursi regarding the Companions and the Four Caliphs since they were directly relevant to the topic.
If we have managed to reflect the Era of Bliss and make that luminous generation known to a certain extent, we will regard ourselves lucky. Success comes from Allah.
- Companions in the Quran
The word Sahabi (Companion) is derived from the same root as the words "suhbah" (talk/conversation) and "sahib" (owner). A person who saw the Messenger of Allah as a believer and died as a believer is called a "Companion" (Sahabi). Sahaba and ashab are the plural form of sahabi. This word is also used in the form of Sahaba al-Kiram or Ashab al-Ghuzin meaning good and distinguished people.
The divine books, primarily the Quran, praised the Companions and mentioned their superior qualities.
There are several verses that praise and appreciate them in the Quran. Some of them are as follows:
“Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah; and those who are with him are strong against Unbelievers, (but) compassionate amongst each other. Thou wilt see them bow and prostrate themselves (in prayer) seeking Grace from Allah and (His) Good Pleasure. On their faces are their marks, (being) the traces of their prostration. This is their similitude in the Towrah; and their similitude in the Gospel is: like a seed which sends forth its blade, then makes it strong; it then becomes thick and it stands on its own stem (filling) the sowers with wonder and delight. As a result, it fills the Unbelievers with rage at him. Allah has promised those among them who believe and do righteous deeds Forgiveness and a great Reward.” 
In the following verse, their praised properties are mentioned:
“Those who believe, and adopt exile, and fight for the Faith in the Cause of Allah, as well as those who give (them) asylum and aid― these are (all) in very truth the Believers: for them is the forgiveness of sins and a provision most generous.” 
It is stated as follows that they attained the consent and pleasure of Allah:
“The vanguard (of Islam)― the first of those who forsook (their homes) and of those who gave them aid, and (also) those who follow them in (all) good deeds― well― pleased is Allah with them, as are they with Him: for them hath He prepared Gardens under which rivers flow, to dwell therein forever: that is the Supreme Felicity.” 
The bonds of brotherhood of Muhajirs and Ansar are expressed as follows:
“Some part is due) to the indigent Muhajirs, those who were expelled from their homes and their property while seeking Grace from Allah and (His) Good pleasure, and aiding Allah and His Messenger: such are indeed the sincere ones―
And those who before them, had homes (in Medina) and had adopted the Faith― show their affection to such as came to them for refuge, and entertain no desire in their hearts for things given to the (latter), but give them preference over themselves even though poverty was their (own lot). And those saved from the covetousness of their own souls, they are the ones that achieve prosperity.
And those who came after them say: "Our Lord! Forgive us, and our brethren who came before us into the Faith and leave not in our hearts, rancor (or sense of injury) against those who have believed Our Lord! Thou art indeed Full of Kindness, Most Merciful.” 
The courage of the Companions is narrated as follows:
“Men said to them: "A great army is gathering against you, so fear them": but it (only) increased their Faith. They said: "For us Allah sufficeth, and He is the best disposer of affairs.” 
In the other divine books, the Companions are mentioned with praise. The following is stated about them in Psalms: “O David (Dawud)! I rendered Muhammad and his ummah superior to all ummahs.”  In the Old Testament, the Companions are mentioned as "the holy people" and in the New Testament as "people appointed for jihad".
When Hz. Kab was asked about what is stated in the Bible about Companions, he said,
“Ahmad and his ummah praise Allah a lot. They never give up thanking Him whether they feel good or bad. They praise Allah and mention His name everywhere. Their supplication rises to the sky. They perform prayers in such awe that the humming they produce is similar to the humming of the bees on rocks. They form ranks like angels in prayers. When they fight in the way of Allah, angels are located in front of and behind them with their sharp and pointed spears and Allah gives them shade just as these white flowers follow the shade of their leaves - pointing to them with his index finger.” 
 al-Fath, 29.
 al-Anfal, 74.
 at-Tawba, 100.
 al-Hashr, 8-10.
 Aal-i Imran, 173.
 al-Bidaya, 2: 326.
 Hilyatu’l-Awliya, 5: 386.
The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) mentioned his Companions by appreciating them and showed Muslims how they should act toward them. Some of the hadiths regarding the issue are as follows:
“How happy is he who sees and believes in me. How happy is he who sees me!” 
“Fear Allah about my Companions! Fear Allah about my Companions! Never turn against them after me and never curse them. He who loves them loves them due to loving me. He who gets angry with them and hates them does so due to his hatred and enmity toward me. He who oppresses them oppresses me. He who oppresses me oppresses Allah. He who oppresses Allah faces a big misfortune...” 
Once the Prophet was asked, “Who are the best one among people?” He said, “Those who live in my age, then those who come after them and who come after them.” 
“My Companions are like stars. Whichever of them you follow you will be rightly guided.” 
In another hadith, the Prophet orders people not to speak ill of his Companions and says,
“Do not revile my Companions! By Him in Whose Hand is my life, if one among you spent as much gold as the Mount of Uhud, it would not amount to their sadaqah of two handfuls of dates or half of it.” 
 Musnad, 5: 245.
 Manaqib: 59; al-Isaba, 1: 10.
 Muslim, Fadail: 211; Tirmidhi, Manaqib: 57.
 Kashfu’l-Khafa, 1: 132.
 Muslim, Fadail: 221.
- The most superior people
The Companions are in the highest level because they received light directly from the sun of the prophethood. The reason why saints cannot catch up with them no matter what they do is the Companions' talking and listening to the Prophet. Conversation has a different property. A person is cleaned and affected during a conversation. Those who listened to the Prophet even for a minute had such spiritual abundance and acquisition that even the greatest saint cannot attain it.
Great saints like Jalaluddin Suyuti, who talked to the Messenger of Allah while he was awake and who watched the Throne in the sky while he was on the ground, are ranked only after the Companions.
The most important reason for this big difference between the Companions and saints is that the Companions saw the sun of the prophethood and the saints saw the reflection of this sun on the mirror.
The Companions are the names of the people who were the closest people to Allah spiritually because the Messenger of Allah himself educated them and purified their spirits and hearts of evil thoughts.
The Companions nurtured and developed all of their feelings through belief in an Islamic atmosphere. All of their faculties were awake. When they uttered “subhanallah, alhamdulillah, etc”, they uttered them by being aware of their meanings. When they performed prayers, they virtually left the world and forgot about everything. They appeared in their bodies but they spiritually flew to high realms.
That is why it is necessary for today's man, many feelings and abilities of whose have lain fallow or who have turned and proceeded toward different directions, to work very hard and continuously to awaken his feelings. As it is stated in Sözler (Words) here lies the secret why the virtue and rank obtained by a Companions in 40 minutes can be obtained only in 40 days even in 40 years by other people.
All of the thoughts of the Companions were about attaining the consent of Allah. Their days and hours were spent on finding answers to the question, "How can we attain the consent and pleasure of Allah?" and being in that way. Their attention was focused on it and their hearts were connected with it. Their intentions, talks and relations were all about it. In their eyes, happiness in the world was important to the extent that it was a means of attaining happiness in the hereafter.
It is not possible for today's man, who is struggling to make ends meet, who is interested only in the worldly life, material interests and politics, whose ideas and hearts are scattered, whose minds have been alienated from spirituality and whose efforts have been broken off, to catch up with the Companions.
It is also impossible to catch up with them in terms of rewards. A soldier keeps watch and ward at an important place in a battle and is martyred; he attains the high rank of martyrdom in a minute. Similarly, the life of the Companions is like the minute in which that soldier is martyred. Who can catch up with the Companions, who ignore all kinds of worldly interests, who do not sacrifice even one question of Islam for the biggest worldly interest, who do not abandon their belief and the true way despite all kinds of fears and threats? Besides, it is not possible to catch up with them in terms of rewards as the saying goes, "'The cause is like the doer." For, the same amount of rewards is recorded in their book of deeds when the believers do good deeds that they started.
Said bin Zayd, one of the ten Companions who were given the glad tidings of entering Paradise, explains the reason why the others cannot catch up with the Companions in terms of virtue as follows:
“A person's living with the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) and getting dusty in jihad is better than all of the good deeds of another person even if he lives as long as the Prophet Noah.”
To speak against and to defame the Companions, who are so lofty spiritually, will definitely burden a big load on them. Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi (1002-1071) expresses the issue as follows:
“The Companions are honest and just because Allah stated that they were honest and pure. If you see someone look at one of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah with an evil eye, know that he is an unbeliever. For, the Quran, the Prophet (pbuh) and what he brought are true. Those who conveyed them to us are the Companions.” 
 al-Isaba, 1: 10.
- Love of the Prophet in the Companions
The being that deserves to be loved after Allah is definitely the Messenger of Allah. Those who loved the Messenger of Allah most were the Companions. This fact is stated as follows: in the Quran:
“The Prophet is closer to the believers than their own selves.” 
It is possible to see many living examples of it in the Companions who were praised by the Quran. They displayed unique and unmatchable examples of self-sacrifice in this way. They did not find it sufficient to say we believed; they put up with all kinds of oppression and torture for the love of the Messenger of Allah. They sacrificed their homeland, properties and lives for this cause. Their love for the Messenger of Allah was more than the compassion of a mother who risks her life to save her child. For instance, when Hz. Ali was asked, “How much did you like the Messenger of Allah (pbuh)?” he said,
“The Messenger of Allah was more beloved to us from our money, property, family, children and parents. We wanted him more than cold water when we were very thirsty and we loved him very much.” 
This love was nothing but the expression of the following hadith of the Messenger of Allah:
“None of you believes till I am dearer to him than the members of his household, his wealth and the whole of mankind.” 
This truth became manifest in the best way in the life of the Companions. Maybe Hz. Umar experienced the first incident about it. Once the Messenger of Allah asked him, “How much do you love me?” He said, “I love you more than anything except my soul.” However, the Messenger of Allah attracted attention to the most crucial point and said, “You will not believe perfectly unless you love me more than your soul.” Having learned how much and to what extent he needed to love the Messenger of Allah, Hz. Umar said, “O Messenger of Allah! I love you more than my soul” The Prophet (pbuh) said, “O Umar! It is perfect now.” Thus, he showed the criterion to Muslims about his love.
The Companions regarded love as the food of their spirits and they believed that their hearts would revive with that love. It was the greatest pleasure for them because they realized it very well that one of the three things that made a person attain the pleasure of belief mentioned in a hadith was "loving Allah and His Messenger more than anything else" . They risked their lives and put up with hardships with that pleasure.
There was no group as devoted to the Messenger of Allah as the Companions. They took him as an example in all their words, acts and deeds. For, the Quran shows the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) as the "the beautiful pattern of conduct". Allah adorned him with high ethics, taught him the best manners and set him as the guide for the humanity. This can only be possible by accepting him as the model and applying what he brought from Allah. This issue is stated as follows: in a verse:
“So take what the Messenger assigns to you, and deny yourselves that which he withholds from you.” 
On the other hand, the greatest aim for man is to attain the love of Allah. The way of attaining it is being subject to the Messenger of Allah. As a matter of fact, attention is attracted to it in verse 31 of the chapter of Aal-i Imran:
Say: "If ye do love Allah, follow me: Allah will love you and forgive you your sins; for Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful."
The most important issue of the Companions who aimed to live under the light of these orders was to show their devotion to him. This devotion was based on listening to him and obeying him.
We see the best example of it in the words of Sa’d bin Muadh before the Battle of Badr:
“O Messenger of Allah! We have believed in you and we believe that what you have brought is true. We give you our covenant to listen to and obey you. O Messenger of Allah! Do as you wish. By Allah, the One Who sent you with the truth, if you were to enter the sea, we would rush into it with you and not one of us would stay behind.”
 al-Ahzab, 6.
 Tarbiyatu’l-Awlad, 2: 1026.
 Muslim, Iman: 69.
 Bukhari, Iman: 9.
 al-Hashr, 7.
- The Levels of the Companions
A believer who saw the Prophet even for a very short time is called a Companion but among the people who saw him, there are those who became Muslims before the others, those who lived near him throughout their lives and those who made jihad with him. There are also those who tried very hard with him to spread Islam and to make Allah's name known. There are also those who were insulted and threatened together with the Prophet, who were tortured, who had to migrate to other towns by leaving their properties, countries and families and who were martyred in the way of Allah. It is quite natural that there are differences of levels and ranks among them. It is not possible to regard all Companions to be at the same level in terms of virtue. Due to these differences, Islamic scholars divided them into levels/ranks/classes.
Accordingly, the most virtuous person in the world after the Prophet is Hz. Abu Bakr, Hz. Umar, Hz. Uthman and Hz. Ali respectively. After the Four Caliphs, the most virtuous ones are the people who were given the glad tidings of going to Paradise while they were alive called Ashara al-Mubashshara (the ten who were promised Paradise); they are listed after the four caliphs in our book.
The classification of the Companions based on their virtues is as follows:
• Those who accepted Islam at the beginning like the Four Caliphs.
• The People of Dar an-Nadwa. After Hz. Umar became a Muslim, he was taken to the Prophet, who was at Dar an-Nadwa. The Makkans who became Muslims during this period when Islam was declared openly are regarded among this group.
• The Companions who migrated to Abyssinia.
• The People of the First Aqaba. The Muslims of Madinah who paid allegiance to the Prophet in Aqaba.
• The People of the Second Aqaba.
• The first muhajirs who joined the Prophet in Quba before he arrived in Madinah.
• Those who took part in the Battle of Badr. The Prophet (pbuh) stated the following about them:
"Allah is definitely pleased with the People of Badr. Do whatever you wish. Allah has forgiven you."
• Those who migrated between the Battle of Badr and the Treaty of Hudaybiya.
• Those who took part in the Allegiance of Ridwan.
The Allegiance of Ridwan took place when the Prophet and the Companions were prevented from performing umrah by Makkan polytheists. The Prophet signed a treaty with the polytheists to perform umrah for the next year. Hudaybiya was the name of the place where there was a well. The following is stated about these people in the chapter of al-Fath:
"Allah's Good Pleasure was on the Believers when they swore Fealty to thee under the Tree."
• The Companions who migrated between the Treaty of Hudaybiya and the Conquest of Makkah. People like Khalid bin Walid, Amr bin As and Abu Hurayra are among these Companions.
• Those who became Muslims after the Conquest of Makkah.
• The children who saw the Prophet during the Conquest of Makkah and the Farewell Hajj. 
 Tajrid as-Sarih Translation, 1: 28.
- Ashab as-Suffa
"Suffa" is the name of the place where the Companions who devoted their material-spiritual beings and lives to the service of our beloved Prophet (pbuh). It was a place built behind the Mosque of the Prophet for the Companions who did not have a house, family and any material possessions. The Prophet (pbuh) himself took care of the education and instruction of the people of Suffa who lived in that modest place. He taught the principles and the truths that surrounded the world first to Ashab as-Suffa. The people of Suffa spent all of their time obtaining knowledge, meditating and worshipping. These mujahids, who were ready to sacrifice their lives for their holy cause, fought against the polytheists who attacked the Muslims with their swords when they could not answer the Quran with their words; most of them attained the lofty level of martyrdom. When there was a need for people for conveying the message of Islam and for jihad, the Prophet chose people from Ashab as-Suffa first.
Describing Ashab as-Suffa as students who devoted themselves in the way of Allah, Elmalılı Hamdi Yazır states the following in summary:
“Therefore, madrasahs (religious schools) are built next mosques in the Islamic world and the students studying there are expected to follow the way of Ashab as-Suffa: Obtaining knowledge, worshipping, bearing all kinds of hardships in the way of the religion, preserving their chastity, serving in order to spread the religion of Islam, making jihad when it is necessary…” 
Ashab as-Suffa, who never left the Prophet, who shared his troubles with his Companions, alone and who attained high ranks through his luminous talks, received a great lesson of self-sacrifice from him.
There is not a definite number of Ashab as-Suffa. Their number increased and decreased from time to time. Some of them got married with the permission of the Prophet; some of them died and some of them went to different places with the duty of conveying the message of Islam. However, it is known that their number changed between 100 and 400.
 Hak Dini Kur'ân Dili, 2: 9 40.
- The Number of the Companions
There is no definite knowledge about the number of the Companions who were alive when the Prophet (pbuh) died but it is stated that the number is more than 100.000. For instance, 40.000 Companions took part in Farewell Hajj and 70.000 Companions took part in the Expedition of Tabuk. Imam Shafii says there are 60.000 Companions who saw the Prophet (pbuh) and reported hadiths from him. However, the names of the Companions who died beforehand and those who went to distant places during the conquest of Makkah could not be recorded fully. The person to record the most Companions is Ibn Hajar; he recorded 11.783 names in his book al-Isaba.
- The Companions who narrated the most hadiths
· Abu Hurayrah (R.A.) is in the first place with his narration of 5 thousand, three hundred and seventy four hadiths. And about 800 people (rawis) reported hadiths from him.
· Abdullah bin Umar (R.A.) is in the second place with his narration of 2 thousand, six hundred and thirty hadiths.
· Anas bin Malik (R.A.) narrated 2 thousand, two hundred and eighty-six hadiths from the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH).
· Hz. Aisha (R.A.) narrated 2 thousand, two hundred and ten hadiths from the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH).
· Abdullah bin Abbas (R.A.) narrated 1660 hadiths from the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH).
· Jabir bin Abdullah (R.A.) narrated 1540 hadiths from the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH).
· Abu Said al Khudri (R.A.) narrated 1170 hadiths from the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH).
- The Jurisprudents of the Companions
There were many Companions that gave fatwas on religious issues. While the four caliphs were in the first place in this issue, the companions whose fatwas were recorded and reached to us are as follows:
Hz. Umar, Hz. Ali, Abdullah bin Mas’ud, Abdullah bin Umar, Abdullah bin Abbas, Zayd bin Thabit, Hz. Aisha…
If the fatwas of these individuals were to be gathered, each one would form a great volume. Other than these, the fatwas of twenty Companions can form a booklet each.
- “The Four Abdullahs”
- There are 200 and according to another riwayah 300 Abdullahs among the Companions. The four of them are famous as “al-'Aba`dila al-Arba'a” which means “The Four Abdullahs”. These are: Abdullah bin Abbas, Abdullah bin Umar, Abdullah bin Zubayr and Abdullah bin Amr bin As (R.A.). After the death of the prophet (PBUH), the opinions of these Companions were taken for the solution of many problems. The subject matters that they agreed on are called “Qawl al-Abadila”.
- The Companions who died the latest
Abu al-Tufail ‘Amir bin Wasilah al-Laythi is the Companion who died the latest. There are different narrations concerning the date of his death between the years 100 and 110 A.H In addition to this, the Companions who died in various towns are mentioned separately. For example, the Companion who died the latest in Madina in 99 A.H was Mahmud bin ar-Rabi, Abdullah bin Umar in Makkah (73), Anas bin Malik (93) in Basra, Amr bin Hurayth in Kufa, Abdullah bin Busr Mazini in Damascus and Wasilah bin al-Asqaa in Damascus…
According to this, there were not any Companions that lived after 110 A.H.
- The Works on Companions
Many works have been written on Companions. However, the most famous ones are as follows:
· The work of Abu Umar ibn Abdilbarr (368-463) “al-Istiab Fi-Marifatu’l-Ashab” This work contains the names and lives of three thousand and five hundred Companions.
· The work of Izzaddin ibn al-Athir (Hijri 555-630) “Usdu’l-Ghaba” This work contains the names and lives of seven thousand, five hundred and fifty-four companions.
· The work of Ibn Hajar Asqalani (773-852) “al-Isaba fi Tamyiz as-Sahaba”. This work contains the names and lives of eleven thousand, seven hundred and eighty-three companions.
· The work of Abu Nuaym al Isbahani (330-403) “Hilyatu’l Awliya”. This work contains the lives of Ashab as-Suffa.
· Ibn Sa'd's (168-230) “at-Tabaqat”…
- We believed in the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) without seeing him; on the other hand, the companions believed in him by seeing. Is our belief superior or is the belief of companions superior?
The birth of every human is based on (divine) providence and wisdom. Humans do not decide the time period they live in. The time period which is prescribed for us by Allah is the most auspicious time for us. For, living in the time of the companions does not and cannot necessarily mean that we were to be a companion. There is also a possibility to become a person like Abu Jahl of that time. Is there a guarantee for us to endure the torment that was inflicted upon the family of Yasir, whose bodies were split into two by being pulled away from their feet and then to die with belief?
Some people that will come at the end of time are praised and described as “my brother” by the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and the aim of this is to attract attention to the terrific mischiefs of the end of time and to praise people who protect their belief in the time of disorder and mischief. The issue of being superior to the companions is related to some personal virtues. Otherwise, in general terms, the grace of the companions cannot be surpassed.
Here are the reasons why the grace of the companions in general terms cannot be reached:
1- Companions cannot be surpassed in terms of the effect of the conversation of prophethood.
Yes, they cannot be surpassed in terms of the conversation of the Apostle of Allah (pbuh) with them. For, the conversation of prophethood of the Apostle of Allah (PBUH) has a quality that nobody has. The conversation of the prophet is an elixir. A person who listens to his conversation for one minute and be honored with it changes with that elixir. (1) Such an individual becomes a companion of him. He turns into diamond from coal. Such a person is honored with the lights of truth that are gained in the ways of sainthood for many years. Such a person is colored by the light of the sun of prophethood. For, in every conversation of him, there is a quality of coloring. The companions who are the students of the prophet are colored with the paint of the greatest prophet in terms of his spiritual level, sainthood and prophethood. From this perspective, that spiritual paint cannot be applied in that manner and quality after the age of prophethood. Those who came later on, though even if they are Muslims and believers, cannot have that quality. (2) They cannot be caught up with in terms of virtue which is gained in that way. Besides, the conversation of the Apostle of Allah is reflected on the mirror of their hearts, that sun penetrates into their hearts without a veil and into their spiritual senses. Here there are two parties: one of them one is the party that reflects and the other is the party that has a manifestation of that reflection. The qualities of the reflecting one pass to those who are honored and to their mirrors. They also become a kind of sun; they become stars that are lit by the light of the sun of prophethood and become the lights of truth. With this honoring and mirroring and their obedience to him by turning their visions along with the greatest light of prophethood, the companions reach the highest levels.
After the death of the Apostle of Allah, some people like Jalaladdin Suyuti saw and talked with the prophet (PBUH) in the state of yaqaza, which is in between sleep and wakefulness. However, their conversation did not have a prophetic aspect but made with the aspect of sainthood. The prophet Muhammad (PBUH) appeared to them in the form of a saint. For, with the death of the prophet Muhammad (PBUH), revelation and the prophethood ended. It is not possible to see him in the form of prophethood after his death and to become a companion.
So, the degree of prophethood is higher than the degree of sainthood; in the same way, there is a difference of conversation between a prophet and a saint.
2- The Virtue and Honor that are present in the conversation of Prophethood is very great.
As-Sanani, who is one the great scholars of Zaydis (A.H. 1059-1182) explains the aspect of auspiciousness of companions of the Apostle of Allah (PBUH) in several ways as follows:
The first one is that the Apostle of Allah (PBUH) informs in his glorious hadiths that his age is the most auspicious time period. It is clearly understood that the people that are mentioned in this and similar hadiths are the ummah of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) who lived in his time and gathered around him like the parts of a body and thus becoming parts of a machinery just like in a factory. People who came after them are called “Tabi’in”; the followers of companions. They are also followed by people who come next. (3)
The second one: all scholars agree that companions are superior individually. Some of them also think that all companions are more virtuous than the people of other ages. People who fought in the battle of Badr and those who were present in Hudaybiyya are more virtuous than the people who came after them whether they are companions or not. According to the second view, all companions are more virtuous than all of those who came after them. (4)
What is understood from here is that all scholars of Islam who study on hadiths along with its commentators and interpreters have a common agreement on the virtuousness of companions from the point of view of Islamic jurisprudence. (5)
3- Companions cannot be surpassed in terms of the environment of prophethood which trained them.
The environment has an important effect in training humans. The Companions who are the friends of the Apostle of Allah are mostly at the highest level of virtue because there was a great revolution at that time and all beauty of righteousness and trueness became clear with the revolution of Islam (6) along with the revelation of the whole ugliness of the evil and superstitions. This became possible with the clear separation of the party of righteousness and trueness from the party of evil and superstition. On the one hand, a rightful prophet and on the other hand, the Pharaoh of Islamic ummah, Abu Jahl, and those who claim prophethood; on the one hand, there was endless mercy and compassion and on the other hnad, there existed the hardness and wildness of burying one's own daughter without any mercy (7); on the one hand, a prophet (PBUH) who is at the summit of perfection and his companions and on the other hand, the leaders of unbelief who were active in every kind of disgrace and polytheists of the lower of the low.
In such an environment, companions who had endless perfection of morality, would certainly follow the Apostle of Allah (PBUH) who is the best example of trueness, goodness and declarer of rightness and the best example of his cause. They were dyed with his paint because this is the only thing to be done in such an environment.
4- The Era of Bliss is like very rainy fertile land.
In one of his hadiths, the Apostle of Allah (PBUH) tells about the environment of prophethood by giving an example from the characteristics of the physical environment: Abu Musa (RA) reported the following from the Apostle of Allah (PBUH) :
"The guidance and knowledge that Allah sent with me is like the abundant rain falling on the ground. Some of the places that rain falls on are good. They accept the water, absorb it and produce grass and plants. Some of the places that rain falls on are arid; they hold the water on the surface; they do not absorb it. Thus, Allah makes that water beneficial for people. They drink it and give it to their animals, and make them graze. Some of the places that rain falls on are flat deserts that do not hold water on the surface and do not produce any grass. This metaphor represents the people who learn, teach and benefit from what I have brought and those who does not heed knowledge and guidance and do not accept the guidance of Allah who sent me." (8)
 See Tafsiru'l-Qurani'l-Azim, IV, 305; Hayatu's-Sahaba III, 141, 279, 281, 282 (As a matter of fact, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) likened a good person to someone who sells musk and stated that a person had the same religion as his friend. The Companions are his friends who smelled the scent of prophethood and was inspired by his talks.) See also Jawahiru'l-Bukhari p. 231; Sharhu'l-Aqidati't-Tahawiya II, 691-692; It is stated that the privilege of having talks with the Messenger of Allah makes the first Companions superior to those coming after them because the latter are not equal to the former. (The situation of those who never had any talks with him is obvious.) To become a sahaba (companion) means to talk, to accompany, to be friends and to be obedient. al-Qamusu'l-Muhit, I, 93; as-Sawaiqu'l-Muhriqa p. 212; Sharhu'l-Maqasid, V, 319.
 Ibn-i Abbas (RA) says their one hour spending together with the Prophet is better than your forty years. see Sharhu'l-Aqidati't-Tahawiya II, 693.
 Subulus-Salam, IV, 127.
 ibid, IV, 127; see also al-Jami'Li Ahkami'l-Quran IV, 170, Sharhu'l-Aqidati't-Tahawiya II, 691 etc. Ibn Qutayba, Abdullah b. Muslim, Ta'wilu Mukhtalifi'l-Hadith, Beirut, 1985, p. 107-108.
 Kalam and religious methodology scholars stated their views about caliphate regarding the issue.
 The Messenger of Allah states that his ummah will gradually retrograde, resemble polytheistic communities and lose its perfection in the first period. See Sunanu Ibn-i Majah II, 1304, 1305, 1310, 1319, 1320, 1333, 1340, 1343, 1348; Tafsiru'l-Qurani'l-Azim IV, 204; 230; Riyadu's-Salihin p. 271-282, 369; Ramuzu'l-Ahadith no: 1366, 6308; Sharhu'l-Aqidati't-Tahawiya II, 691 etc; Bahru'l-Muhit, III, 301; Mustafa Muhammad Umara Jawahiru'l-Bukhari, trnsl by Alioğlu, Hasan, İstanbul, nd. p. 231, 405; Sharhu Fiqhi'l-Akbar, p. 206.
 an-Nahl, 58-59, Çağatay, Neset, İslam Dönemine dek Arap Tarihi... p. 86, 106, 122. at-Takwir, 8-9. Mahmud Esad, Tarih-i Din-i İslâm, İstanbul, 1983 p. 138; Berki Ali Himmet Keskioğlu Osman Hz. Muhammed ve Hayatı, Ankara, 1993,.... p. 169. Committee, Doğustan Günümüze I-XIV, İstanbul, 1989, I, 182.
 Riyadu's-Salihin, p. 149, no: 162; Majma'ut-Tafasir (Lubabu't-Ta'wil). III, 483.
The Four Caliphs and the Companions who were promised Paradise
- The Four Caliphs and the Companions who were promised Paradise
- Male Companions
The Children and Grandchildren of the Prophet
- The Children and Grandchildren of the Prophet
The Wives of the Prophet
- The Wives of the Prophet
- Female Companions