How many fards (obligations) are there in salah (prayer) and what are they?

The Details of the Question
How many fards (obligations) are there in salah (prayer) and what are they?
The Answer

Dear Brother / Sister,

The (fards) requirements of salah are twelve. Six of these must be performed before salah. They are as follows:

1) Spiritual Cleanliness (Hadath), 2) Removing najasah, 3) covering private parts (Awrah), 4) facing the Qiblah, 5) time  6) Niyyah (intention). They are called the conditions of Salah.

The other six are fards must be performed after starting the prayer: 1) Takbir al-Iftitah (starting takbir) 2) Qiyam (Standing) 3) Qira'ah (Reciting/reading the Quran)  4) Ruku (bowing) 5)Sajdah (prostration) 6) sitting in the length of reciting at-tahiyyat in the last sitting. They are called "rukuns (parts) of Salah". Apart from these, there are also other rukuns such as tadil al-arkan and quitting prayer of one’s own accord.

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