Eid and Eid Prayers
If the Friday prayer is wajib for a person, eid al-adha and eid al-fitr prayers are also wajib for him. All of the conditions that are necessary for the Friday prayer are also necessary for eid al-adha and eid al-fitr prayers. However, khutbah (sermon) is sunnah for eid prayer and it is recited after the prayer. Eid prayer is valid even if a sermon is not recited but a sunnah is regarded to have abandoned.
According to Shafiis, eid prayers are sunnah al-muakkadah. According to another view, it is fard al-kifayah. It is one of the signs of Islam. It is better to perform it in congregation. It can be performed alone without a sermon.
Eid prayers are performed as two rak'ahs. They are performed in congregation and loud qira'ah. There is no adhan and iqamah for eid prayers.
The time period for eid prayer starts about 50 minutes after the sun rises. When its time is due, the congregation forms lines and intends as follows: "I intend to perform the eid prayer which is wajib and to follow the imam." The imam intends to lead the prayer. He utters takbir (says Allahu Akbar) and starts the prayer. The congregation also utters takbir and starts prayer. It is the opening takbir. It exists in every prayer. After the iftitah takbir is uttered, everybody reads Subhanaka silently. After a very short interval, the imam utters three takbirs on end by raising his hands. The congregation does the same. After the first and second takbirs, the hands are lowered and held on the sides. After the third takbir, the hands are tied on the navel.
These takbirs are called zawaid takbirs. Zawaid takbirs are wajib.
Then, the imam reads audhu basmala silently. After that, he reads the chapter of al-Fatiha and an additional chapter aloud. Then, they perform ruku' and sajdahs. They stand up for the second rak'ah. In the second rak'ah, the imam reads basmala silently. Then, he he reads the chapter of al-Fatiha and an additional chapter aloud. When the additional chapter ends, the hands are raised and three takbirs are uttered as in the first rak'ah. They are also called zawaid takbirs. After the third takbir, they utter Allahu Akbar without tying their hands and go to ruku'. This fourth takbir is the takbir that is uttered while going to ruku'. After ruku', sajdahs are performed. They salute after reading tahiyyat, salawat and duas. Thus, eid prayer is finished.
After the prayer, the imam ascends to the pulpit and starts the eid sermon without sitting. He reads two sermons just like the Friday sermon. However, the eid sermons start with takbirs. The congregation joins the takbirs with a low voice.
It is mustahab to perform the eid al-adha prayer quickly and to delay the eid al-fitr prayer a bit.
In the sermon, the importance of the eid is mentioned. In the sermon of eid al-fitr, it is better to mention the decrees about sacrificing animals and to remind the congregation about tashrik takbirs.
After the sermon, dua is performed. Then, the congregation leaves the mosque.
The first day of the eid al-adha is called yawm an-nahr (day of sacrificing); the other two days are called ayyam at-tashrik (days of drying flesh). The day before the eid al-adha is called yawm al-arafa, which is the ninth day of Dhul-hijjah. There is no arafa in the eid al-fitr.
Beginning from the morning prayer of the day of arafa, to the afternoon prayer of the fourth day of the eid al-adha, the following takbir is uttered after 23 fard prayers: Allahu Akbar Allahu Akbar La ilaha Illallahu Wallahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar wa Lillahi'l-Hamd.
They are called tashrik takbirs. According to the majority of the fiqh scholars, tashrik takbirs are wajib for everybody who performs prayers. Some scholars say, they are sunnah.
A person who misses a prayer on the day of tashrik takbirs utters tashrik takbirs if he performs that prayer on tashrik days. If he performs it on another day, he does not utter tashrik takbirs after the prayer. Women read tashrik takbirs silently.
Ill people are obliged to fulfill their religious worship as long as they are sane. However, our religion makes things easy for them. The following are the things that are made easy regarding prayer (salah):
* An ill person is obliged to perform prayers based on his strength. For instance, a person who cannot stand or a person whose illness can get worse if he stands can perform his prayers by sitting; if he cannot sit, he can lie on his side or back and perform prayers by gesture.
* If those who cannot stand alone can stand by leaning on something, they need to perform prayers like that.
* Those who can stand for a short time can sit after uttering the opening takbir by standing and complete their prayers by sitting.
* A person who performs prayers by sitting must not lean on anything. However, if an ill person cannot perform prayers without leaning on anything, it is permissible for him to lean.
* Those who cannot perform prayers even by sitting can perform their prayers in a way that is easy for them like lying on their sides or backs. They need to hold their knees upright if they can. If not, they can extend their legs toward the qiblah. Ruku and sajdahs are performed through gestures.
Gesture means to bow the head as an indication of ruku' and sajdah. It can be done by standing or sitting.
Those who cannot perform prayers even by gestures do not perform their prayers by the signs of eyebrows and eyes. They postpone their prayers. The ill people who miss more than five prayers like that do not have to perform them afterwards. If they miss fewer than five prayers, they have to perform them later.
Things like a cushion, stool and chair are not put in front of a person so that he will prostrate on.
Supererogatory prayers can be performed on animals even if there is no necessity. A prayer performed on an animal is performed through gestures. It is necessary to turn toward the direction the animal is walking to. It is necessary to bow a bit more in sajdah than ruku'.
Fard and wajib prayers are not performed on an animal unless it is necessary.
To perform a prayer on an animal is permissible only outside cities, that is, in residential areas. No prayer, whether supererogatory, fard or wajib, is permissible on an animal in a town or city.
The decree about a prayer performed in or on vehicles like a car, bus, train, plane, etc is like a prayer on an animal. After a city is left, it is permissible to perform a supererogatory prayer on a vehicle by sitting and gestures.
Fard and wajib prayers are performed on vehicles only if there is a necessity. No fard and wajib prayer can be performed on vehicles unless there is a necessity and excuse.
The excuses that make it permissible to perform a prayer on an animal or vehicle are as follows:
1 - If it is feared that the security of life and property will be lost.
2 - If one fears from highwaymen, wild animals and enemies.
3 - If one fears that he will not be able to catch the vehicle again if he gets off for prayer.
4 - If the land is muddy and there is no suitable place to perform prayers on.
It is permissible to perform prayers on a vehicle through gestures if one of the states mentioned above exists. A prayer performed like that is not performed again afterwards.
If it is possible to perform prayers by standing on vehicles like a plane, train, etc and if it is not possible to go out, it is necessary to perform prayers by standing if the vehicle is not moving.
If the driver has an excuse that makes it impossible for him to go out and perform prayers outside the vehicle, he needs to stop the vehicle and perform prayers. It is not permissible for him to move the vehicle if he can stop it and make it wait.
The dirt on the animal or vehicle does not prevent prayers.
It is not necessary to turn toward the qiblah on moving vehicles. It is permissible to perform prayers through gestures by sitting and turning to the direction the vehicle is moving.
If the ship is moving, fard and supererogatory prayers are performed on the ship. However, it is makruh to to perform fard prayers by sitting if it is possible to perform them by standing. It is necessary to turn toward the qiblah at the beginning of the prayer. If the ship starts to move away from the direction of the qiblah, the person who is praying needs to turn toward the direction of the qiblah if he can.
If the ship is tied to the dock or pier, it is permissible to perform prayers on the ship. However, it is mustahab to perform prayers outside the ship if possible. It is not permissible to perform fard prayers by sitting on such a ship.
If a person becomes sea-sick while performing prayers on a moving ship when he stands, he can perform prayers by sitting. It is not makruh to sit in that case.
If a ship at anchor shakes forward and backward due to a strong storm, it is regarded as a moving ship. If the sea is calm and the ship is not shaking, it is regarded as a ship at anchor. Fard prayers need to be performed by standing; they cannot be performed by sitting.
If two ships lay alongside each other and if there is an imam on one of the ships, the people on the other ship can follow the imam. However, if the ships are away from each other, it is not permissible to follow the imam on the other ship.