Could you please give information about Daily Prayer (Salah)?

The Details of the Question
Could you please give information about Daily Prayer (Salah)?
The Answer

Dear Brother / Sister,

Prayer is a kind of worship that Muslims do, including some special moves. The Arabic word for it is Salah and its plural is Salawat.
Salah is a kind of worship including certain moves and words, and starting with a Takbir and ending with a Salam. It is an expression of gratitude, praise, and glorification to Allah. In the Qur'an, Salah is mentioned in more than ninety verses. In the previous sharia, there were not five daily prescribed prayers. However, there was general Salah whose time was unclear. Salah became fard (obligatory) on the day of Mir’aj a half and year ago before Hegira. Anas bin Malik reported that event as follows briefly:

"Allah enjoined fifty prayers on my followers on the night of Isra. Then, it was reduced to five prayers. Then, the Prophet was addressed as follows: O Muhammad! These are five prayers for you and they are all (equal to) fifty (in reward) for My Word does not change." (Bukhari, Sala, 76. Anbiya, 5; Muslim, Faith, 263; Ahmad bin Hanbal, V, 122, 143). That Verse tells us that it will be given tenfold reward for a good deed we do: "He who brings a good deed shall have tenfold of its like," al-Anam 6/160; see. an-Naml, 27/89; al-Qasas, 28/84).
Before the five daily prayers became fard, the worship of the Prophet was to think on Allah's Glory and what He created. It is also said that the Prophet performed two daily Salahs, one in the morning and one in the evening, each of which contained two rakats. The previous ummahs also performed Salah. We can give examples of it; for instance Luqman ordered his son to perform Salah (Luqman, 31/17);  Abraham mentioned Salah while praying for the security of Hejaz (Abraham, 14/37), that Allah wanted Moses to perform Salah (Taha, 20/14) during the first revelation in the mount of Tur.

That Salah must be performed is based on the Qur'an, Sunnah, and Ijma (consensus).

The following is stated in many places in the Qur'an "Perform Salah and give zakah". "Guard strictly your (habit of) prayers Especially the middle prayer" al-Baqarah, 2/238). "Then, when you are secure, establish the prayer; surely, prayer is timely written upon the believer." (an-Nisa, 4/103).

"Yet they were ordered to worship Allah alone, making the Religion His sincerely, upright, and to establish their prayers and to pay the obligatory charity. That is indeed the Religion of Straightness." (Al-Bayyina, 98/5). "Establish the prayer and pay the obligatory charity and hold fast to Allah. He is your Guardian, the Excellent Guardian, and the Excellent Helper" (al-Hajj, 22/78).

Evidence from the Sunnah: there are many Hadiths reported about that issue. These are some of those Hadiths: Narrated Ibn 'Umar: Allah's Messenger said: Islam is based on (the following) five (principles):  To testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and Muhammad is 
Allah's Messenger, to offer the (compulsory congregational) prayers dutifully and perfectly, to pay Zakat (i.e. obligatory charity), to perform Hajj. (i.e. Pilgrimage to Makkah), to observe fast during the month of Ramadan. (Bukhari, Faith,1; Muslim, Faith, 19-22).

When Allah's Messenger (p.b.u.h) sent Muadh to Yemen, he said (to him), "YOU are going to the people of a (Divine) Book. First of all, invite them to worship Allah (alone) and when they come to know Allah, inform them that Allah has enjoined on them, five prayers every day and night; and if they start offering these prayers, inform them that Allah has enjoined on them, the Zakat. And it is to be taken from the rich amongst them and given to the poor amongst them; and if they obey you in that, take Zakat from them and avoid (don't take) the best property of the people as Zakat. 
Avoid the curse of the oppressed, because it reaches Allah directly." (Bukhari, Zakat, 41, 63, Maghazi, 60, Tawhid, 1; Nasai, Zakat, 1; Darimi, Zakat, 1).

On the other hand, the people of Islam have consensus that the five daily prayers became fard on a night and day.

Salah is fard for every Muslim who reaches the age of puberty and who is sane. However, children who are seven years old are also ordered to perform Salah. When they reach the age of ten, if they do not perform Salah, they can be beaten softly by hand. The Prophet said : "Command your children to pray when they become seven years old, and beat them for it (prayer) when they become ten years old; and arrange their beds (to sleep) separately." (Abu Dawud, Salah, 26; Ahmad bin Hanbal, II, 180, 187).

The number of prayers which are fard on a day and night is five. Only Witr and the festival (Eid) prayers are Wajib.  This Hadith reported about a Bedouin is the evidence of the five daily and fard prayers : "the number of prayers which are fard on a day and night is five." The Bedouin asked; "Do I have more debt than that?"; the Messenger of Allah said : "No, but you can perform Nafilah (supererogatory) prayers". 
Upon that, the Bedouin said : "By Him Who sent you with the Truth, I would neither make any addition to them nor would I diminish anything out of them". And the Prophet said : "If he does what he says, he will enter Paradise" (Bukhari, Belief, 34, Shahadah, 26; Muslim, Belief, 8, 10, 15, 17, 18; Abu Dawud, Salah, 1).

Judgment of abandoning Salah:

There is consensus about the issue that Salah is fard for every Muslim who reaches the age of puberty and is clean from menstruation and puerperum. In bodily worships such as Salah and Sawm (fasting), regency and deputation are not valid. Those who claim that Salah is not fard are regarded to have rejected the Religion, because Salah is definite with the evidence from the Qur'an, Hadith, and Consensus (Ijma). Those who quit performing Salah because of laziness or indifference are regarded to  rebels and sinners.

Those who do not perform Salah will be punished both in the world and in the Hereafter. Allah says about the punishment in the Hereafter: In Gardens they will question concerning the sinners, 'what caused you to be thrust into the Scorching (Fire)?'  They will reply: 'We were not among those who prayed." (al- Muddaththir, 74/40-43). “But the generation that succeeded them wasted their prayers and followed their desires, so they shall encounter error except he who repents and believes and does good works; those shall be admitted to Paradise and shall not be wronged in any way." (Maryam, 19/59, 60). " Woe to those who pray, who are heedless of their prayers (delaying them from their prescribed times)" al-Maun, 107/4-5). The Prophet (pbuh) said : " Those who quit praying intentionally will not be under the protection of Allah and His Prophet" (Ahmad bin Hanbal, IV, 238, VI, 461). " The good deeds of a person who abandons the Afternoon Prayer will be wasted." (Bukhari, Mawaqit, 13, 34; Nasai, Salah, 15). Whoever left three Friday prayers (Jumuah), Allah will seal the heart of a person who quits three Friday prayers heedlessly" (Nasai, Jumuah, 2; Tirmizi, Jumuah7; Ibn Majah, Iqama, 93).

According to the sect Hanafi, those who left praying because of laziness are not supposed to have rejected the Religion unless they deny Salah, but they will be sinners. They are warned to repent; they are  isolated from the society so that they will not serve as bad examples, and they can be beaten to discipline. 
Those who abandon fasting in Ramadan is the same (Ibn Abidin, Raddul Mukhtar, Egypt, n.d., I, 326; ash-Shurunbulali, Maraqil-Falah, Egypt 1315, p. 60; az-Zuhayli, al-Fıqhul Islami wa Adillatuh, Damascus 1985, I, 503).

According to the Imams except Hanafi imams, those who abandon Salah without an excuse are regarded to have denied the Religion and have disobeyed Islam; if they do not repent, they are severely punished (Ibn Rushd, Bidayatul Mujtahid, Egypt, t.y., I 87; ash-Shirazi, al-Muhadhdhab, al-Nalabi tab'i, I, 51; Ibn Qudama, al-Mughni, 3. edition, Cairo n.d., II,442-447; az-Zuhayli, ibid., I. 503, 504; cf at-Tawba, 9/5; Bukhari, Diyat, 6; Muslim, Qasama, 25, 26).

One who misses Salah by forgetting to perform it in or by not waking up or because of laziness must perform it when he is able to do it (Qada). In a Hadith, the following is said ; Anyone who oversleeps or forgets (prayer) should perform it when he remembers." (Abu Dawud, Salah, 11; Ibn Majah, Salah, 10; Nasai, Mawaqit, 53). According to the most of Faqihs (law experts) since it is mandatory for one who misses Salah due to an excuse such as forgetting or sleeping must perform it later, one who does not perform Salah without an excuse just because of laziness must perform it first. 
Moreover he or she must repent for not performing Salah in time. Allah can forgive sins except Polytheism (Shirk). There are certain narrations about the scope of that forgiveness that can include Salah:

In the Qur'an, the following is stated : "Allah does not forgive (the sin of inventing an) association with Him, but He forgives other (sins) to whomsoever He will." (an-Nisa, 4/48).

Ubadah bin as-Samit reported that the Messenger of Allah said : "Allah, the Exalted, has made five prayers obligatory. If anyone performs ablution for them well, offers them at their (right) time, and observes perfectly their bowing and submissiveness in them, it is the guarantee of Allah that He will pardon him; if anyone does not do so, there is no guarantee for him on the part of Allah; He may pardon him if He wills, and punish him if He wills." (Abu Dawud, Witr, 2; Nasai, Salah, 6; Darimi, Salah, 208; Malik Muwatta, Salat-ul Layl, 14). In a Hadith reported by Abu Hurayra, the Prophet (pbuh) said: "The first thing about which the people will be called to account for their actions on the Day of Judgment is prayer. Our Lord, the Exalted, will say to the angels - though He knows better: Look into the prayer of My servant and see whether he has offered it perfectly or imperfectly. If it is perfect, that will be recorded perfect.
If it is defective, He will say: See if there are some optional prayers offered by my servant. If there are optional prayers to his credit, He will say: Compensate the obligatory prayer by the optional prayer for My servant. Then all the actions will be considered similarly."  (Tirmidhi, Salah, 188; Abu Dawud, Salah, 145; Nasai, Salah, 9, Tahrim, 2; Ibn Majah, Iqama, 202).

Accordingly,, fard prayers will be completed by Sunnah and Nafilah prayers. A Muslim must have an aim to perform all kinds of prayers regardless of whether they are Fard, Sunnah, or Wajib, because it is both the source of worldly peace and spiritual happiness and the biggest preparation for the Hereafter.

The time for the prayers: performing some prayers in time is mandatory. They are fard prayers, their Sunnah, Witr, Tarawih and Eid prayers. Fard prayers : they include Dawn, Midday, Afternoon, Sunset, and Night prayers. Jumuah prayer replaces Midday Salah. Every Muslim must know the time of Salaths. He or she is responsible for it. Those times have been determined according to the Qur'an and Sunnah:

1) The time for Dawn Salah :

Time from the second fajr (dawn) appearance to sunrise is the time for Dawn (morning) Salah. 
The second fajr is the brightness starting to spread in the east horizon toward morning; with that, the time for the morning prayer starts, the time for the night prayer ends; and for those who will fast, the time will have begun. For that reason, it is called "Fajr sadiq" (True dawn). The opposite of it is the first fajr (dawn). It is brightness spreading from the middle of the east horizon upwards and sideways, in the form of two lengthwise lines dark in both sides. That brightness disappears after a while and is followed by darkness. After that, the second fajr will appear. That first fajr is called "fajr kadhib" (fake dawn) because it causes fake brightness and does not show whether it is really morning or not. That dawn is the same as night. It is still the time for the night prayer and it is not the time for the Morning Prayer. It is lawful to eat awhile more for those who will perform fasting.

The Prophet said: There are two dawns: the first is the one which makes eating Haram for those who fast and allows performing the morning prayer. The second is the fajr kadhib (fake dawn) which makes it unlawful to perform the Morning Prayer and allows eating for those who fast." (as-Sanani Subulus Salam, 2. edition, n.d., I, 115). "the time for the morning prayer is from the second dawn appearance to sunrise" (Bukhari, Mawaqit (times of the prayers), 27; Abu Dawud Salah, 2; Nasai, Mawaqit, 15; Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, II, 210, 213, 223).

2) The time for the noon prayer: the time for the noon prayer begins with the sun's going toward the west from the highest point that it arises from and continues until the shadow of  everything becomes equal to that thing. The shadow of the things when the sun is at the highest point (fay az-zawal) is excluded. That time of the noon is called "asr al-awwal". That opinion belongs to Abu Yusuf, Imam Muhammad, Imam Shafi, Malik, and Ahmad bin Hanbal. According to Abu Hanifa, the time of the noon prayer continues until the shadow of the things will be will be twofold excluding "fay az zawal" (the shadow of the zenith). With that, the time for the noon prayer ends and the time for the afternoon prayer begins. It is called "asr ath-thaani".

Muslims who go to Makkah for pilgrimage from all around the world pay attention to performing their prayers in Haram  ash-Sharif.

In calculating the folds of the shadow of the things the shadows of those things are added to the shadows that lengthen. The evidence of Imams (Mujtahids) is this Hadith: "When Hazrat Jibril (Gabriel) taught the Prophet the times for prayers, on the following day, he (Gabriel) prayed the noon prayer when the shadow of everything was as long as those things " ( Abu Dawud, Salah, 2; Tirmidhi, Mawaqit (Times for the prayers), 1; Nasai, Mawaqit, 6, 10, 15; Ibn Hanbal, I, 383, III, 330; Malik, Muwatta, Salah, 9).

Abu Hanifa's evidence is this Hadith: "If it is very hot, then pray the Zuhr (noon) prayer when it becomes (a bit) cooler, as the severity of the heat is from the raging of Hell-fire." (Bukhari, Mawaqit, 9, 10, Adhan, 18). The time when the heat is severe in Arabia is the time in which the shadow of everything is as long as itself. So, it is regarded Mustahab (recommended) to postpone the noon prayer to a cool time in summer. al-Mawsili, al-Ikhtiyar, I, 38, 39; Zuhayli, ibid, I, 508).The time for  the Jumuah (Friday) prayer is like the noon prayer.

3) The time for the Afternoon Prayer: The time for the afternoon prayer begins when the time of the noon prayer ends and it ends with the sunset. The afternoon prayer time begins, according to most of Mujtahids, when the shadow of the things are as long as themselves and according to Abu Hanifa, when they are twice as long and continues till the sunset on consensus because the Prophet said : "one who performs just a rakat of the afternoon prayer before the sunset, he is regarded to have performed it in time." (Malik, Muwatta, Wuqut (times), 5; Abu Dawud Salah, 5; Ibn Majah, Salah, 2; Ibn Hanbal, II 236, 254).

According to the most of Mujtahids, it is Makrooh to postpone the afternoon prayer as late as the time when sun becomes yellow because the Messenger of Allah said: "The prayer performed in that time is the prayer of the munafiqs (hypocrites). They wait for the sunset. When the sun inclines to set, they perform the afternoon prayer quickly and they praise Allah very little." (Malik, Muwatta, the Qur'an, 46).

According to the most of Islam scholars, the middle prayer mentioned in the Qur'an is the afternoon prayer. The evidence is this Hadith reported by Aisha: "The Messenger of Allah read the verse  
"And preserve the prayers and the middle prayer" (al-Baqarah 2/238) and said "the middle prayer is the afternoon prayer." (Abu Dawud, Salah, 5; Ibn Hanbal, V, 8; Ibn Kathir, Mukhtasaru Tafsir Ibn Kathir. thq. M. Ali as-Sabuni, Beirut 1981, I, 218). The reason why it is called the middle prayer is because it is between two night and two daytime prayers.

4) The time for the sunset prayer: the time for the sunset prayer begins with setting of the roundness of the sun completely and ends with the disappearance of the dawn. According to Abu Hanifa, the dawn is the brightness appearing in the evening after the redness in the west horizon. According to the other three sects and another narration from Abu Hanifa  except Abu Yusuf, Imam Muhammad, and the sect Hanafi, the dawn consist of redness on the horizon. When that redness has disappeared, the time of the sunset prayer will have passed. The evidence is the word "the dawn is redness on the horizon" of Ibn Umar. (as-Sanani, Subulus Salam, I , 106). In the sect Hanafi, the accepted view is that of Abu Yusuf and Imam Muhammad.

5) The time for the night prayer: the time for the night prayer begins with the time when red sunset glow disappears and continues till the second dawn appears. When the second dawn appears, the time of the night prayer will have passed. The evidence is this Hadith reported by Ibn Umar: "the dawn is redness. When the dawn disappears, performing the prayer is fard." (as-Sanani, ibid, I, 114). Another Hadith reported by Abu Qatadah: "You will not be responsible for the prayers you missed when you are in sleep. But you are responsible for performing the prayers in time." (Muslim, Masajid, 311).

It is mustahab to postpone the night prayer until the one third of the night. It is Mubah to postpone it until the half of the night; but, without an excuse, it is makrooh to postpone it till the second fajr (dawn) because there is the possibility of missing the prayer at that point. The time for Witr is after the time for the night prayer. The last time for Witr is a little time before the second fajr appears.

It is better to postpone Witr prayer till the end of the night. However, for a person who is not sure whether he will be able to wake up, it is better to perform it before sleeping.

The time for Tarawih prayer is after the night prayer by the accepted opinion and it continues till the time of the Morning Prayer. Tarawih can be performed after or before Witr prayer. However, it is not valid to perform tarawih prayer before performing the night prayer.  The time for Eid Salah begins after the time of Karahah passes and the sun arises, and it continues till the sun will be at the highest point in the sky. Ramadan festival prayer can be performed on the second day of Ramadan festival till the sun is at the highest point in the sky, if it has been missed on the first day of Ramadan festival. However, it cannot be performed on the third day. Eid al adha (the feast of sacrifice) prayer can be performed on the second day, if it has not been performed on the first day because of an excuse. If you have an excuse of not performing it on the second day of Eid al adha, then you can do it on the third day of the Eid al adha before the sun is at the highest point in the sky. It is a bad deed to postpone those prayers to the second and third days of Eid al adha without an excuse. Those Eid prayers cannot be performed after the sun is at the highest point in the sky or after the time of zawal. Their Qada are not lawful. (for times of the prayers, see. Ibnul Humam, Fathul Qadir, I, 151-160; Ibn Abidin, Raddul Mukhtar, I, 321- 342; al-Maydani, al-Lubab, I, 59-62; ash-Shirazi, al-Muhadhdhab, I, 51-54; Ibn Qudama, al-Mughni, I, 370-395; az-Zuhayli, ibid, I, 506 ff.).

6) Times for the prayers in the Poles:

There are two different opinions regarding the issue. a. The time is both the reason and condition of Salah.
So, if times for the prayers do not occur in a place, the prayers which must be done at those times are not fard for people living in that place.

For example, in some places in a season of the year, before the time of the sunset prayer passes, the time for the Morning Prayer starts with the second fajr (dawn) arising. The night prayer is regarded to have been annulled in those places. Someone who lost one or two of his organs that are mandatory to be washed in the ablution does not have to wash those organs any more, by making analogy, it has been decreed that that prayer or those prayers are not performed there in those places.

b. According to some Islamic researcher-scholars, Muslims in such places are responsible for performing the five daily prayers. If any of the times of those prayers do not occur, they must perform that prayer as Qada or they must try to perform the prayers in accordance with the nearest place in which times of the prayers occur fully. Although the time is a condition and reason of the prayer, the main reason of the prayer is that it is Allah's command. So, all Muslims must perform the five daily prayers.

The view of Imam Shafi is the same and it seems much more appropriate and cautious.

In the polar regions and nearby places where the sun does not rise and set for a long time, it is necessary to act in compliance with the rules in the above-mentioned places  It is better for Muslims to act similarly in terms of Zakat and sawm (fasting) in those kinds of regions. (for performing two prayers within the same time period, see "Jam at-taqdim and Jam  at-Takhir").

The kinds of the prayers: Salahs are classified into four categories.

1. Fard Salahs: the five daily prayers and Jumuah prayer. Every Muslim must perform them without exception.

2. Fard kifayah Salahs: such as the funeral prayer (Salat al Janazah). It is a command which must be carried out by a congregation. When some people do that duty, the others will not be responsible for it. If nobody does it, all are regarded sinners. Jihad for Allah, commanding the good, forbidding the evil, and selecting a caliph among Muslims are those kinds of fard. (Shafi ar-Risala, Cairo 1960, p. 54, 55, 363; Abu Zahra, Usul al--Fiqh, Translation. Abdulkadir Şener, Ankara 1986i p. 37-39).

3. Wajib prayers: such as Witr and Eid prayers. The command that is definite but whose evidence is based on speculative evidence is regarded as wajib. It is a principle accepted by the sect Hanafi. In the other sects, fard and wajib are used as synonyms. According to them, if something is not fard, it is Sunnah. You will have thawab if you commit a Wajib deed, if you do not, then you will be punished. However, one who rejects wajib is not regarded to have abandoned Islam.

4. Nafilah prayers: the prayers other than fard and wajib are called nafilah. They are also called "tatawwu" since they are performed without an obligation and for the purpose of gaining Allah's consent. Sunnah prayers are among the nafilah prayers. Every Sunnah Salah is nafilah, but not every nafilah is Sunnah. The nafilah prayers performed by our Prophet are Sunnah.

Rakats of the prayers:

We can list the rakats of the prayers as follows: The Morning Prayer has two rakats of Sunnah and two rakats of fard. The noon prayer has four rakats of the first Sunnah, four rakats of fard, and two rakats of the last Sunnah. The afternoon prayer has four rakats of Sunnah and four rakats of fard. The sunset prayer has three rakats of  fard and two rakats of Sunnah.

The night prayer has four rakats of the first Sunnah, four rakats of fard, and two rakats of the last Sunnah. Witr prayer is three rakats. Eid prayer consists of two rakats. Tarawih prayer is twenty rakats. The other nafilah prayers are at least two rakats.

The conditions of Salath:

Some rules (Rukuns) and conditions (Sharts) are mandatory for a valid prayer. Shart means symptom in the dictionary. Shart as a term is something whose existence is depended on itself, but a different thing from its real existence and content. Rukun (rule) means the strongest side in the dictionary. As a term, Rukun is something whose existence is dependent on itself and the rules which include the main elements and parts of that thing. In Sharia, Shart and Rukun are considered as fard. Both are fard, too. So, some scholars entitled it as "fards of Salah". In addition, there are conditions for the Salah to be fard. They are: to be Muslim, to reach puberty, and to be of a sound mind. (Shurunbulali, Maraqul Falah, p. 28; ash-Shirazi, al-Muhadhdhab, 1, 53; Ibn Qudama, al-Mughni, I, 396-401; az-Zuhayli, al-Fiqhul Islam and Adillatuh, Damascus 1405/1985, I, 563 ff)

Requirements of Salah are twelve. Six of those are conditions which must be done before Salah:

1) Spiritual cleanliness 2) physical cleanliness, 3) Covering the parts that are necessary to cover 4) facing Qibla 5) time and 6) niyyah (intention). They are called the conditions of Salah.

The other six are fards (obligatory acts) which must be done after starting to perform the prayer: 1) Takbir al-Iftitah (starting takbir) 2) Qiyam (Standing) 3) Qiraah (Reciting the Quran)  4) Ruku (bowing) 5)Sajdah (prostration) 6 ) sitting for some time during the last sitting, as much as reciting at-tahiyyat. Theyare called rukuns of Salah. Apart from those, there are also other rukuns such as Tadili Arkan and quitting prayer of one’s own accord.

Here, first, we will pay attention to the conditions of Salah:

1) Spiritual Cleanliness (Hadath): Hadath means that someone needs ablution (wudu) or full ablution (ghusl), and is in menstruation period or puerperum. Not having ablution is the small hadath and the others are the big ones. In order to remove big and small hadath it is necessary to make ablution or full ablution, and tayammum. Allah stated the following in the Quran: “Believers, when you rise to pray wash your faces and your hands as far as the elbow, and wipe your heads and (wash) your feet to the ankle. If you are in a state of impurity, cleanse yourselves." (al-Maida -the table- 5/6)

Our Prophet stated the following: "The prayer of a person who needs ablution is not accepted till he makes ablution." (Bukhari, Wudu 2; Muslim, Tahara, 2; Ahmed b. Hanbal, II, 308). “Allah will not accept any prayer performed without having been cleaned” (Bukhari, Wudu 2; Muslim, Tahara,  1; Tirmidhi, Tahara, 1; Darimi, Wudu, 21;  Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, II, 39).

It is mandatory to remove Hadath for fard, Wajib, sunnah or nafilah prayers and tilavah or thank-giving sajdah. It is not valid to perform a prayer without ablution.

When you perform the prayer, if your ablution becomes invalid, Salah becomes invalid, too. The Prophet said : "If one of you lets out gas while performing Salah, he must make ablution and perform that Salah again." ( Abu Dawud, Tahara, 81, Salah, 187; Tirmidhi, Rada, 12).

Removing hadath is one of conditions necessary, like the other conditions of Salah, for Salath to be valid. (See. al-Kasani, Badayius Sanayi, I, 114 ff. ; Ibn ul Humam, Fathul Qadir, I 179 ff.).

2) Removing najasah : it is mandatory to remove najasah (impurity) on the body, clothes, or the place in which Salah will be performed. That is the precondition for the Salah to be accepted or valid. If it is on the person’s body or clothes when he or she is praying or on the ground or mat where he or she is praying, its amount is taken into consideration. Any solid filth weighing more than 4 grams (1 mithqal), and any liquid filth more than the amount that spreads over a person’s palm invalidates the prayer. The urine of horses and domestic or wild animals whose meat are allowed to eat is regarded as weak impurity; if their filth that spreads on the body or the clothes is less than one fourth of it, the prayer is not invalidated. When more than one-fourth of a limb or one-fourth of one’s clothes is smeared with it, the prayer is invalidated.

Allah said: "Keep your clothes clean" (al-Muddaththir, 74/4). Ibn Shirin said that that cleaning was about removing the impurity on the clothes with water. The Prophet said when Fatima bint Abi Hubaish asked what the condition of bleeding different from menstruation was: "O Allah's Messenger I do not become clean (from bleeding). Shall I give up my prayers?" Allah's Messenger replied, "No, because it is from a blood vessel and not the menses. So when your real menses begins give up your prayers and when it has finished wash off the blood (take a bath) and offer your prayers." (Bukhari, Wudu, 63; Hayz, 24; Muslim, Hayz, 62, 63; 
Abu Dawud, Tahara, 107). The Prophet saw a Bedouin making water in the mosque and he said: 
"Pour a bucket of water over the place that that Bedouin urinated." (Bukhari, Wudu, 58, Adab, 35, 80; Muslim, Tahara, 98-100). The verse above-mentioned shows that cleaning clothes is fard, the first Hadith indicates the body, and the second Hadith the place in which the Salah will be performed.

3) Covering private parts (Awrah)

Awrah means deficiency, mistake, the weak position feared of being captured by the enemies, a place which must be covered, and woman lexically. As a Sharia term, it means organs (Private parts) which are forbidden to look at and which are fard to be covered. According to the sect Hanafi, covering one's private parts before people is fard by consensus (Ijma). According to the accepted opinion, it is also fard to cover those parts even if one is alone. Even if one is in a dark house and if he performs the prayer naked although he has clean clothes, that Salah will not be valid. (Ibn Abidin, ibid, I, 375).

It is fard to cover one's private parts regardless of whether one performs Salah or not except such needs like bathing, going out for toilet, and cleaning. Its evidence is the Qur'an and Sunnah. Allah said: "O children of Adam, take your adornment at every place of prayer." (al-Araf, 7/31). According to Ibn Abbas, what is meant by it here is clean clothes worn in the Salah.

Hazrat Prophet said:

"Allah does not accept the Salah of a woman who reaches puberty without covering her head." (Ibn Majah, Tahara, 132; Tirmidhi, Salah, 160; Ahmad bin Hanbal, VI, 151, 218, 259). "O Asma!  when a woman reaches the age of menstruation, it is not legitimate and permissible for her to display her parts of body except this and this, and he pointed to her face and hands. " (Abu Dawud, Libas, 31).
A man's private parts are the parts between his navel and knees.

According to the accepted opinion, the kneecap is regarded to be included among the private parts. The evidence is this Hadith: "A man's private parts is the part between his navel and kneecaps", "It is the part from below his abdomen to below his kneecaps." (Ahmad bin Hanbal, II, 187). Another evidence is a Hadith, which is weak, reported by Daraqutni, "the kneecap is among the private parts". (Zaylai, Nasbur-Raya, I, 297).

All of the body of free women including their hair hanging down is Awrah except their hands and faces. Their hands and faces are not awrah (private parts) in Salah or out of Salah as long as there is no anxiety of mischief. As for her feet, there are different opinions. By the accepted or sound opinion, her feet are not awrah because she has to use them when she walks. 
To cover them is difficult especially for the poor. According to another opinion, a woman's Salah will be invalid if one fourth of her foot is uncovered;, another opinion says that it is not awrah while praying but awrah outside Salah. It is regarded more suitable for her to cover her feet to eliminate the risk. According to the sound opinion, free women' arms, ears, and hairs hanging down are also awrah.

Allah said: "women do not reveal their adornment except that which is outward (face and hands)." (an-Nur, 24/31). What is meant here is the parts over which the adornment is worn. A woman's organs which are seen willy-nilly are her hands and face. Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) said: "woman is awrah. 
When she goes outside, the devil tries to seduce her." (Tirmizi, Rada, 18). On the other hand, Allah's Messenger said to Asma that she must cover the parts of her body except hands, face, and palms. (Abu Dawud, Libas, 31). The Hadith reported from Hazrat Aisha "Allah does not accept the Salah of a woman who reaches the age of puberty , without covering her head " shows that the hair must also be covered.
If all or one part of an organ except the front and back private part is uncovered during prayer and if it remains uncovered for two rukuns unintentionally, the Salah is invalid because a quarter of something is regarded as the whole of it.

Transparent clothes that show the color of the skin are not regarded to cover those parts of the body.  Therefore, one cannot perform Salah with such clothes because it does not provide covering. If the cloth exposes the body but if it is thick, the Salah will be valid because it is not possible to avoid it although that kind of covering is not considered good. (See. Ibn Abidin, ibd I, 375 ff. ; Zaylai, Tabyinul-Haqaiq, I , 95 ff.; Ibn Kudama, Al-Mughni, I, 599; Ibn Rushd Bidayatul Mujtahid I, 111; Bilmen, B. İslam İlmihali, 109).

4) Facing the Qibla: it is mandatory to perform the Salah by facing the Qibla. The Qibla of Muslims was Masjid al-Aqsa in Jerusalem during the Makkan Period and in the first days of Madinah Period. With this Verse (Ayah) that was revealed in Madinah Period, the Qibla was changed to the Kaaba: "turn your face towards the Sacred Mosque (built by Abraham); wherever you are, turn your faces to it." (al-Baqarah 2/144). 
The Kaaba is not just the building known in Makkah but it shows the place of that building. Whereas the above part of this Holy Place which go higher to the sky and the lower part of it which goes to the deepness of the ground is also the direction of the Qibla. So, those who are in the Kaaba can perform their prayers by turning to whatever side they want to turn. In congregation, Muslims perform their prayers along with the Imam by making a circle round Kaaba on the condition that they do not stand in front of the Imam.

The Prophet is narrated to have performed prayer in the Kaaba for once on the day when Makkah was conquered. "Ibn 'Umar said, "I went there but the Prophet had come out of the Kaaba and I found Bilal standing between its two doors. I asked Bilal, 'Did the Prophet pray in the Kaaba?' Bilal replied, 'Yes, he prayed two Rakats between the two pillars which are to your left on entering the Kaaba. Then Allah's Messenger came out and offered a two-Rakat prayer facing the Kaaba.' " (Bukhari, Salah, 30; Nasai, Manasik, 127; Darimi, Manasik, 43; Ahmad bin Hanbal, II, 75, 410, VI, 12, 13, 14).

It is not fard to turn to the Kaaba exactly for those who are far way from the Kaaba. It is fard and enough for them to turn to the direction of the Kaaba. (See Ibn Abidin, ibid, I,  397 ff; al-Maydani, al-Lubab , 67; Ash-Şurunbulali, ibid, p. 34; Zaylai Tabyinul-Haqaiq, I,100 ff.; Ibn Qudama, al-Mughni, I, 431 ff.). Our Prophet (pbuh) said: “The middle of the east and the west is the Qibla" (Tirmizi, Salah; 139; Nasai, Siyam, 43; Ibn Majah, Iqama, 56). If it was fard to face the Kaaba exactly, the prayer of some of the people standing on a long saff (line) in a big mosque that faced the Kaaba exactly would be accepted and the prayer of the others would not be accepted.

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