When did the five daily prayers become fard?

The Details of the Question
When did the five daily prayers become fard?
The Answer

Dear Brother / Sister,

In the previous sharia, there were not five daily prescribed prayers. However, there was general Salah whose time was unclear. Salah became fard (obligatory) on the day of Mir’aj a half and year ago before Hegira. Anas bin Malik reported that event as follows briefly: 

"Allah enjoined fifty prayers on my followers on the night of Isra. Then, it was reduced to five prayers. Then, the Prophet was addressed as follows: O Muhammad! These are five prayers for you and they are all (equal to) fifty (in reward) for My Word does not change." (Bukhari, Sala, 76. Anbiya, 5; Muslim, Faith, 263; Ahmad bin Hanbal, V, 122, 143). That Verse tells us that it will be given tenfold reward for a good deed we do: "He who brings a good deed shall have tenfold of its like," al-Anam 6/160; see. an-Naml, 27/89; al-Qasas, 28/84). 

Before the five daily prayers became fard, the worship of the Prophet was to think on Allah's Glory and what He created. It is also said that the Prophet performed two daily Salahs, one in the morning and one in the evening, each of which contained two rakats. The previous ummahs also performed Salah. We can give examples of it; for instance Luqman ordered his son to perform Salah (Luqman, 31/17);  Abraham mentioned Salah while praying for the security of Hejaz (Abraham, 14/37), that Allah wanted Moses to perform Salah (Taha, 20/14) during the first revelation in the mount of Tur.

That Salah must be performed is based on the Qur'an, Sunnah, and Ijma (consensus).

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