Will you give information about the scientific reason for the differences of human faces and the faces of the other beings among themselves and the wisdom behind this creation?

Details of the Question
What is the scientific reason for the deep differences among living beings (even among the same species, for instance, the faces of human beings) and what is the wisdom behind them?
The Answer

Dear Brother / Sister,

Let us think what comes to the mind when we say "complexion". Complexion includes elements like eyes, eyebrows, ears, nose, lips, cheek, forehead, chin, mustache, beard and skin. Is that all? Of course not. It is necessary to deal with each of them separately. For instance, when we deal with the skin, we see that some the skin colors of some people are dark, some are white, some are black and some are red. The skin does not consist of colors only. The appearance of the skin changes based on whether it is oily, dry, thin, thick, porous, etc. What gives the skin its shape is not the epidermis only; the muscular tissue and connective tissue under it, glands, bone form and many other factors should not be forgotten. 

Almost everybody knows the role played by the growth hormone being secreted less or more in the formation of the chin structure.

Let us deal with the eyes, about which a lot of poems are written. When we say the eye, its color comes to the mind first; the roles played in the appearance of the color by the muscular tissue and connective tissue in the eye, factors like blood-vein structure and the color pigment called melanin are ignored. Besides, the place of the eye, its shape, size, etc plays roles in the formation of the eye.

Along with the mutual relationships of the factors in the structure of the face, structures in other parts of the body play their role in the formation of human complexion. If we take into consideration the factors like the secretion of the thyroid hormone and the effect of the place of the eye on the face, it will be seen that the human complexion occurs as a result of the operation of a very complex system. 

It is clearly shown that trillions of face types can be created with the mechanisms operated at genetic level from two face (complexion) templates (Hz. Adam and Hz. Hawwa) in the world of causes. The information about the basic archetype (first example) of the complexion is encoded in DNA polymers, which have a special array called 'gene' like all the structures in our body.  

There are two copies of genetic information of every trait in man; one of them comes from the mother and the other from the father. During cell reproduction, genes are folded with proteins and transmitted into daughter cells through regular, systematic structures called chromosomes. In each cell of man that contains a nucleus, there are 23 pairs (46) of chromosomes. In germ cells, 23 pairs of chromosomes are reduced to half through meiosis. In the first phase of the meiosis that takes place in germ cells, along with the number of chromosomes being reduced to half, the incident of genetic recombination called crossing-over, which plays a role in versatile, reproduction takes place. Any two of the millions of different alleles that form can unite during reproduction. For instance, a mother can transmit the first allele of her first chromosome to one of her children while she can transmit the second allele of the same chromosome to the other child.

Let us suppose that all chromosome pairs are different and that two different alleles that were active in the formation of all traits are located in two different chromosomes: If we consider it for all chromosomes, there is a possibility of the creation of 8.388.608 types of germ cells as a result of the division based on the formula of 223. The baby receives 23 chromosomes of different variations from its mother and 23 recombinant chromosomes of different variations from its father and has 46 chromosomes like its parents. 

If we consider that each germ cell has the potential for forming a baby by uniting with a different germ cell, a maximum of 70.368.744.180.000 (about seventy trillion) types of babies can format genetic level. In other words, the possibility of the formation of two babies of the same complexion from the same mother and father is one in seventy trillion. According to the calculation of genetic variability produced by crossing-over mechanism only, without taking into account the anatomical and physiological changes in the period of embryonic development, it is reasonable and normal, in terms of causes, for seventy trillion different complexions to form from the time of Hz. Adam up to now. We made a presupposition above that a property of the face was determined by only two different genes. However, it is a fact that more than two genes are active in the formation of a property. If we suppose that at least four genes, not two, are active in the determination of a property, the amount of genetic variability will increase to about one hundred and forty trillion. 

In meiosis, not only chromosome pairs but also different genes on each chromosome can be transferred in various combinations. In crossing-over, as many chromosome types as the genes carried on a chromosome can be created.  

Although different scientists have mentioned different numbers up to now, it is estimated that there are at least between 30.000 and 100.000 genes in the human genome.  Let us suppose that there are about 6.000 genes on a chromosome and that each pair of chromosomes can have different alleles of the same gene (like brown eyes, blue eyes). It is impossible, but suppose that human genome is made up of only one pair of chromosomes, even then the number of haploid germ cells that can occur about with the recombination variability of the 6.000 genes it carries is 26.000. If we consider that the haploid genome actually includes 23 chromosomes, (26.000)23 types of gametes (germ cells) can theoretically be produced. If we think that the alleles of each gene change places mutually in crossing-over, a very huge amount of number of various germ cells that cannot be expressed can be created.

In addition, if we calculate the possibility of these haploid germ cells uniting the haploid germ cells of the same variability of the opposite gender, the number of the variability of the zygote (fertilized egg) will be too big to write in calculators. The number of the types of complexions from the time of Hz. Adam and Hz. Hawwa up to now will be very small compared to the number of the possibility of the types of complexions that can form. If we take into account that the germ cells in genetic variability unite in different combinations, it is possible to create types of human complexions hundreds of times more than the people that lived and that will live. In this genetic level, the first biologic operation is the one that works in the production of variability.  

Furthermore, the reading and usage frequency of the special recombinant genes can change in the fetus that is formed with the development of the zygote. While the product (enzyme) of one of the allele genes whose duties are to produce colors can cause the formation of the brown color, the product of the other allele can play a role in the formation of the blue color. This second mechanism, which is known as the reading and usage preference and frequency of alleles, is the cause of the additional variability.  

In conclusion, we can say that our complexions are different fortunately. If there were people of the same complexions around us, there would be confusions and we would not be able to establish healthy relationships with one another. Since those confusions do not occur, it means there is an order, measurement and wisdom in the creation of complexions.

The similarities in the human complexions that clearly show the manifestations of oneness in the unity and the differences in the similarities, and the complexion seals peculiar to each individual are clear signs for the existence, oneness, Lordship and Compassion of Allah.

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