What is the role of genes in programmed death?

The Answer

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9.2.4-The Role of genes in programmed death

RNA or DNA fragments that constitute a particular part of chromosomes is called a gene. If the genetic structure of every living being is likened to a library, the chromosome is a book in the library and the gene is a page or a chapter in the book. Genes are software or programs necessary for the vital tasks and biological development of all organisms. Chromosomes are made up of DNA as if they are packed. Therefore, there are many genes, i.e. programs in a chromosome.

More than 25 genes have been identified for programmed cell death. One of the most important of these genes in humans is the p53 gene, which is a 393 amino acid protein.

How are all the proteins that make up the structure of living beings synthesized?

These genes are synthesized in cells according to the special codes, i.e. the software, on the genes.

Can the mindless and unconscious substances come together by chance on their own and make very wise software or programs?

Definitely not. If there is a program, there must be a programmer too. Materialist evolutionists accept the program and that the program is wonderful. However, they do not accept the programmer. They claim that the perfect software and programs in all living beings are formed by chance and that they occur as a result of mindless and unconscious atoms, elements and molecules’ coming together and organizing.

This perfect system in which we live, the living beings, which are wonders of art, in it and the sophisticated software and programs in living beings can occur only with the existence of a Creator with infinite knowledge, will and power.

More than 25 genes have been identified for programmed cell death. One of the most important of these genes in humans is the p53 gene, which is a 393 amino acid protein.

P53 Gene and its tasks in programmed death

One of the most important tasks of the p53 gene is to control the cell cycle according to environmental conditions and the state of the cell. P53 gene is also involved in DNA repair and synthesis, cell differentiation, genome formation and programmed cell death.1,2

The program recorded in the p53 gene shows the existence of a programmer. The features of the program that require the will, such as sometimes working sometimes not working according to circumstances, and deciding what to do under which conditions, can be possible only if the programmer is active any time

            P53 is a transcription regulatory gene. If the death program in the p53 gene undergoes mutation or if p53 is not assigned any task in cell death, it is not activated. Therefore, as a sign of mercy, the cell does not enter into the death process. Thus, the life span of the cell is lengthened. The p53 gene in cells is usually activated by cell damage. The protein synthesized under the control of the software in the p53 gene binds to DNA and recognizes the damage. Once the damage has been detected, there are two different ways for the p53 gene.

The first way: If DNA damage is minimal, the cell cycle is stopped at the G1 stage and the damaged DNA is repaired. DNA repair should be performed while the cell is in the G1 stage before proceeding to the S phase because cell DNA is replicated in the S phase. If the cycle was not stopped in the G1 phase during the cell division and if the damaged DNA continued to be produced, the damaged DNAs generated by mutations would change the genome, that is, the gene structure of the living being.

It means mercy and grace do not allow such negativity.

Thus, with the p53 gene, the cell is prevented from entering the S phase until it is cleared of mutations that have a genome-altering effect. Therefore, the p53 gene is also known as a ‘the guardian of the genome’.

The second way: If the DNA damage is too much, the death program in the p53 gene is activated and the cell is killed.3

As it is seen, the program in the p53 gene is not like a conventional computer software. The p53 gene is activated according to the circumstances.

Secondly, timing is managed perfectly.

Thirdly, it is well known what to do and under what circumstances. Most importantly, what p53 does is vital for the living being. However, the p53 gene is a mindless and unconscious protein; it is not possible for it to know them.

Thus, the program recorded in the p53 gene shows the existence of a programmer. The features of the program that require will, such as sometimes working sometimes not working according to circumstances, and deciding what to do under which conditions, can be possible only if the programmer is active any time.

Detection of DNA damage by the p53 gene is not a simple task. Let us think about it a bit. For example, let us think about the devices that detect malfunctions in automobiles.

Firstly,the diagnostic devices are the result of technology and accumulation of knowledge; they are the design of an inventor who knows the equipment in automobiles very well.

Secondly, the diagnostic device does not operate on its own. Someone who is smart and knows the job is necessary for it to operate.

Thirdly, deciding what to do according to the malfunction and doing the repair work, or to scrap the car and send it for recycling if the damage is irreparable are tasks that a being with knowledge and will can do.

However, the p53 gene’s recognizing DNA (very small and very complex) damage, deciding what to do, and taking action (repairing or killing the cell) cannot be explained by chance-based evolutionary mechanisms.

Only sane people with healthy mind can understand the existence of the Creator from these wonderful works. Otherwise, it cannot be explained by reason and understanding for a person who wants copyright or even a patent for his own small works to attribute those wonderful works to chance and coincidence. 

Bcl-2 gene family and their tasks in programmed death

The Bcl-2 gene family, which consists of intracellular antiapoptotic and proapoptotic membrane proteins, also plays an important role in regulating the programmed mechanism of death. In addition, the Bcl-2 gene family is capable of suppressing the progression of cell cycle from G0 to G1 and enhancing the ability of some neurons to regenerate.

Proteins related to Bcl-2 gene family can be examined under 3 groups according to their structures and tasks.

1. The Bcl-2 subgroup (Bcl-2, Bel-XL and Bcl-w):

They have antiapoptotic activity. They are placed on the outer membrane of the mitochondria.

2. Bax subgroup (Bax and Bak):

They are proapoptotic; they serve as perceivers of cell damage and stress sensors and are usually found in the cytoplasm.

3. Bik subgroup (Proapoptotic Bik and Bim).

The distribution of Bcl-2 in the cell varies according to the cell type. The tendency of the cell toward programmed death depends on the type of Bcl-2 it contains. The more proapoptotic proteins in the cell, the more the cell is prone to programmed death, and the more antiapoptotic proteins in the cell, the less the cell is prone to programmed death. Bcl-2 is most commonly placed in the mitochondria, flat endoplasmic reticulum and the membranes around the nucleus. Bcl-2 does not prevent all kinds of cell death.4,5,6

1.De Senedettiet al.,Med PediatrOnc., 1996, 1, 2-11.
2.Öniz H., SSKTepecik Hast. Derg, 2004, 14 (1), 1-20.
3.Offer et al.,Carcinogenesis, 2002., 23(6), 1025-32.
4.Earnshaw et al.,Annual Review of Biochemistry, 1999, 68, 383-424.
5.Denault, et al.,Chemical Reviews, 2002, 102, 4489-4499.
6.Öniz H., SSKTepecik Hast.Derg, 2004, 14 (1), 1-20.

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