Does the claim that beneficial mutation exists constitute evidence that the theory of evolution may be correct?

The Answer

Dear Brother / Sister,

It is useful to remember something here. Sperm and ovum cells play a role in the sexual reproduction of living things. These two cells merge to form a unicellular zygote. It develops, giving a multicellular living thing. Chromosome numbers are halved before sperm and ovum cells merge. Thus, when two cells whose chromosome number is halved are combined, the number of chromosomes belonging to that living thing remains unchanged. The halving of the chromosome number in male and female cells before fertilization occurs in the same way in plants, animals and humans in the form of a law.

Mutation is the changes that happen in genetic structure of a living thing. These changes can happen in chromosomes or in genes. The changes in chromosomes occur in the numbers of chromosome or in its structure. The number of chromosomes in every living thing is constant. Changing in chromosome number can take place in the form of increasing and decreasing. For instance, in a plant with forty chromosomes, this number can change due to improper division or transportation to an inappropriate place during reproduction. For example, this number can be forty-one, forty-two, thirty, or thirty-eight. The individuals with a change in number cannot have a healthy life. Most of the time, they become extinct and, these types of changes usually lead to the abnormality of the living thing and cause its death.

Another change can be the increase in the number of chromosomes as two-fold or half. During the reproduction of a plant with forty chromosomes and during the formation of pollen and egg cells, the number of chromosomes have to reduce by half because when the pollen that represents the male and the ovum unite, the number of chromosomes remains constant as forty.

During the reduction of chromosomes in cells, the reduction can be prevented by interfering. This reduction can be done in ovum cells or sperm cells or in both. In this case, the individuals with sixty or eighty chromosomes, instead of forty will occur. The increasing of chromosomes in this way does not cause to death. Their generations continue too.

This type of chromosome change is called beneficial mutation. People benefit from this method especially in plant and animal breeding. For example, corn whose chromosome number has doubled or quadrupled becomes bigger and larger grained than normal individuals. Likewise, there are similar applications in the animal kingdom to increase milk and meat yield.

Other mutations are harmful and generally lethal, whether they take place in genes or in chromosome structure or number.

Conclusion

The beneficial mutations are those that increase in the form of multiples of the number of chromosomes. This method is used for obtaining big fruits in plant breeding and increasing meat and milk yield in animal breeding. However, it is not possible for a new and different living thing to emerge from them. When corn has increased the number of chromosomes by two times, corn with big grains and large cobs is obtained; the corn remains as corn, and no beans from the corn.

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