BIOLOGICAL OBSTACLES AGAINST INTER-SPECIES EVOLUTION
Professor Dr. İsmail KOCAÇALIŞKAN
Yıldız Technical University, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Istanbul.
If we accept the word evolution as a change, it covers a very broad framework. On this basis, the debate about change is not about whether change exists or not, but how it happens. Because it is a known fact that there is a change in the living and inanimate universe. Three main views have emerged from the past to the present in the answer to the question of how change occurs. One is the view of chance evolution, the other is the view of creationist evolution, and the third is the independent creation of species but thatonly covers intra-species change.
Changes in lifeless worlds earthquakes, rains, winds, etc. such as the transformation of rocks into soil, changes in ecological balance, climate change, shift of continents, underground formations, death of some stars in space and swallowed by black holes and the expansion of the universe. Examples of such changes.
When we look at the world of living things, living beings are born, grow, multiply and die. Newborns lead lives instead of dead ones. Each species has a life span within certain limits. In some species, for example, insects have a life change and transformation in the form of eggs, larvae, pupae and butterflies called metamorphosis. There are various examples of change in living things like these. There is no discussion. Because it is the events that take place in front of the law in front of us. Such changes are not evolution. But often these concepts are used interchangeably, causing confusion. Every change and transformation has been called evolution in literature. Whereas, evolution is the name of the view that claims that one species emerged by transforming from another.
a) Evolution Discussion
There are millions of living species on earth from one-celled bacteria to plant, animal and human species. The main discussion is about how the first members of these species emerged at the beginning, which is the source of the evolutionary debate.
Escherichia coli is a species of bacteria, Pseudomonas putida is another species. Plants include tomatoes, sunflowers, poplar, apples, pine species. Animals include dog, cat, frog, fish, bird, snake, monkey and human species. Thousands or even millions of individuals of each species live in the world. Of course, a species, for example, a human species or bean species, of course, will have a beginning. How did the first individual of a living species emerge? The discussion is the answer to this question.
Three main views have emerged in this question from the past to the present:
1. The Coincidental View of Inter-species Evolution
Thus, as the environment and the environment changed, one species transformed into another to adapt to the environment, and millions of living species emerged as the work of nature. For example, first, a cell, such as bacteria, was formed by chance. From one cell, one arm evolved from the side of the plants to one side of the animals. The plants evolved by chance in the form of seedless plants and then seeded plants. The arm of the animals evolved from one cell to invertebrates, fish, frogs, reptiles, birds, mammals and humans. According to this view, the end of speciation is open and unlimited. New species may also occur in the future. For example, in the future, human beings can coincidentally turn into another new species.
2. The Creationist View of Inter-species Evolution
This view, like the previous view, assumes that living things take the form of the transformation of one species into another, but that this transformation is driven by a Deity, that is to say, it is not a random evolution, but a divine evolution. While these two views converge that species evolve from one into another, they differ in terms of coincidence and a Creator plays a role in the evolution.
3. The view of Independent Creation of Species Including Intra-species Change
The knowledge that each species has a gene source in the world and that spreads from there to the world supports this view. In this view, living things do not change at all. There have been some changes since the time they were first created and they continue to be. However, these changes are limited to intra-species. Although some call these intra-species changes as micro-evolution, in fact these changes are not any evolution, but are intra-species variations whose existence is based on experimentation.
Within the species there are categories such as subspecies, variety and race. A living species, plant or animal, is under the influence of the environment in which it lives. According to this, it is possible that there are some changes in the living thing and it is necessary to adapt to the environment and to continue its life and generation. However, these changes are the changes in the secondary characteristics and not the basic characteristics, ie the changes is not in the characteristics of the species in which the living thing is involved. If the basic characteristics of the species change, then one species becomes another species, that is to say, inter-species evolution. No such species has evolved and it has not been scientifically proven.
It is a logical idea that each living species is created and multiplied according to the law of reproduction in a time period in which the environment conditions suitable for its life are created and spread throughout the world. In the meantime, in order to adapt to the new environment, in-species variations such as sub-species, varieties and breeds may occur by subjecting to intra-species changes to the extent permitted by the genetic potential. However, these changes are not sufficient to go beyond the gene pool of the species.
Not all living species were created at once. There is a gradual sequence of creation, that is, a time stream of species appearing on the earth. We can tell this from fossils. In this ranking, we can say that bacteria are among the first creatures. The reason for this is not because bacteria are simple, but because they are responsible for providing suitable environmental conditions for the species that will be created after them. For example, plants could not survive if plants were created before the nitrogen bacteria in soil that fix nitrogen gas in the air. Because there was no available nitrogen such nitrate or ammonium in the soil, the plants would starve to death. However, nitrogen bacteria were given a task that plants can not do. The task of capturing the nitrogen of the air and giving it to the ground. Thus, the soil was enriched with nitrogen and became suitable for the survival of plants.
According to this ranking, we can say that the last created species in the world is human. Because a complete ecosystem of other living species is needed for human survival. Without humans, other living things can survive. However, human beings cannot live without other creatures. Roughly we can say that after bacteria, plants, then grass-eating animals and then meat-eating animals were created. The food chain in the world requires such a sequence of creation.
In addition to the food chain, there are situations in which some plant and animal species have to be created together. For example, some plants are pollinated by birds and insects. Which plant species are pollinated by which bird or insect, these two species must exist in the same time period. Otherwise, those plants cannot continue their generation. Those insects can't live without food. For example, bees pollinate many fruit trees and pollens of flowering plants. Therefore, some plants need bees to multiply. On the contrary, bees would not survive without these plants. Because they feed on their nectar. Thus, Allah created the plants and bees in such a way that they will be in need of each other. Therefore, we can say that bees and these plant species were created in the same time period. Another example is the Mucunagigantea plant. This plant is pollinated by bats. Because the flowers open at night and not at day. Flower structure is suitable for bat structure. Bats fly at night to absorb the nectar of the plant because they feed on the night. Such plants and bats must have been created in the same time frame. Because one needs another.
There is of course a change in nature and living things. But this change is not in the form of the transformation of one species into another. Change can be within certain limits. We can't talk about unlimited change. There is intra-species change and this is necessary for living species to live in nature and adapt to different environments. For example, when we plant the seeds of a plant living at sea level on a high mountain, it becomes shorter, dwarf and small-leaved. This is necessary to protect from the sun's harmful rays at day and cold at night. The species is again the same species. As another example, while the animal species living in the desert are short-haired, some individuals go to the cold regions to the north to find nutrients and become used to live here and become long-haired to protect from the cold. But the species does not change. Only different breeds of the same species occur.
b) Biological Barriers to Inter-species Evolution
The biological evidences that inter-species evolution is not possible can be listed as follows:
1. Limitation Law
As a general law, everything is limited in the material world. Infinity is an adjective of the Creator. Creations have the freedom of change and life within the limits set by the creator. As the universe is limited, the world is limited, living things are limited, and their characteristics are limited. Our vision, our hearing, our strength, etc. It is limited. Every living species is also limited to its genotypic, morphological, anatomical and physiological characteristics. The reproductive potential of some living things is very high. For example, one fish lays thousands of eggs at a time. But most of them are limited by other fish. Without this law of restraint, the seas would be filled with fish and life would end.
However, within the boundaries within the species, such a wide range of motion is given by the Creator that there is a large, but not unlimited, genotypic range of change. Each species can live comfortable within the species boundaries drawn to it. New breeds and varieties have emerged within a species, both as a result of environmental conditions and as a result of human-made breeding. Still new ones are obtained. For example, potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) have more than 300 varieties. It is possible to make this number thousands by means of improvement works. So the kind of movement within the species has been left that wide. However, it is not possible to turn the potato into another species or to obtain a new species. Within the genotypic boundaries there are intra-species variations and can be made. So there is change, but each species is within its genetic limits. Not interspecies.
2. Sex Mismatch Law
Inter-species fertilization is inhibited by numerous different genes located at different loci of chromosomes. Such genetic conflicts result in tissue mismatch and prevent inter-species fertilization.
The blocking event may be at different steps depending on the species. Let us give an example from plant; when the pollen of one species (male reproductive cell) is placed on the stigma of another species in plants, the germination of the pollen in the stigma respectively, the progression of the pollen tube in the stylet, the inhibition of the introduction of the pollen tube into the embryo sac, the inhibition of fertilization of the seed, is blocked on one of the different digits. 
Efficient fertilization between species is not possible. Although fertilization is possible among some species, generation does not continue as fertilization is inefficient. Since the cultivated plants are resistant to diseases and adverse environmental conditions, the breeding studies (ie. Artificial selection) are carried out to transfer the resistance genes in the wild to the culture plants. For this purpose, the crossing of the wild plant and the culture is carried out.
For example, the seeds in small tomato fruits obtained when crossing the wild type Lycoprsicon peruvianum and tomato Lycopersicon esculentum, a tomato, become degenerate and become inefficient after one stage of development. It is not possible to continue the generation of such inefficient seeds. However, in tissue culture it is possible to propagate plants (asexually) with embryo culture. 
Similarly, the law of sex mismatch applies to animal species. In general, different species do not mate. As exception, although some possible to mate, either no fertilization or new generation does not continue. The mule is born as a result of the horse and the donkey mating, but its generation as sexual does not continue. This is a known famous example.
3. Recombinant DNA Technology
Nowadays, the science of genetics is so developed that genes are mapped. Genetic characteristics can be changed by transferring genes from one species to another. So the genes are engineered. Thus, a new field of technology was born. However, it is not possible to carry out inter-species evolution in the laboratory by transforming one species into another. However, intra-species variants such as a new breed or variety can be obtained. It is not logical to admit that this phenomenon occurred spontaneously in nature, even though the most specialized and experienced human beings have failed to achieve inter-species evolution.
Because the DNA of the bacteria is naked, there is no protein sheath and nucleus to protect it, they are easy mutated by many external factors such as cold, hot, harmful rays and chemicals. The fact that bacteria are given this feature is very wise. This makes it to manipulate the genes of bacteria, so they are used in biotechnological studies, for example in the production of some drugs. 
Gene transfer between species with cold resistance, salt resistance, such as properties can be gained. 
Nevertheless, no other species of bacteria or a different species of plant or an animal could be obtained by mutation or gene transfer. Only by making small changes in genes, new variants called strain (line) in the same species can be obtained in bacteria and new varieties within plants can be obtained for biotechnological purposes.
Excessive changes in genes cause death of organism(s). Therefore, mutations in the genes of one species cannot be transformed into another species either in nature (namely natural selection) or in the laboratory (namely artificial selection). Only intra-species changes may occur by the way. Even prokaryotic organisms with naked DNA, such as bacteria, have not been successful in obtaining a new species by mutation. This also seems impossible to achieve in eukaryotic organisms such as plants and animals. Because in eucaryots, DNA is preserved in the nucleus and surrounded by a protein sheath.
For the formation of inter-species evolution as an argument, a new species with the common genetic characteristics of the two must be formed by mating two different species. We explained above under the title of sex mismatch law that this would not be occurred because of a sex mismatch.
The other argument is the formation of mutations in the genes as a result of the pressure of the new environment due to the change of the environment on a species, and as a result of this change, this species undergoes transformation and emerges as a new species. We explained that this would not be possible under the title of recombinant DNA technology.
Contrary to these two major biological barriers and the principle of limitation, the possibility of inter-species evolution does not seem possible. On a logical basis, if there are, for example, three possibilities in the occurrence of something, two of these are not shown to be possible, the third possibility automatically turns out to be correct. 
When we look at this principle; as mentioned above, there are three views on how living species came into being, and it is explained above that the first two views, called inter-species evolution, are not possible.Therefore, the plausibility of the view of “the independent creation of species including intra-species change” arises.
 Ünal, M., Plant Embriology (In Turkish). Nobel Press, 2006.
 Kocaçalışkan, İ., Tissue and Cell Culture Technics (In Turkish). Nobel Press, 2017.
 Akyürek, A., 1000 Dead End of Darwin (In English), Liman Press, Ankara, 2019.
 Klug, WS., Cummings, MR., Genetics (Translated to Turkish). Palme Press, 2002.
 Özcan, S., Gürel, E., Babaoğlu, M., Plant Biotechnology-II (In Turkish). Selçuk University Press, 2001.
 Nursi, B.S., Lem’alar(In Turk). It translated to Engas the name of “The Flashes Collection”.
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- CONTINUITY OF INTRASPECIES CHANGE AND IMPOSSIBILITY OF TRANSITION BETWEEN SPECIES
- BASIC FALLACIES IN THE VIEW OF EVOLUTION: 2 CONFUSION OF CONCEPTS
- SCIENCE AND EVOLUTION THAT ARE IMPOSED ON THE COMMUNITY AS IDEOLOGY
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- DILEMMAS OF THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION
- Could mutations be the reason for a new species?
- What are living beings in terms of the transitional fossil form put forward as evidence for evolution?
- Are Living Beings Changing Under Natural Selection?