DILEMMAS OF THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION

Dr. Academician Selahattin ÇELİK
Kilis 7 Aralık UniversityFaculty of Science and Letters Geography Department.
[email protected]

The ideas and theories that had been accepted under the name of science for a long time are reinterpreted and can be reversed today. One of the issues that have been debated hotly for 150 years is the Theory of Evolution, which is generally accepted but which has turned out to have no consistent aspects in recent years.

The Theory of Evolution was introduced in 1859 by the British amateur biologist Charles Darwin. Darwin published his thoughts in his book called “The Origin of Species”. In fact, it would not be appropriate to say that the Theory of Evolution is the product of Darwin because people like Lamarck and Thomas Maltus had evolutionist views before Darwin. Darwin was influenced by those two people and took particularly the views of his grandfather, Erasmus Darwin, a well-known materialist, and formed the theory of evolution.

What was Darwin’s claim? Darwin participated in the voyage of the ship called Beagle, which belonged to the Royal Family; while examining the finches of several species on the Galapagos Island, he thought that similar species had evolved from one another. Moreover, Darwin did not make any explanations about the creation of living beings because the belief that living things had simple systems and formed by chance was accepted by many people under the name of "spontaneous generation" at the primitive science level of that period. So the real problem for Darwin was how different species emerged. How did Darwin answer that question? Did Darwin’s answer pass the test of modern science? In this study, the answers to those questions will be examined in items.

Natural Selection

In his book, Darwin claimed that living beings, which came into being by chance, gradually possessed new limbs with the mechanism of “natural selection” step by step.

Natural selection is the survival of the strongest living being. For example, the slow-running sheep in the flock of sheep would be eaten by wolves and the herd would continue its progeny with more powerful individuals. According to Darwin’s strange thought,the living things that survived would evolve with new organs and changes.

Darwin himself realized that natural selection was a dilemma for his theory: "Unless profitable variations do occur, natural selection can do nothing.".

Only five years after Darwin published his book, the discovery of the Laws of Inheritance by the Austrian botanist Reverend Gregor Mendel in 1865 invalidated the argument for natural selection. Mendel showed the following by those laws:No matter what physical changes living beings undergo in their environment, those physical changes cannot be passed on to the next generation. In other words, fast-running creatures in the flock of sheep cannot acquire a new physical feature with this action;even if it is assumed that they have acquired, this change cannot be transferred to the lamb.

Useful genetic information has to be added to the gene information under natural conditions for a living being to have a new tissue or limb. As we shall see later, genetic science has shown that this is not possible. Darwin placed so much importance on natural selection that he published his book with the name "The Origin of Species." However, Darwin himself realized that natural selection was a dilemma for his theory: "Unless profitable variations do occur, natural selection can do nothing."[1]

New Patch to the Old theory: Mutation

Mutation is the incident of the damage to or degradation of the genetic information in DNA. Evolutionist scientists claim that this harmful factor will provide useful genetic information to living beings. However, every experiment and observation made about genes would still be disappointing for evolutionist scientists.

When the science of geneticsstood before natural selection like a barrier, a group of evolutionist scientists held a meeting in order to find a solution, that is, to patch Darwinism. In a meeting organized by the American Geological Society in 1941, G. Ledyard Stebbins, Theodosius Dobzhansky, Ernst Mayr, Julian Huxley, George Gaylord Simpson Glen L. Jepsen, etc. reached the following conclusion after long discussions:

Neo Darwinism; that is, New Darwinism.The basis of it was accepted as "Random Mutations".[2]

Thus, those people answered the question “what is the source of the profitable variations that develop living beings?”, which Darwin could not answer and which he tried to solve based on Lamarck as "random mutations". Mutation meansthe degradation of the DNA molecule in the nucleus of an individual’s living cell that causes hereditary properties to emerge as a result of radiation, X-ray, ultraviolet, sudden temperature changes and chemicals.[3]

As it can clearly be seen in the definition, mutation is the incident of the damage to or degradationof the genetic information in DNA. Evolutionist scientists claim that this harmful factor will provide useful genetic information to living beings. However, every experiment and observation made about genes would still be disappointing for evolutionist scientists. Evolutionist scientists have made more than 1 million mutation experiments with fruit flies since they breed quickly and undergo mutations easily. However, not even one profitable mutation was observed. Each mutated fruit fly was either dead, sick, or crippled. Gordon Taylor, the geneticist, states the following though he himself is an evolutionist:

"It is a striking, but not much mentioned fact that, though geneticists have been breeding fruit-flies for sixty years or more in labs all around the world - flies which produce a new generation every eleven days - they have never yet seen the emergence of a new species or even a new enzyme".[4]

Michael Pitman, the researcher expresses the failure after the experiments as follows:

Numerous geneticists have subjected generations of fruit flies to extreme conditions of heat, cold, light, dark, and treatment by chemicals and radiation. All sorts of mutations, practically all trivial or positively deleterious, have been produced. Man-made evolution? Not really: Few of the geneticists’ monsters could have survived outside the bottles they were bred in. In practice mutants die, are sterile, or tend to revert to the wild type.[5]

The same results as the ones related to fruit flies are obtained from the experiments done with all other living beings. Mutation is the main cause of cancer diseases. American geneticist B. G. Ranganathan explains the negative effect of mutations as follows:

Mutations are small, random and harmful. They rarely occur and are ineffectiveat best. Those four properties show that mutations cannot bring about an evolutionary development. Besides, any randomchange in a highly ordered system will be for theworse, not for the better. A random change in a watch would not develop it. Such a change would probably harm it or be ineffective at best. An earthquakewould not develop a city; it would destroy the city”.[6]

As it is clearly seen, mutations did not turn out to be the solution that the evolutionist scientists expected.

What Does Paleontology Say?

There is not even one intermediate form between species; and species appear suddenly in fossils, not through long processes.

We have seen that evolutionary mechanisms are invalid. Where is the science of Paleontology, which provides concrete evidence about the past of living beings? Can the theory of evolution pass the test of fossils? The remains of plants and animals buried under the ground in ancient times and petrified there are called "fossils." When millions of fossils unearthed by paleontologists are examined, we cannot see any transitional forms showing the transition between species. Darwin said that fossils would provide the evidences for his theory. If the theory is true, numerous transitional forms linking species must have lived. Evidence that they have lived can be found only among fossil remains.[7]

Darwin even said, "The number of intermediate and transitional links among living and extinct species must be unbelievably great".[8]

The famous French zoologist Pierre Grassé states the following regarding the issue:

Naturalists must remember that the process of evolution is revealed only through fossil forms. . . Only paleontology can provide them with the evidence of evolution and reveal its course or mechanisms”.[9]

However, paleontological discoveries would also disappoint Darwin and evolutionist scientists. Although hundreds of millions of fossils were unearthed, no trace of a singleintermediate/transitional living being was found. On the contrary, living beings in fossils, which were hundreds of millions of years old, were exactly the same as ones living today. Stephan Jay Gould, who was an American paleontologist, geologist, zoologist, taxonomist, historian of science, and one of the most widely read popular science writers of his language and generation, explains it as follows:  The history of most fossil species includes two features particularly inconsistent with gradualism:

1. Stasis. Most species exhibit no directional change during their tenure on earth. They appear in the fossil record looking much the same as when they disappear; morphological change is usually limited and directionless.

2. Sudden appearance. In any local area, a species does not arise gradually by the steady transformation of its ancestors; it appears all at once and ‘fully formed’.        

As Stephan Jay Gould states, there is not even one intermediate form between species; and species appear suddenly in fossils, not through long processes. This development, which shocked the proponents of the theory of evolution, was so evident that confessions from evolutionist paleontologists and scientists came one after the other.

Confessions of Evolutionists

Derek W. Ager (the famous British Paleontologist) states the following:

The point emerges that if we examine the fossil record in detail, whether at the level of orders or of species, we find–over and over again–not gradual evolution, but the sudden explosion of one group at the expense of another”.[10]

The evolutionist Dr. Colin Patterson,  Gould and experts of the American Museum make the same statement about intermediate fossils:

There is not even oneintermediate fossil”.[11]

 Prof. Fred Hoylestates something similar:

Over ten thousand fossil species of insects have been identified, over thirty thousand species of spiders, and similar numbers for many sea-living creatures. Yet so far the evidence of step-by-step changes leading to major evolutionary transitions looks extremely thin.[12]

George Gaylord Simpson, the famous evolutionist, states the following:

Where are the intermediate-transitional forms, which represent a great part of the history of evolution? They have not been found anywhere yet. This point is very important in terms of the surprising gaps in fossil record”.[13]

The evolutionist Steven M. Stanley says something similar:

The known fossil record could not document any example that succeeded in a morphological transition. Therefore, fossil record could not put forward any evidence that gradual evolutionary transition could be valid”.[14]

John Adler and John Carey state the following:

The more scientists look for inter-species forms, the more disappointment occurs”.[15]

Dr. David Raup, the Head of Chicago Natural History Museum and Geology Department, holds the following view:

Most people assume that fossils provide a very important part of the general argument made in favor of Darwinian interpretations of the history of life. Unfortunately, this is not strictly true”.[16]

W. R. Thompson points out that  absence of intermediate forms is concealed:

Intermediate forms required by the theory is seriously missing in fossil record... Themodern Darwinian paleontologists are obliged, just like their predecessors and like Darwin, to water down the facts with subsidiary hypotheses”.[17]

What is interesting is that Darwin confesses at great length the absence of intermediate fossils in his book. He states the following regarding the issue:

Why, if species have descended from other species by fine gradations, do we not everywhere see innumerable transitional forms? Why is not all nature in confusion, instead of the species being, as we see them, well defined?But, as by this theory innumerable transitional forms must have existed, why do we not find them embedded in countless numbers in the crust of the earth? Why then is not every geological formation and every stratum full of such intermediate links? Geology assuredly does not reveal any such finely graduated organic chain; and this, perhaps, is the most obvious and gravest objection which can be urged against my theory”.[18]

Paleontology showed that living beings did not exist by evolution and by gradual transformations, and that they came into being instantaneously with all of their organs and fully formed. This means creation. Today, modern science has taken on the task of proving instant creation. Many scientists have openly accepted this. For example, Edmund Ambrose states the following:

We have to admit that there is nothing in the geological records that runs contrary to the view of conservative creationists”.[19]

The paleontologist Mark Czarnecki, who is an evolutionist, expresses this fact as follows:

Species appear and disappear abruptly, and this anomaly has fueled the creationist argument that each species was created by God”.[20]

It is informed by the Quran 14 centuries ago that all living beings were created instantly:

To Him is due the primal origin of the heavens and the earth: When He decreeth a matter, He saith to it: "Be," and it is”.[21]

Cambrian Explosion

The Cambrian Explosion was, in Darwin’s words, a "fatal blow" for the theory of evolution because Darwin wrote the following in his book: "If numerous species, belonging to the same genera or families, have really started into life at once, the fact would be fatal to the theory of evolution through natural selection".

The Cambrian period is the name of the geological period in which all multicellular groups living today appeared suddenly. This emergence was so sudden and so large that scientists called it “the Cambrian explosion”. The famous evolutionist paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould describes this event as follows: The most remarkable and surprising event in the history of life. The evolutionist zoologist Thomas S. Ray wrote the following: The issue of the origin of multicellular being is as extraordinary as the beginning of life.[22]

The period in which 50 phyla (the number of phyla fell to 35 today) appeared together and in the same period on the Cambrian layer of the earthabout 540 million years ago is called the "Cambrian Explosion". This period is referred to as explosion in the literature because complex creatures such as snails, trilobites, sponges, worms, jellyfish, starfish, swimming crustaceans and sea lilies appeared fully in this layer in the form of an explosion. Indeed, it is a very impressive discovery. 50 phyla emerged 540 million years ago fully with complete organs and structures, without any intermediate species. This means instant creation. It is a scientific determination of the fact that is expressed in the Quran as “He saith to it: ‘Be,’ and it is. Richard Dawkins, a leading proponent of the theory of evolution, makes the following confession about the Cambrian:

"The Cambrian strata of rocksare the oldest ones in which we find most of the major invertebrate groups. And we find many of them already in an advanced state of evolution, the very first time they appear. It is as though they were just planted there, without any evolutionary history. Needless to say, this appearance of sudden planting has delighted creationists".[23]

The meaning of Cambrian is so clear that even Dawkins had to confess it. Creation has become a concrete fact of science.. The evolutionist biologist Douglas Futuyma states the following;

"Organisms either appeared on the earth fully developed or they did not. If they did not, they must have developed from preexisting species by some process of modification. If they did appear in a fully developed state, they must indeed have been created by some omnipotent intelligence".Thus, he expresses the truth, which is a surprise for the evolutionists.[24]

The Cambrian Explosion was, in Darwin’s words, a "fatal blow" for the theory of evolution because Darwin wrote the following in his book: "If numerous species, belonging to the same genera or families, have really started into life at once, the fact would be fatal to the theory of evolution through natural selection".[25]

Life

We tested and questioned the theory of evolution in many ways. Developing science has shown that Darwin’s ideas consist of fallacies, which is not surprising. For, when Darwin published his ideas, not even the ballpoint pen had been invented. In such an environment where science is so backward, it is easier for people to be influenced by wrong theories and ideas and accept them as real. Evolutionist scientists do not try to explain how living beings came into being and how they emerged. They argue that this is an already explained fact that does not require any discussion. According to them, some molecules, some lightning or thunderboltare enough for life to form on its own because living cells have a simple, ordinary structure. However, that viewpoint was not suitable for science at all. The cell, which was previously regarded as a small balloon filled with water,was discovered to have a more complex design than big cities like New York and Istanbul. While no cell could be observed during Darwin’s time, science has now reached the level of being able to observe the atoms that make up cells.

Professor Michael Denton, a renowned molecular biologist, describes the structure of the cell as follows:

"To grasp the reality of life as it has been revealed by molecular biology, we must magnify a cell a thousand million times until it is twenty kilometers in diameter and resembles a giant airship large enough to cover a great city like London or New York. On the surface of the cell we would see millions of openings, like the port holes of a vast space ship, opening and closing to allow a continual stream of materials to flow in and out. If we were to enter one of these openings we would find ourselves in a world of supreme technology and bewildering complexity ".[26]

Cargo elements, a huge information bank, thousands of working enzymes, millions of protein machines, very important energy sources, warehouse centers, motorways, security control elements and fault repair systems are operated in the cell together and perfectly.

Prof. Gerald L. Schroeder narrates the complexity in cell as follows:

The complexity of the reactions that direct life are so astonishing that the human body acts as a finely tuned machine, a magnificent metropolis in which, as its inhabitants, each of the 75 trillion cells, composed of 1027 atoms, moves in symbiotic precision. Seldom are two cells simultaneously performing the same act, yet their individual contributions combine smoothly to form life.Despite all this complexity, things do not turn into a mess in the human body”.[27]

Astrobiologist Carl Sagan describes the astonishing system in the cell as a work of art though he is an evolutionist. He states the following:

A living cell is a marvel of detailed and complex architecture. Seen through a microscope there is an appearance of almost frantic activity. On a deeper level it is known that molecules are being synthesized at an enormous rate. Almost any enzyme catalyzes the synthesis of more than 100 other molecules per second. In ten minutes, a sizeable fraction of total mass of a metabolizing bacterial cell has been synthesized. The information content of a simple cell had been estimated as around 1012 bits, comparable to about a hundred million pages of the Encyclopedia Britannica.[28]

DNA, the most important genetic material, is placed inside the nucleus in the cell. The task given to mitochondria in the cell is to convert nutrient glucose into energy packs. The micro-tubes, which are placed in such a way to reach all parts of the cell, are designed as ways of vital importance for the proteins to carry the necessary substances to the required places. Moreover, all of the systems of trillions of cells in our body are built of molecules. In addition, the cells are in the state of constant maintenance and repair. They are constantly renewed while performing the tasks assigned to them. They are also designed to generate their own energy.

Director of the German Federal Institute of Physics and Technology Dr. Werner Gitt states the following:

"The biological energy conversion system is so brilliantly and cleverly designed that energy engineers can only watch, fascinated. Nobody has yet been able to copy this highly miniaturized and extremely efficient mechanism." Thus, he emphasizes how superior the cell is to a machine produced by human beings.[29]

Those statements of scientists are very important for us to see the wonderful structure of the cell. Indeed, cargo elements, a huge information bank, thousands of working enzymes, millions of protein machines, very important energy sources, warehouse centers, motorways, security control elements and fault repair systems are operated in the cell together and perfectly. According to this feature of the cell, which is called "irreducible complexity", the lack of a single part or element means disruption of the activities in the cell and subsequent death of the cell. All this information shows that it is impossible for the cell to form by chance.

Moreover, there is a greater dilemma that the cell contains for evolutionists: The main building block of the cell is proteins. Besides, the word protein means "of primary importance" in Latin. Proteins, which are formed by juxtaposition of amino acids like the rosary beads, must be in a certain number and in a particular sequence. A single wrong protein in the sequence renders it useless. In addition to this feature, which makes the word coincidence sound ridiculous, whatproduce proteins within the cell are molecules made of proteins. In other words, proteins are necessary for the existence of proteins; proteins cannot exist without proteins. In that case, are coincidences of any significance in the face of this dilemma? This dilemma is also seen in the DNA and protein relationship. John Horgan narrates it as follows:

"DNA cannot do its work, including forming more DNA, without the help of catalytic proteins, or enzymes. In short, proteins cannot form without DNA, but neither can DNA form without proteins ".[30]

Dr. Leslie Orgel, the famous evolutionist, is also aware of this deep dilemma:

"It is extremely improbable that proteins and nucleic acids,both of which are structurally complex, arose spontaneouslyin the same place at the same time. Yet it alsoseems impossible to have one without the other. And so,at first glance, one might have to conclude that life couldnever, in fact, have originated by chemical means ".[31]

This condition of interdependence shows that the cell cannot be formed by chance, gradually, and that the cell is made ready as a whole and with its organs. Thus, biology also disappointed evolutionist scientists.

DNA

The information obtained about DNA revealed that our genes contain about 1 million pages of information, consisting of about 900 volumes of 3 billion chemical letters, encoded in DNA. These magnificent properties of DNA can be cited as a glorious example of Allah’s art of creation.

Watson and Crick discovered the "DNA", a huge data bank in the nucleus of the cell, in 1953. DNA consists of four basic nucleotides: adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine. If we liken them to four letters, the genetic code occurs with different arrangements of the four letters. All of the anatomical information of your body is included in a single cell in every single hair in your body, in a bone, a vein and the heart. Billions of different human beings and billions of different species have been created with the magnificent arrangement of these four letters. That is an extraordinary creation.

The information obtained about DNA revealed that our genes contain about 1 million pages of information, consisting of about 900 volumes of 3 billion chemical letters, encoded in DNA. This genetic information is 40 times more than the information in the Britannica Encyclopedia, one of the largest encyclopedias of the world. The existence of such an enormous package of information in the cell, which evolutionists call simple, refutes the theory’s claim about chance. The information in the DNA is arranged so accurately that a single error in the sequence breaks the genetic code and causes dangerous diseases such as cancer.

According to the calculations made by Leonard Adleman of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, only 1 gram of DNA can store information equivalent to a trillion CDs. This shows that information is stored million times more efficiently in DNA than in a CD. [32]

The volume of human DNA is as small as three billionth of a cubic millimeter (3 x 10-9 mm3). According to Simpson, if all the characteristics of every living species that ever lived were uploaded to DNA as information, the total DNA volume would fill only a small portion of a teaspoon. There would even be left enough space to store all the books written so far.[33]

The enormous numbers you read and pass through here at once give you the amount of information coded in each cell in your body. These magnificent properties of DNA can be cited as a glorious example of Allah’s art of creation. The famous American philosopher. In his book Darwin’s Dangerous Idea, Daniel Dennett describes the concentration of information in DNA as follows:

Even to those of us accustomed to the "engineering miracles" of the computer age, the facts are hard to encompass. Not only molecule-sized copying machines, but proofreading enzymes that correct mistakes, all at blinding speed, on a scale that super computers still cannot match. Biological macromolecules have a storage capacity that exceeds that of the best present-day information stores by several orders of magnitude”.[34]

Francis Crick, who invented DNA, made the following confession about the perfect creation of DNA, even though he himself was an evolutionist.

"In the light of the current knowledge, an honest man can only say this: In a sense, life was created in a miraculous way ".[35]

Francis Crick confessed by using the word “miracle”that DNA could not be produced by chance.

Conclusion

The discovery of the perfect order in the universe and the wonderful designs in living beings by all branches of science points to the existence of a Creator, who creates everything and controls the entire universe.

Science, which has developed day by day, has shown that the theory of evolution contains several dilemmas and that this theory should be seriously questioned. The discovery of the perfect order in the universe and the wonderful designs in living beings by all branches of science points to the existence of a Creator, who creates everything and controls the entire universe. Allah’s art of creation is rapidly advancing today to become the ”truth” ofscience.

If creation is not accepted, it will be necessary to accept a completely absurd idea that human life occurred merely by chance. However, even the simplest form of life that exists in a single-celled organism is so complex and subtle that it is irrational to regard it as a product of coincidence/chance. There is no other way out than accepting the first seed to be a product of direct creation. Accepting that the first member of all species of living beings came into being by Allah’s creation and that breeding began with various forms of reproduction saves man from a dilemma. Otherwise, the problems and complexities that remain unresolved in the Theory of Evolution, which was developed by Darwin and his followers, who themselves are creatures, and which cannot get rid of the dilemma despite all scientific ideas, will continue.

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[1] Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, 127, The Modern Library, New York.
[2] http://m.harunyahya.org/tr/Evrim-Sozlugu/16039/Neo-Darwinizm-komedisi-(Neo-Darwinism). https://bilimfili.com/mutasyon-nedir/
[3] Gordon R. Taylor, The Great Evolution Mystery, Harper & Row, New York, 1983, p. 48.
[4] Michael Pitman, Adam and Evolution, River Publishing, London, 1984, p. 70.
[5] B. G. Ranganathan Origins?, Pennsylvania:The Banner Of Truth Trust, 1988.
[6] Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species, p. 179.
[7] Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species, Chapter X, p. 234.
[8] Pierre P. Grassé, Evolution of Living Organisms, Academic Press, New York, 1977, p. 82.
[9] L.D.Sunderland, Darwin’s Enigma: Fossils and Other Problems, 4th Impression, Master Books, 1988, p. 89
[10] Pierre Derek A. Ager, "The Nature of the Fossil Record", Proceedings of the British Geological Association, Vol 87, 1976, p. 133
[11] Fred Hoyle, "The Intelligent Universe: A New View of Creation and Evolution, p. 43 Tom Kemp (Oxford University)
[12] Stanley, Steven M., Macroevolution: Pattern and Process, San Francisco: W. H. Freeman and Co., 1979, p. 39
[13] "Is Man a Subtle Accident", Newsweek, Vol. 96, No:18, 3 November 1980, p.95
[14] SBS Vital Topics, David B. Loughran, April 1996, Stewarton Bible School, Stewarton, Scotland, URL:http://www.rmplc.co.uk/eduweb/ sites/sbs777/vital/evolutio.html
[15] G. G. Simpson, "The History of Life", Evolution of Life, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1960, p. 135.
[16] Charles Darwin, Foreword of “Everyman’s Library edition” of  “Origin Of Species”, 1965.
[17] G. G. Simpson, "The History of Life", Evolution of Life, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1960, p. 135.
[18] Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species, p. 172, 280.
[19] SBS Vital Topics, David B. Loughran, April 1996
[20] Mark Czarnecki, "The Revival of the Creationist Crusade", MacLean’s, 19 January 1981, p. 56
[21] al-Baqara, 2/117.
[22] http://blog.milliyet.com.tr/evrim-teorisi-ve-kambriyen/Blog/?BlogNo=223607
[23] Richard Dawkins, The Blind Watchmaker, W. W. Norton, London, 1986, p. 229.
[24] Douglas J. Futuyma, Science on Trial, Pantheon Books, New York, 1983, p.197.
[25] Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species: A Facsimile of the First Edition, Harvard University Press, 1964, p. 302.
[26] Michael Denton, Evolution: A Theory in Crisis. London: Burnett Books, 1985, p. 242
[27] Gerald L. Schroeder, Tanrı’nın Saklı Yüzü, Translated by Ahmet Ergenç, Gelenek Yayınları, Istanbul,
[28] Carl Sagan, "Life" in Encyclopedia Britannica: Macropaedia, 1974, pp. 893-894.
[29] Werner Gitt, In the Beginning was Information, 3rd impression, Germany, 2001, p. 236.
[30] John Horgan, "In the Beginning", Scientific American, vol. 264, February 1991, p. 119
[31] Leslie E. Orgel, "The Origin of Life on Earth", Scientific American, Vol. 271, October 1994, p. 78.
[32] Carl Wieland, "The Marvellous ‘Message Molecule’", Creation, September 1995, Vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 10–13; [New Scientist, 26 November 1994, p. 17.
[33] Michael Denton, Evolution: A Theory in Crisis, Burnett Books, London, 1985, p.
[34] Daniel C. Dennett, Darwin’s Dangerous Idea, Touchstone, New York, 1996, p. 151.
[35] Francis Crick, Life Itself: Its Origin and Nature, New York, Simon & Schuster, 1981, p. 88

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