Are Living Beings Changing Under Natural Selection?

The Details of the Question
Are Living Beings Changing Under Natural Selection?
The Answer

Dear Brother / Sister,

Every species can adapt to the environmental conditions in its own habitat. Every species has a certain “variability coefficient” peculiar to it. If we assume the highest value of this variability coefficient as 1, it may be as low as 0,01 for some species and as high as 0,9 for others.  

No species has a change or variety that can pass the limit of this variability because every species encounters different stimuli in their environment almost every day and they respond to those stimuli based on their level of development and adapt to them. However, what we call variable and flexible equipment does not have a limitless property of variability; it is valid only for that species. As it is stated above, no species has the same property of flexibility and variability as another species.   

We will explain adaptation to the environment a bit. Every being has three values that it shows toward every environmental factor in the habitat that it lives as maximum, minimum and optimum. Factors like heat, temperature and light are the main environmental factors. For instance, let us think of the orange tree. Let us think that the temperature that it develops the most and gives the most fruit is 25 degrees; the minimum temperature that it can tolerate is minus 20 degrees and the highest temperature that it can tolerate is 70 degrees. If living beings are grown facing the environmental factors with the maximum and minimum values, they develop some differences in their structure compared to the ones grown in optimum values. When we grow the orange tree in an environment near the maximum value, that is, near 70 degrees, the leaves will get smaller and fuzzy in order to bear the heat. It will get smaller and fuzzy if it has those properties in its genetic structure. Then, there will be differences between the leaves of the orange tree growing in optimum conditions in terms of temperature and the leaves of the orange tree growing in maximum conditions in terms of size and fuzziness.  

Is this orange growing in the maximum environmental conditions a new species? If you regard small leaves and fuzziness as characteristics of species, you can call it a new species. However, basically, this plant is still an orange. That is, a pear or a peach tree does not come out of an orange tree through adaptation because its genetic structure is not suitable.

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