EVIDENCES OF ONENESS IN FISH OIL

Prof. Dr. Kazım UYSAL1, Prof. Dr. Rahmi KASIMOĞULLARI2, Prof. Dr. İrfan TERZİ3
1Dumlupınar University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, BiologyDepartment, Kütahya,
[email protected]
2Dumlupınar University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Chemistry Department, Kütahya
3Dumlupınar University, Faculty of Education, Mathematicsand Science Education Department, Kütahya

All of the building blocks of the fish like cells, tissues, organs, oil and protein are full of evidences showing the Creator. For example, the size of cells varies according to their types but they are about 1/1000th of a millimeter or smaller. There are approximately 30 million cells in a volume of 1 cm3.[1] Biochemical substances that can hardly be made only in advanced laboratories after working for a long time or that cannot be made at all are made very quickly in tiny cells. Even today, when science has developed so much, we do not know the cell and most of the things that take place in the cell. Even many years later, there will probably be many unknown aspects of the cell. As time goes by and as science progresses, we encounter more and more unknown things about living beings and cells. In fact, we see that eternal knowledge becomes manifest in the living beings and cells, which are their smallest building blocks.

Cell membranes made of mindless and unconscious substances such as fat and protein act wisely and are selective consciously.

As evolutionists who  base their views on materialism such as Dawkins and Oparin argue, it is impossible for‘atoms and matter to organized by themselves and to form the cell by chance over time’. Even if amino acids are biologically present in a place, no protein can form spontaneously. [2] For,proteins cannot come into being without software (DNA or gene). The same thing applies to fat in biological systems. In other words, biologically, cells cannot form without fat, and fat cannot form without cells. There are thousands of biochemical substances produced for specific purposes in the cell; the cell continues to live thanks to them. One group of these biochemical substances is fats.

Fats are produced in cells for specific purposes and they are the basic building blocks of life. Fatty acids are the simplest fats synthesized in cells and they participate in the structure of complex fats that are to perform specific tasks in cells. Fat types that function in cells, especially in cell membranes, are glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, glycolipids, gangliocytes, sterols, etc.

Cell membranes made of mindless and unconscious substances such as fat and protein act wisely and are selective consciously. Fats, which have many functions in the cell, form about 6 times more energy than glucose when they break down. [3]

There are dozens of types of fat synthesized for a specific purpose in cells. The cell is like a perfect kitchen. Imagine a kitchen where thousands of meals are cooked perfectly in seconds. Nobody can argue that there is no cook in this kitchen and that things happen as a result of strange coincidences. In fact, a cell is far more perfect than a kitchen because a cell is very small and the substances synthesized in the cell are far more perfect than the meals cooked in the most excellent professional kitchens. The fat content of living things is quite different from each other.

The most important feature that distinguishes fish oil from the fats of other living things is the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. [4] The presence of these special oils in fish abundantly is not a coincidence, but a result of the Creator’s deliberate design. For, fish can live in cold waters thanks to these special oils with very low melting temperatures. If there is deliberateness in an event, the existence ofa being that makes it deliberately is necessary. Things that are done knowingly and according to benefits cannot take place by chance and spontaneously. The formation of fat synthesis mechanisms in fish cells and the enzymes involved there through aprocess based on coincidences is impossible. Fatty acids are synthesized by considering special factors such as the physiology of the fish and the state of its environment.

Fish and fish oil are quite beneficial for human health. It has therapeutic properties for many diseases, primarily cardiovascular diseases. However, due to its unstable structure, fish oil becomesoxidized and goes bad very quickly. Therefore, if the fish is eaten fresh, it is a cure but if it is eaten stale, it is a disease.

Fatty Acids Detected in Fish and Fat Synthesis

The number and amount of fatty acids in fish oil varies according to many factors such as species, season, habitat and nutritional status. For example, 33 fatty acids detected in freshwater mullet (Squalius pursakensis) are given in Figure 1.

Figure 1. The chemical structure of fatty acids and palmitic acid detected in Squalius pursakensis.

Millions of reactions in billions of tiny cells in a fish in such a short time can be realized only by the infinite knowledge and power of the Creator.

It can be said that the number will increase if thefatty acids that are unrecognizable and unidentifiablein the gas chromatography device are taken into account. Fatty acids are synthesized according to need in a very short time in tiny cells. For example, the process for adding only two carbons to palmitic acid, which is a saturated fatty acid of 16 carbons, is roughly as follows:

First, Acetyl CoA, the precursor, should be synthesized in the cells for fatty acid synthesis. Acetyl CoA is made in the mitochondria of the cell through many complex mechanisms. Fatty acid synthesis is made in the cytosol. Acetyl CoA that is made in the mitochondria passes through the mitochondrial membrane to the cytosol with complex mechanisms called the citrate-pyruvate shuttle. After that, AcetylCoA is transformed into MalonylCoA. Then, the acetyl and malonyl groups are attached to the acyl carrier protein (ACP). The acetyl group attached to the fatty acid synthetase enzyme complex is transferred to the malonyl group and condensation is carried out. After the transfer of the acetyl group to the malonyl group, tens of complex biochemical reactions are performed to reduce the acyl group. As a result of the complex long reactions given so far in broad strokes, only two carbons are attached to the fatty acid chain. [5]

Organelles such as mitochondria, cytoplasm, ribosomes and nuclei work together for the synthesis of fat in the cell.So, there is a great organization in the cell for fat synthesis. Beings that become organized perfectly cannot be unconscious. The great organization in the cell for fat synthesis cannot be attributed to mindless and unconscious matter.

The reactions given here in broad strokes must be repeated 8 times for the synthesisof 16-carbon palmitic acid in cells that are too small to se with the naked eye. Palmitic acid is a medium chain saturated fatty acid among fatty acids. The synthesis of longer chain and polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oil takes place, definitely, through much more complex reactions. Biochemical reactions that cannot be synthesized even in the most advanced laboratories are carried out in the cell in a very short time. Extremely perfect and complex materials are synthesized with the use of simple substances such as carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

Millions of reactions in billions of tiny cells in a fish in such a short time can be realized only by the infinite knowledge and power of the Creator. If all of the biochemistry professors in the world came together, they could not do the reactions and the resulting products only for fat synthesis in a tiny cell of a fish. However, the beings that do such complex and perfect works are seemingly unconscious simple substances.

A being that does something with knowledge cannot be ignorant. So, we cannot attribute the infinite science we see for the synthesis of fat in the cell to the mindless and unconscious elements of the cell because they do something that is beyond their power. This clearly shows that they rely on a secret power.

It is pointed out in the Quran that the knowledge of Allah is infinite. [6] The work done in the cells clearly shows that the Creator’s knowledge is infinite, and that there is no difference between little and much and small and great for His Power. Fat synthesis does not occur only in one part of the cell or in one organelle. As it can be understood from the short description above related to the synthesis of fat in the cell, organelles such as mitochondria, cytoplasm, ribosomes and nuclei work together. So, there is a great organization in the cell for fat synthesis. Beings that become organized perfectly cannot be unconscious. The great organization in the cell for fat synthesis cannot be attributed to mindless and unconscious matter.

Special enzymes are used in fat synthesis reactions in the cell. Without these particular and complex enzymes, fatty acid synthesis reactions cannot take place. For instance, linoleic and linolenic acids that are essential (that cannot be synthesized in living beings and that must be taken from outside) for all human beings and animals are synthesized only in plants since they do not have the necessary synthesis enzymes. Fat cannot be synthesized in biological systems without special enzymes,. Therefore, it is not possible for the cell to occur through evolution by chance in the course of time. The cell was specially designed by a Creator whose knowledge and power are infinite, with all of its building elements, systems and mechanisms. The production oftens of special and complex enzymes that are essential for fatty acid synthesis cannot be attributed to mindless substances and blind coincidences.

An official or a soldier of the state does somebig things that he cannot do on his own on behalf of the State and relying on the power of the state; if those mindless, ignorant and unconscious cells are regarded as officials and soldiers of Allah, it is clearly understood that theyact on behalf of Allah, relying on His infinite power.

Thus, all of the causes in the universe, which we see doing things beyond their own power, should be considered from this perspectivelike the cow’s giving milk, the tree’s yielding fruits, the honey’s producing bee, the hen’slaying eggs, the thin fibers and roots of plants piercing through hard stones and soil.

Oil Synthesis in the Cell is Made According to Special Purposes

The cell membrane is 5-10 nm thick. All biological membranes are generally made of two phospholipid layers though the content may vary. More than 100 different types of phospholipids are used in the construction of cell membrane. The fat content of the cell membranes affects the biological properties of the membranes.The fat layer in the cell membranes is about 6nm (0.000006 mm), that is, one millionth of a millimeter. Vital tasks such as selective permeability of cell membranes, intercellular and intracellular communication are carried out by proteins placed in the double-layer phospholipid layer. [7]

The ones that select and the ones that are selected in the cell membrane are molecules that have no mind, consciousness and will; they are created together. Science, will and power are necessary to select. It cannot be said that there is knowledge, power and will in atoms and molecules. However, it is clear that the atoms act selectively and make the selection according to a purpose. So all atoms must be in the hands of a Creator who has power and who can do what He wants. When an element establishes a selective relationship, it also knows what will happen in the future and binds accordingly. However, an atom or molecule does not have the ability to see the future and behave accordingly. So, the power that makes biomolecules work in the cell is the Creator who also knows the future.

Fatty acid synthesis in the cell is made according to the living being, tissue and organ. For example, oleic acid is found in olive oil, linoleic acid in corn and sunflower oil, linolenic acid in walnut and hazelnut oil, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in fish oil. The synthesis of fatty acids that are unique to the organism is made for a specific purpose. For example, eicosapentaenoic (C20: 5n3) and docosahexaenoic (C22: 6n3) acids, which are frequently found in fish, are very important for the fish to live in water and to adaptto cold. [8] This topic will be explained in more detail later.

Fat and fatty acids are also synthesized according to the needs of tissues and organs and according to the change in ecological conditions. If the synthesis mechanisms in the cell always produced the same product like a factory, the living being would not be able to adapt to changing conditions, needs could not be met and life would not continue. Let us examine a few points related to the issue under separate subheadings.

Oil Synthesis Suitable for Living in Cold Waters

The viscosity determines the physical state of the cell membranes. This is controlled by the carbon lengths and degrees of unsaturation of the phospholipid fatty acids constituting the cell membranes. As the degree of unsaturation of the fatty acids constituting the cell membrane phospholipids increases, the tight packing pattern decreases and fluidity increases. In general, the double-layer phospholipid layer of cell membranes in all living things contains substantially unsaturated fatty acids.If the body temperature is maintained at 37oC, the phospholipid layer that forms the cell membranes is liquid and fluid. In that case, each phospholipid can rotate around its axis and move laterally. An oil molecule in the cell membrane phospholipid leaf can change places with its neighbors 10 times per second. [9]

To attribute the deeds that are done with the mind to mindless beings and with the consciousness to unconscious beings is not something that can be accepted by a sane and conscious person.

What is interesting here is that the highly mobile and fluid structure also maintains its stable structure. We can only explain the strange things in the cell membrane, which still contain many secrets and which are still incomprehensible today, only by the manifestation of the infinite knowledge of the Supreme Creator. When we understand how perfectly functioning mechanisms work, we actually understand how the infinite knowledge and power of the Creator work. The fatty acid composition of the cell membrane phospholipids is relatively constant in homeotherm animals whose body temperature is kept constant. However, in cold-blooded animals such as fish (poikilotherm), blood temperature varies depending on the water temperature. Therefore, in cold-blooded living beings, the cell membrane fluidity should be maintained based on the temperature change of the living environment. This is done by altering the phospholipid fatty acid composition of the cell membrane. The short chain and unsaturated fatty acids have a lower surface area because they wriggle about their own axis. As the surface area of ​​the fatty acid increases, the interaction increases and the gel state becomes more stable. Therefore, the melting temperatures of short-chain and unsaturated fatty acids are lower than those of long-chain and saturated fatty acids. The higher the degree of unsaturation of the phospholipid fatty acids constituting the cell membranes, the lower the temperature required for the double layer to gel. Cell membrane viscosity must be maintained for the realization of the  physiological tasks in the cell membrane. Cell membranes must be kept fluid for the biomolecules, primarily proteins, with different duties to interact, communicate, and diffuse in order to perform a certain reaction. Cellular events such as movement, growth, division, and endocytosis of the cells depend on the maintenance of the cell membranes in a viscous structure.

Fish are cold-blooded creatures; their blood temperature varies depending on the water temperature. Even in very cold waters that are covered with ice in winter, the fish continue to live even though the blood temperature is very low. In cold winter days when food decreases, the ice on the lakes and creeks is broken and fish are hunted (Figure 2). Besides, the fat content of fish caught under those circumstances is more and the taste of the fish is excellent.

Figure 2. Fishing made by breaking ice in a lake in winter.

The maintenance of the fluidity of the cell membranes in cold conditions for cold-blooded animals such as fish is ensured by altering the fatty acid content of the cell membrane phospholipids. The maintenance of the fluid properties of the cell membrane phospholipids in cold conditions is ensured either by desaturation of a bond in saturated fatty acids, or by increasing the degree of unsaturation of unsaturated fatty acids. [10]

Fatty acids with very low melting temperatures instead of fatty acids with high melting fatty acids are added to the phospholipid structure of the cell membrane, (Figure 3).

The presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish abundantly and theincrease of the proportion of these acids especially in cold water fish actually aim to enable the fish to live in cold conditions. The transformation of saturated bonds into unsaturated bonds in fatty acid chains (desaturation) is catalyzed by enzymes called desaturase. The rearrangement of phospholipid fatty acid content of cell membranes according to conditions is realized by phospholipases that separate fatty acids from the glycerol skeleton and acyltransferases that transfer suitable fatty acids to them.The mechanism of cell membrane fluid maintenance by altering the cell membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition in fish has not been fully understood yet.

Figure 3. The relationship between unsaturated bond numbers and melting temperatures of fatty acids with the same carbon number.

First of all, receptors that perceive outdoor conditions and intelligent decision-makers that will change the synthesis mechanisms in accordance with the conditions are necessary for this incident to take place. Such perfect systems that have not been understood yet cannot have come into being as a result of coincidence, as atheistic evolutionists say. It is unthinkable that the being that responds according to needs can be unwise and unconscious. Only the one that creates the fish in cold water and knows the requirements for the life of fish can create these wonderful mechanisms of synthesis. And that being is Allah, whose Knowledge and Power are infinite. To accept the contrary means to attribute an infinite mind and consciousness to mindless and unconscious matter. [11]

Oil Synthesis and Storing Oil According to Needs

The oil synthesized in the cells during the intensive feeding times of the fish is stored for future needs and used when needed. Let us see two striking examples of it. The first example: Although there are some exceptions, the fish are the beings that produce the most eggs among vertebrate. Although it varies from species to species, the eggs that are produced are equal to approximately one third of the body weight of a fish. A lot of protein and oil are needed as food for the ovaries to grow and for eggs to develop. The oil needed for gonadal development is synthesized before and stored. For example, it is stated in a study that n3 and n6 group polyunsaturated fatty acids are needed more for the gonad development of zander fish. The oil that will be needed later is stored in different parts of the body beforehand and is sent to the gonads when needed (Uysal et al., 2005).

Fat transfer between tissues and organs is as complex a biochemical event as fat synthesis. It is not enough to have fat transport mechanisms in the body in order to have fat transfer in the body of the fish. However, it is necessary to know where in the bodyand whattype of fat is needed.

The second example: An eel (Anguilla anguilla) living in any river or lake in Anatolia feeds and grows in fresh water until sexual maturity. It reaches the highest fat level in life before reaching sexual maturity. The eels that reach sexual maturity take a long journey across the ocean to the Gulf of Sargasso off the coast of South America (Figure 4).

Figure 4. Eel (Anguilla anguilla) migration.

The eels travel more than about ten thousand kilometers, use the shortest way and do not get confused. They do not eat during migration; they use the oil that they have previously stored. All A. anguilla eels in the world reproduce in the same place. A. anguilla eels, which reproduce only once in their life, lay eggs and die. The young eels, whose parents have died, go back to the fresh waters of Anatolia by following the same long route that their parents have traveled. The reasons why eels migrate, why they go to the Gulf of Sargasso, which is so far away, and how theyfind the shortest route in the ocean without being confused are the questions waiting for answers in the branch of fish biology.

We cannot say that the fish does these things by knowing, planning and with consciousness. The part of this mysterious event that is related to oil is the preparation of the eel for the journey as if it knows the journey and the storage of enough oil to use as fuel. All these wonderful works cannot be explained by chance-based evolutionary tales that exclude the creator.

There is only one logical explanation for this. The being that creates the eel and makes itdo the mysterious migration in the sea is the one that creates all the relevant mechanisms that we do not know even now.

We cannot understand those wonderful and strange incidents by the term “instinct”, which is used by the people of aberration and philosophers to explain them. In fact, they all happen based on “natural inspiration” and “impulse of destiny“.

Fish is an Important Source of Sustenance and Cure for Man

Fish is both food and cure. It is an excellent food in terms of protein, fat, minerals and vitamins. It contributes to the development of the nervous system, brain and intelligence. It prevents cardiovascular diseases, cancer, Alzheimer’s, asthma and psoriasis. It lowers bad cholesterol, prevents vascular occlusion andwidens blood vessels. Fish reduces blood pressure and increases vascular elasticity. It regulates heart rhythms and reduce the risk of heart attack and sudden death.. [12]

The Creator created fish as a sustenance and cure for man. The most important point to be considered related to consuming such an important food is that it should be fresh.

Fish should be consumed fresh

The Creator created fish as a sustenance and cure for man. The most important point to be considered related to consuming such an important food is that it should be fresh.

The water content and pH of fish meat is generally higher than the meat of the animals living on land. Therefore, microbial and enzymatic activities in fish meat are rapid and it goes bad quickly. Fish contains high levels of trimethylaminoxide, whose  enzymatic degradation is high, and non-protein nitrogen compounds. Therefore, fish loses its freshness more quickly than other types of meat and compounds that are harmful to health form in a shorter time in fish meat. Biogenamine compounds form faster in fish meat than the meat of the animals living on land. Excess histamine that forms in stale fish causes poisoning. However, one of the most important things that makes fish meat go bad quickly is that fish contain more phospholipids and fatty acids such as polyunsaturated eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid than other animals. This is why, fish oil is beneficial to human beings. However, since fish oil contains too many unsaturated bonds, it is unstable and it is rapidly oxidized to form free radicals. Therefore, fresh fish is nutritious and healing while stale fish is harmful. The information that seafood meat goes bad more quickly than the meat of the animals living on land and that they should be eaten fresh is quite new. [13]

However, this scientific fact was stated concisely in the Holy Quran about fifteen centuries ago:

It is He Who has made the sea subject, that ye may eat thereof flesh that is fresh and tender (fish), and that ye may extract therefrom ornaments to wear. [14]

The following is stated in another verse:

Nor are the two bodies of flowing water alike,- the one palatable, sweet, and pleasant to drink, and the other, salt and bitter. Yet from each (kind of water) do ye eat flesh fresh and tender (fish), and ye extract ornaments to wear”. [15]

The word  طَرِيًّا(fresh) is mentioned only twice in the Quran, which contains over six hundred pages, and it is used for fish in both cases. This fact, which is known only by those who study aquaculture, biology and food sciences, was clearly stated in the Quran about fifteen centuries ago. Then, the Sustainer, who makes fish sustenance for human beings, is also the sender of the Holy Quran.

Conclusion

The Creator did not create any nonsensical and meaningless  things. There is one or more wisdoms in the creation of every being. The same is valid for the fish. The polyunsaturated fatty acids created in fish actually aims to enable the fish to live in cold conditions.

There are evidences showing the existence and oneness of the Creator in all beings. In this article, we have tried to know the Creator and to understand the evidences that showed Him by examining only the fish oil.

The reactions in fish cells to synthesize fat show clearly the infinite knowledge and power of the Creator because the biochemical reactions made for fat synthesis in tiny cells are too complex and too perfect to be performed even in today’s best equipped biochemistry laboratories.

These wonderful systems, which work before our eyes, cannot have come into being based on coincidence over a long period of time by the organization of mindless and unconscious substances on their own as the atheistic evolutionists claim. Fat synthesis in the cell occurs as a result of a tremendous organization of cell elements. The synthesized enzymes and intermediate products are synthesized according to a purpose. Mindless and unconscious matter cannot be organized on its own; a being that always acts based on a special purpose cannot be unconscious. So, there must be a Creator who creates cells by organizing mindless and unconscious substances and who makes tiny cells do great things.

The creation of fish in harmony with water and the synthesis of special fatty acids with very low melting temperatures for the fish to survive in water makes it necessary that the creator of water and fish to be the same. For,a being that does not know the conditions of life, cannot make systems suitable for living in water.

These special oils are also a source of healing for human beings. Therefore, the creator of fish and human beings must be the same. Fish oil is the oil that goes bad the fastest among oils due to its unstable structure. The meat that goes bad the fastest among meats is fish meat.

In the two verses of the Quran related to fish and other sea products, it is stated that fish should be consumed fresh. The fact that this issue has been understood only recently when molecular biology, food and nutrition sciences are advanced is a sign of the miracle of the Holy Quran.

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[1] Yavuz Z., DNA mucizesi ve hayatın gerçeği, Bizim Büro Matbaa Yayıncılık San. Ltd. Şti. Ankara, 2015.
[2] Monod J. Rastlantı ve Zorunluluk, Translated by: Elodie Eda Moreau, Alfa Basım Yay., Istanbul, 2012.
[3] Karaçalı S., ve Deveci R. ‘Biyomoleküller ve hücre’, Moleküler Biyoloji kitabı, Ed: Ahmet Yıldırım, Fevzi Bardakçı, Mehmet Karataş, Bahattin Tanyolaç, Nobel yayınevi, p. 1- 53. 2007.
[4] Uysal K., Yöntem M., Dönmez M., Balık Yağının Koroner Kalp Hastalıkları Üzerine Etkisi, Dumlupınar Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi, 8, 179-198, 2005.
[5] Yöntem M. ve Önaldı, M. Biyokimya, İstanbul Medikal Yayıncılık, 2018.
[6] at-Talaq, 65/12., al-Baqara, 2/20.
[7] Sanal F., ve Kızılay G. ‘Plazma membranlarının yapısı ve fonksiyonu’, Moleküler Biyoloji kitabı, Ed:Ahmet Yıldırım, Fevzi Bardakçı, Mehmet Karataş, Bahattin Tanyolaç, Nobel yayınevi, p. 323- 375, 2007.
[8] Bell M.V.,Henderson R.J., Sargent J.R., The role of polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish,  Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Comparative Biochemistry, 83 (4),711-719, 1986.
[9] Karaçalı S., and Deveci. ibid, p. 1- 53.
[10] Uysal K., Bülbül M., Dönmez M., Seçkin AK. Changes in some components of the muscle lipids of three freshwater fish species under natural extreme cold and temperate conditions. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 34, 455–463, 2008.
[11] Cossins A. R. ve Macdonald A.G. Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes, 21( 1), 1989.
[12] Leaf, A., Diet and sudden cardiac death, J Nutr Health Aging. 5(3), 173-178, 2001.
[13] Uysal K., Yöntem M., Dönmez M., 2005. ibid.
[14] an-Nahl, 16/14.
[15] Fatir, 35/12.

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