THE VIEW OF EVOLUTIONISTS AND CREATIONISTS ON THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS

Prof. Dr. Kazım UYSAL
Dumlupınar University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, BiologyDepartment, Kütahya.
[email protected]

Man can live healthily and peacefully in a clean and natural environment. The human soul always seeks natural things and finds peace in unspoiled environments. However, unspoiled natural environments have decreased or disappeared day by day as a result of human influence. In particular, thousands of man-made chemical and industrial wastes have been thrown to nature for years. It was thought that natural environments would never be polluted and lost but they have been damaged and natural resources have been on the brink of finishing.

The materialistic evolutionist view sees life as a struggle and argues that only the strong can survive. The Islamic view argues that life continues as a result of cooperation and that cooperation is essential.

Humanity has been struggling withdozens of environmental problems such as global warming and climate changes, unplanned urbanization and infrastructure problems, environmental and food pollution, elimination of biological richness, destruction of green areas, desertification and erosion, acid rain, eutrophication, ozone layer thinning and harmful sun rays and poverty. Human beings are the only cause of the current important environmental problems. In the face of this fact, the following question comes to mind. What different characteristics of man cause such severe environmental problems? The answer to this important question is as follows in outline:

There is no limit to the emotions of man; his needs and desire for comfort are unlimited; he does not comply with the laws of nature that are valid in nature; he tries to adapt nature to himself; his feeling of thinking about the future is too much. In particular, environmental problems have accelerated with materialistic ideas of evolution inciting social Darwinism and wild capitalism, which do not conform to human nature. The misapplications of human beings that are contrary to nature have led to today’s environmental problems. As a result, man has suffered the most directly or indirectly. So, only when man changes his point of view and returns from his mistakes can he reduce or prevent today’s severe environmental problems.

According to the materialistic evolutionist view, life consists of only this world whereas the Islamic view considers that the real life is in the hereafter and plans the world life accordingly.

Man has been under the influence of materialistic evolutionist thought for the last hundred and fifty years. As a result of materialistic evolutionist thought, the message of the celestial religions based on the creationist perspective has weakened and the materialist evolutionist perspective has become dominant. With the influence of the materialistic evolutionist view, especially after the second half of the 19th century, some positivist philosophers argued that science and technology could satisfy humanity and that religions were meaningless and should be eliminated. Darwin’s theory of evolution supported materialistic and confrontationist thought, shook the creationist conservative understandings, arguing that species came from a common ancestor, and contradicted secular beliefs and humanistic beliefs that put man at the center of nature and life.[1]

Industrialization definitely has a great effect on bringing environmental problems to the public agenda. However, it is a fact that human beings cannot solve today’s environmental problems unless they change their lifestyles and viewpoints. The materialistic evolutionist view and the Islamic view put forward very different principles related to the protection of the environment.

For instance, the materialistic evolutionist view sees life as a struggle and argues that only the strong can survive. The Islamic view argues that life continues as a result of cooperation and that cooperation is essential. According to the materialistic evolutionist view, life consists of only this world whereas the Islamic view considers that the real life is in the hereafter and plans the world life accordingly. The materialistic evolutionist view argues that all beings occurred as a result of coincidences. On the other hand, the Islamic view believes that Allah created the system and every being in the system deliberately and every being has a duty in the system. It argues that Allah did not create anything in vain and meaninglessly in the system. According to the Islamic view, man is extremely helpless and weak but he attains the highest degree with the help and mercy of Allah. In the materialistic evolutionist view, man is the most developed and unquestionable being in the evolutionary process. We can mention more fundamental differences between the materialistic evolutionist view and the Islamic view. In this study, the discussion is about whether the materialistic evolutionist view or the Islamic view,both of which have very opposite viewpoints in each field, is more important for the protection of the environment.

Basic Characteristics of Man That Cause Environmental Problems

Animals are sent to the world equipped with the skills necessary for life; their talents and abilities are limited; they do not improve, and their skills to establish cause and effect relationships is absent or very weak. Therefore, animals live in accordance with nature. Human beings start life as very weak beings. However, their talents and abilities are limitless and they constantly improve by learning. They establish cause-effect relationships. Therefore, they do not comply with the existing functioning system and they try to adapt the system to themselves.

Another important difference between man and animal is that the needs of animals are limited because of their limited feelings, and the needs of man are unlimited because of his unlimited feelings.

For instance, let us compare humans and animals in terms of protection from cold winter conditions. When it becomes very cold in winter, some animals die, some hibernate, some migrate to the appropriate places and some live in the cold thanks to theirbodies that are suitable for cold weather. The nests of animals are simple and they cannot develop them over time. For example, animals cannot think as follows: Let me develop my nest more to be protected against cold or let me warm my nest by using energy sources. For example, the nightingale’s nest is the same today as it was a thousand years ago. However, human beings are very different regarding the issue. The development of construction and insulation technologies, the discovery and use of various energy sources are behaviors that are peculiar to human beings.Thanks to his well-equipped nature, man has been protected from cold and heat, has not complied with the conditions, and has been able to resist different conditions by developing systems.

The needs of animals do not increase. For example, the needs of the sparrows a hundred years ago are the same as the needs of those living today. However, man is not like animals. Human needs are a lot and they increase day by day.Thousands of products displayed in large supermarkets are the best examples showing the plenitude of human needs. A person encounters many products that he has never seen before and that he needs when he first sees them. Man’s desire of comfort is also unlimited. In fact, man tries to satisfy his unlimited feelings in a limited world. Man’s limitless feelings and desire of comfort, the multiplicity of his needs and their increase in time causedthe exploitation of natural resources more. This led to environmental problems.

Every living being except man has important duties in the ecosystem. However, it is difficult to say that man plays an important role in the functioning of this system. For example, if there were no human beings in the world ecosystem, their absence would not be felt and the balance would probably be better. Since man is at the top of the food pyramid, his absence would not cause a significant change in the pyramid. However, the absence of a part (a living being) below or in the middle of the pyramid would cause significant changes and distortions in the structure of the pyramid. Since man is at the top of the food pyramid, all living things work for him either directly or indirectly. If you look at his table, it is immediately understood that man is privileged. It consumes both plants and animals and also their products. Man is the creature with the richest table. The reason for the domination of man over the system is neither muscle nor claw strength. Man is weaker than many animals in terms of these characteristics. It looks as if man has been given preferential treatment and the whole system has been put under his order. In fact, Islam’s and other Abrahamic religions’ (Judaism and Christianity) partly human-centered understanding of the environment is actually the expression of a fact. However, Islam has an understanding that places Allahin the center, which is much more different and powerful than the other heavenly religions. This important aspect is also the essence of this article and will be explained in more detail later.

Comparison of the Materialistic Evolutionist and Islamic Viewpoints on the Protection of the Environment

According to the materialistic viewpoint, life is a struggle; the strong one wins and the weak one is eliminated and lost.

According to the materialist theory of evolution,‘Mindless, unconscious and purposeless substances came together as a result of strange coincidences in the course of time and all living beings, including human beings, were formed from one another in a chain. There is no creator who creates and intervenes in the universe and the living and non-living beings in it. Man’s superiority over other living beings is a result of the evolutionary process.’

The discussions about the theory of evolution have focused more on human beings than other living beings because according to the theory of evolution, human beings either come fromapes or have the same ancestor as apes. The materialistic evolutionist view argues that the behavioral system and morality of a living being as well as its physical structure come into being through evolution.[2]

According to the materialistic evolutionist view, the whole system and every being in it occurred by chance.

Materialistic evolutionists cannot explain how a mechanism differentiates human beings from other living beings so much, how mindless and unconscious matter forms mind and consciousness, and why there is no creature that has mental functions other than human beings..[3]

According to the Islamic point of view, the universe and all beings in the universe were created by a Creator whose Knowledge and Power are infinite. There is a perfect balance, system and order in the universe. It is essential that this balance and system not break. Man has been given some responsibilities to keep this balance.

According to the Islamic point of view, the universe and all beings in the universe were created by a Creator whose Knowledge and Power are infinite. The proof of it is that the universe and all living and non-living beings have a perfect balance and order. For example, according to the Islamic point of view, every being,from the smallest atoms to the largest celestial bodies, is evidence for the existence of the Creator because every being in this perfect system works in harmony with each other and do wise things. Since it is impossible to do intelligent works without having intelligence, there must be a creator who makes mindless and unconscious beings do wise things.

According to the Islamic view, Allah creates at every moment and manages the system and its contents. The existence of a perfect system in the universe indicates the existence of Allah and the continuation of thatsystem shows that Allah’s control continues. Among all creatures, Allah created only human beings as capable of being addressed by Him and assigned important duties to man. Therefore, man will be called to account for whatever he does; he will either be rewarded or punished. The place of reward and punishment is not this world but the land of immortality called the hereafter. Let us compare the Islamic and materialistic evolutionist viewsmentioned above in terms of protection of the environment.

View on the World and the Beings in it

According to the Islamic viewpoint,every flower or insect is a meaningful letter written for people to read.  The creator introduces himself to man with unique works of art and shows the perfection of his names and attributes.

According to the Islamic view, the Quran is the work of Allah’s attribute ‘Kalam (Speech)’ and the universe is the work of His attribute ‘Power’. The universe and everything in it are created and ruled by Allah. Everything that is created is the reflection of Divine Wisdom and names; they are signs and evidences showing the existence of Allah. Let us considera flower or a beetle as an example in order to understand better the difference between the Islamic view and the materialistic evolutionist view in terms of the protection of nature and the prevention of environmental problems.

And the Firmament has He raised high, and He has set up the Balance (of Justice), In order that ye may not transgress (due) balance. Verse of the Quran

Just as a painter enjoys watching the beautiful paintings he made so too does AllahHimself watch first the unique works of art that He creates in every living being and gets a sacred satisfaction that we are incapable of understanding. Therefore, Allah creates His works of art abundantly everywhere, removes them and creates them again. That is not the only purpose of the creation a flower or insect. Each flower or insect is a meaningful letter written for people who have mind and consciousness to read.The creator introduces himself to man with unique works of art and shows the perfection of his names and attributes. The following is stated in the Quran regarding the issue:

Verily in the heavens and the earth, are Signs for those who believe. And in the creation of yourselves and the fact that animals are scattered (through the earth), are Signs for those of assured Faith. And in the alternation of Night and Day, and the fact that Allah sends down Sustenance from the sky, and revives therewith the earth after its death, and in the change of the winds,- are Signs for those that are wise.”.[4]

“... Every day in (new) Splendor doth He (shine)!.[5]

But to Allah belong all things in the heavens and on earth: And He it is that Encompasseth all things.”.[6]

Allah created and creates marvelous beings because He Himself wants to see His perfection and beauty first and then show them to humans, who are conscious beings.

According to the Islamic point of view, the universe and the beings in it are a whole. The universe and all of the systems in the universe with all of their parts were created by Allah. Allah is the Perfectly Wise One; that is, He does not do anything without a purpose and wisdom. Although a Muslim does not know the wisdom behind the creation of everything, he believes that nothing useless and unnecessary has been created, and that there are innumerable purposes and wisdoms in the creation of every being. For instance, he thinks that every flower or insect has necessary tasks in the ecosystem even if he does not know their duties in the ecosystem. For example, the following is stated in the Quran regarding the issue:

Men who celebrate the praises of Allah, standing, sitting, and lying down on their sides, and contemplate the (wonders of) creation in the heavens and the earth, (With the thought): "Our Lord! not for naught Hast Thou created (all) this! Glory to Thee! Give us salvation from the penalty of the Fire.”.[7]

“...No want of proportion wilt thou see in the Creation of (Allah) Most Gracious. So turn thy vision again: seest thou any flaw?”.[8]

Verily, all things have We created in proportion and measure,[9]

And the earth We have spread out (like a carpet); set thereon mountains firm and immovable; and produced therein all kinds of things in due balance”.[10]

And the Firmament has He raised high, and He has set up the Balance (of Justice), In order that ye may not transgress (due) balance.”.[11]

As it is seen, it is clearly stated in many verses that the balance is perfectly formed and that Allah has created nothing in vain. It is also pointed out that everybeing glorifies Allah with a language peculiar to them. For example, the following is stated in verse 44 of the chapter of al-Isra:

The seven heavens and the earth, and all beings therein, declare His glory: there is not a thing but celebrates His praise; And yet ye understand not how they declare His glory! Verily He is Oft-Forbear, Most Forgiving”.

All of the incidents like irregularity, disasters, illnesses and death in the universe that are not liked by man are a necessity of the Divine Wisdom. It is clear that the Islamic view, which points out that every being and every incident in the universe is based on wisdom, will provide a more protectionist approach than the ecology-centered view adopted by modern ecology. Today, it is understood that environmental problems can be solved only with a holistic and ecology-centered approach. In ecology, the conceptionof wholeness sees nature as a whole and evaluates an event with all of its relations.[12]

According to the materialistic evolutionist view, the whole system and every being in it occurred by chance. For example, each flower or insect came into being as a result of strange coincidences and as a work of nature. Since blind coincidences, mindless and unconscious causes are effective in its occurrence, its existence may be meaningless. Its value isbased on the extent of its benefit to man and its duty in the ecosystem. A living being survives because it is powerful and lives for its own benefit. If a living being has no direct benefit to human beings and its role in the ecosystem is unknown, its existence is meaningless. Therefore, it is more precise to say that the materialistic evolutionist view is primarily self-centered, then human and ecosystem-centered.

Some materialists such as White and Toynbee blamed the heavenly religions due to the occurrence of environmental problems and argued that the main source of environmental problems originated from the human-centered view of the heavenly religions. Today’s materialistic evolutionists who have waged war against the heavenly religions are generally of the same opinion.

One of the main reasons for today’s severe environmental problems is not the holistic view on nature and events, but the reductionist and selfish view. The ideas that materialistic evolutionists put forward to deny the Creator like ‘if there were a Creator, there would be no undesirable incidents such as irregularities, diseases and disasters’ are actually the result of a fragmentary, reductionist and selfish view. It has been understood how important tasks and benefits the organs or living beings that materialist evolutionists regarded as useless and unnecessary in the past have today. It is an undisputed fact that the food and nutrition relationshipsamong animals, which made materialistic evolutionists say ‘Life is a struggle’ (bad practices in history such as Social Darwinism are a result of this view), have many ecological benefits.[13]

Nowadays, modern ecology accepts that there is no useless living being in ecosystems and argues that every living being needs to be protected. Unfortunately, however; ecology books and the history of humanity are full of bad examples man did as a result of his reductionist and selfish view.

View on Life

According to the Islamic view, the most dominant truth in the universe is solidarity and life continues with solidarity. All non-living beings (the Sun, Earth, atoms, etc.) are created to serve living beings and they perform their duties obediently. Plants are created for animals too; they serve animal life. Animals and plants serve to human life directly or indirectly. In fact, solidarity is dominant in all beings, from non-living beings to the most organized living beings; all living beings survive thanks to the solidarity (mutual help) that is valid in the universe.

According to the Islamic point of view, man’s position is great but his responsibility is great too. Man has been given responsibilities that have not been laid to any other living thing.

On the other hand, the materialistic evolutionist view deals with the issue with aview that is opposite of the Islamic view. According to them, life is a struggle. The strong survive and the weak are eliminated. According to materialistic evolutionists, the fact that the weak do not have the right to life is a rule of nature. It is clear how insufficient and wrong such an understanding is according to the Islamic point of view related to the protection of the environment because, according to materialist evolutionists, the weak deserve to be eliminated and it is regarded normal.

However, the truth is not so at all. What kind of struggle is it that all non-living beings,from the smallest ones like atoms to the largest ones like the Earth and the Sun,work for living beings? What kind of struggle is it that all plants meet the most basic needs of animals (such as oxygen, food)? What kind of struggle is it that plants and animals meet human needs? What misleads materialistic evolutionists and what shows them life as a struggle is the food and nutrition relationshipsamong living beings.

It is an issue that is not even discussed how importance it is ecologically for animals like lions, wolves, jackals, eagles on land and some fish in the sea to feed carnivorously for the  healthy functioning of ecosystems. For example, otters feeding on fish actually cause the fish populations to be healthier. [14] What is really tragical and funny is that the materialistic evolutionist view decreed that life was a struggle acting upon the food and nutrition relations that are valid in the animal kingdom and that are an element of ecological balances, leading to practices deprived of compassion and mercy like social Darwinism in the realm of humanity. This distorted view also applied the feeding behavior of parasites and parasitic living beings in the animal kingdom to the realm of humanity and legitimized colonization. The materialistic evolutionist view, which does not conform to the human nature, looked at a carnivorous animal eating another animal and sanctified the power and the strong one, and defended that the powerful was right, causing a lot of blood and tears to be shed in the realm of humanity.

View on Man and Human Races

According to the materialistic evolutionist view, man is the result of evolution based on chance. Man is an animal (Homo sapiens)in the animal kingdom.The superiority of man is measured by the wealth and authority he possesses in the world. He attributes everything that he has to himself. He does not liking sharing because he has the following understanding:‘I earned’ and ‘Life is a struggle’.

Since a materialistic evolutionist has no belief in the hereafter and sees life as consisting of only this world, he tries to satisfy his unlimited feelings and thoughts. According to the materialistic evolutionist view, human races are the result of the ongoing evolutionary mechanisms. According to this understanding, some human races are superior races that have completed their evolution. For example, according to materialist evolutionists, the black people living in Africa are in the inferior steps that have not completed their evolution. [15]

According to the creationist view, man is the most honorable one among the beings. Allah gave man intelligence and consciousness specially and created man with an ability to recognize Him.In other words, the ability to recognize the artist from the art, the master from the work, the embroider from the embroidery and the clerk from the letters was given only to human beings. Therefore, the Creator chose man as His interlocutor/addressee. [16]

There are many verses in the Holy Quran about the importance of man:

It is He Who hath created for you all things that are on earth’, [17]It is He Who has made the earth manageable for you’, ‘He has made subject to you the Night and the Day; [18] the sun and the moon’, [19]And He has subjected to you, as from Him, all that is in the heavens and on earth: Behold, in that are Signs indeed for those who reflect’, [20]Do ye not see that Allah has subjected to your (use) all things in the heavens and on earth, and has made his bounties flow to you in exceeding measure, (both) seen and unseen?…’ [21], ‘I will create a vicegerent on earth…’[22], ‘We have honored the sons of Adam; provided them with transport on land and sea; given them for sustenance things good and pure; and conferred on them special favors, above a great part of our creation’. [23]It is We Who have placed you with authority on earth, and provided you therein with means for the fulfilment of your life [24]Many verses like the ones above reflect a human-centered view.

Man has been given privilege in the universe; he has been given blessings that have not been given to any living beings materially and spiritually. In fact, all non-living and living beings in the world serve human beings directly or indirectly. When we look at the perpetuation of matter in ecology and the food and nutrition relationships (food chain) among living beings, we see that man is in the center or at the top.

However, according to the Islamic point of view, man’s position is great but his responsibility is great too. Man has been given responsibilities that have not been laid to any other living thing. For example, the great responsibility given to man is expressed as follows in verse 72 of the chapter of al-Ahzab in the Holy Quran:‘We did indeed offer the Trust to the Heavens and the Earth and the Mountains; but they refused to undertake it, being afraid thereof: but man undertook it.’

When the principles likeevery being and incident being the work of the creator, prohibition of wasting, nature being entrusted to humans, humans being given important responsibilities and man’s being called to account for whatever he does, theIslamic view cannot be said to be solely human-centered. [25]

What is really wrong is not to give value and priority to human beings, but the selfish view of materialistic evolutionists, which is a bad gift to humanity, and the understanding that distances man from Allah. Human nature has not been analyzed well, and all beings and riches, including human beings in nature, have been trivialized in order to meet the arbitrary demands of human beings.

Moreover, in the Islamic view, the superiority of man is not related to the things that are valuable in the world, such as wealth and authority, but the degree of being able to be addressed by the Creator, which is his primary duty. Man is valuable not according to his matter, but according to hisspirituality. Man can attain a rank above the angels in the sight of Allah and can fall to a degree below the animals. In addition, all of the blessings given to man are entrusted to him by Allah; man has to act with the understanding of trust. Man is not the owner of the money and property, but the trustee and officer in charge of distributing it to the needy. There is no limit to human emotions and in this narrow world he cannot be satisfied by any worldly thing. For a Muslim, the world is a place of service, a place only to taste samples and demand the originals. The reward of his services will be provided and all of his feelings and thoughts will be satisfied in the life of the hereafter.There is no doubt that such an understanding will make man more humble, more sharing and more protective of the environment.

According to Islam, human races are also the works of the Creator. It is stated in verse 13 of the chapter of al-Hujurat that the reason why their races are different is to know each other better and to help each other:

O mankind! We created you from a single (pair) of a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that ye may know each other (not that ye may despise (each other)’.

In that case, a person who looks at through the creationist view does not discriminate between human races. Regardless of race, every human being is the most glorious of all beings and is worthy of being addressed by Allah.

Social Darwinism

One of the worst consequences of the materialistic evolutionist view for humanity is Social Darwinism. Social Darwinism is the application of Darwin’s theory of evolution to the social field; in short, it is social evolution. The theory of evolution, which advocates the idea ‘Life is a struggle for survival in which the strongest will survive’, caused racist and imperialist ideas in the social and political field.

According to Social Darwinist thought, the poor are doomed to lose in life since they are weak, imprudent, lazy and unskilled. That is the law of nature itself. The most popular slogans of Darwinism ‘Struggle for survival’ and ‘Survival of the fittest’, are applied to social life. It is natural for inequality of wealth, social and political inequalities and differences of status to emerge in society; the intervention of political will in social life is wrong. Aids to the poor, needy, unemployed and disabled is against the spirit of nature.

The theory of social Darwinism has been a reference to elitism, fascism, liberalism, imperialism, eugenics (genealogy, i.e. the biological purification and strengthening of race) and racism. It supports imperialism for the selection of races and advocates limiting the birth rates of unwanted people or groups. Instead of waiting for natural change for social progress, it regards direct intervention in the society legitimate.[26]

According to Islam, man is not unattended; all his deeds are recorded. He will be questioned not only for the evil deeds he does to humans but also to all living beings.

Social Darwinism has supported eugenics. The idea of eugenics became widely influential in the United States, and reached the peak in Hitler’s Germany. Population growth in all countries, including Turkey, was seen as a major problem and they made efforts to improve the generation. According to the eugenicists, the poor and weak will increase more when natural selection is left to itself. Therefore, the rich should have more children and the poor and the weak should have fewer children.[27]

Between 1907 and 1933, a law was enacted in dozens of states in the USA for the sterilization of insane, retarded, murderous and flawed people, and hundreds of thousands of people were castrated against their will; social massacres occurred. Similar practices were implemented in many countries, such as Cuba, Japan, Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Norway and Estonia.

There were some eugenicists who thought the salvation of the Ottoman State would through importing men for breeding from Europe. The idea of eugenics was so widely accepted that it caused the death of millions of Jews during Nazi rule. [28]

The theory of evolution was not a source of inspiration only for atheists and positivists, but it also became a useful evidence in ideologies such as socialism, capitalism and fascism, which are very different from one another. [29]

Animals are sent to the world equipped with the skills necessary for life; their talents and abilities are limited; they do not improve, and their skills to establish cause and effect relationships is absent or very weak. Therefore, animals live in accordance with nature. Human beings start life as very weak beings. However, their talents and abilities are limitless and they constantly improve by learning. They establish cause-effect relationships. Therefore, they do not comply with the existing functioning system and they try to adapt the system to themselves.

Social Darwinism, which is the result of materialistic evolutionist view and which sees wars and deaths as a rule of nature, has given nothing but blood and tears to the realm of humanity. It is unthinkable for the materialistic evolutionist view, which is not compassionate even to human beings, to be compassionate to nature and to the living beings in nature.Such a ruthless and selfish materialistic evolutionist view also caused the emergence of environmental problems. Social Darwinism plays a major role in the emergence of social injustice and poverty, which are two of the most important environmental problems. Social Darwinism, which is one of the important consequences of the materialistic evolutionist view, is one of the major mistakes made throughout human history and must be condemned ethically. The thought of materialistic evolution has a great share in the formation of miserable, grim and colonial western civilization.

Understanding of Justice and Accountability

One of the basic principles of being a Muslim is to believe that man will be resurrected after his death and that he will questioned for what he does . According to Islam, man is not unattended; all his deeds are recorded. He will be questioned not only for the evil deeds he does to humans but also to all living beings.The following is stated in the Quran about the fact that human beings will be called to account:

We shall set up scales of justice for the Day of Judgment, so that not a soul will be dealt with unjustly in the least, and if there be (no more than) the weight of a mustard seed, We will bring it (to account): and enough are We to take account.[30]

“Then, shall ye be questioned that Day about the joy (ye indulged in!).[31]

According to the materialistic evolutionist view, life is limited to the world. According to the materialistic evolutionist view, there is no second life after death and the book of deeds closes. However, justice does not become manifest fully in the world life and some people are not punished at all.

Nowadays, we regret to see how some people who harm the environment escape worldly penalty by using their authority and influence. It is necessary to spread the Islamic view, whichplaces a policeman in the hearts of everyone,related to the protection of the environment and preventing environmental problems and whichgives people the understanding of accountability in the hereafter.

The Understanding of Wasting

But waste not by excess: for Allah loveth not the wasters’ Verse of the Quran

One of the main reasons for today’s environmental problems is that people try to satisfy their spiritual hunger with the pleasure of consumption, consume for show-off, and spread the habit of non-essential and luxurious consumption. Wasting in consumption has increased so much that nature’s ability to recycle wastes has been insufficient.

However, Islam prohibits waste strictly. Moreover, according to the Islamic view, the use of the beings that perform the tasks determined by Allah in the ecosystem and that glorify Allah unnecessarily or outside their purpose is againsttheir purpose of creation.the following is stated in the Quran regarding the issue:

“…But waste not by excess: for Allah loveth not the wasters’. [32]

O Children of Adam! wear your beautiful apparel at every time and place of prayer: eat and drink: But waste not by excess, for Allah loveth not the wasters”. [33]

There are many more verses of the Holy Quran that criticize and prohibit waste. The need for the Islamic view that forbids waste in solving today’s environmental problems is clear. According to the Islamic view, man is a slave of Allah.

A person who refuses to be a slave of Allah like materialistic evolutionists ‘takes as his god his own vain desire’ as the Quran puts it. [34] There is no limit and measure of human desire and enthusiasm. A selfish life, the habit of over-consumption, the increase of waste, and the fondness of luxury are the result of man’s being defeated by his desire and enthusiasm.

In today’s brutal capitalism practice, the effect of the following understanding of the materialistic evolutionist view is great:‘Life is a struggle, the strong one survives. Life consists of only this world‘. Wild capitalism, which is the product of this understanding, requires dominating nature, growing at any cost, and making as much wealth as possible.

Today, while one part of the world lives in hunger and misery, another part lives extravagantlyin pursuit of false needs, which is product of wild capitalist understanding..[35]

The source of today’s severe environmental problems is not the majority whose income level is below the average, but the selfish minority who pursues their desires and enthusiasm.

Conclusion

Environmental problems have never been as serious as they are today. The only cause of tens of environmental problems like air, land and water pollution, elimination of biodiversity, destruction of forests, global warming, climate change and ozone layer depletion today is man. Basic characteristics of human beings that cause environmental problems are the fact that their needs are limitless because there is no limit to their emotions, that they do not comply with the basic principles such as economics and solidarity that are valid in the universe and that they do not pay attention to the messages of Islam and the other heavenly religions seriously.

The difference between the materialistic evolutionist view and the Islamic view related to the  protection of the environment is quite big. While the Islamic view states that every being is a Divine work of art, that nothing useless is created and that the evil deeds done in this world will be questioned in the hereafter while the materialistic evolutionist view states that everything emerges as a result of chance, that the strong will survive, and that man will not be questioned for what he does in this world. That is why the environmental understanding and sensitivity in the Quran, which was revealed about 1430 years ago, is much more advanced than the books about the environment written today.

When factors like the importance given to living and non-living beings, the approach to humans and human races, the understanding of justice and accountability in the Hereafter and the prohibition of waste are taken into consideration, it will be seen that the Islamic view is the most reasonable approach in terms of protecting nature and preventing environmental problems.

The solution to today’s severe environmental problems and the sustainable use of natural resources are possible through the change of human perspective and lifestyle.

It can be said that one of the main causes of today’s environmental problems, primarily poverty and social injustice,is the materialistic evolutionist view, which does not have compassion even for human beings, which leads to bad results like social Darwinism, which is contrary to human nature, and which sees life as a struggle.

When factors like the importance given to living and non-living beings, the approach to humans and human races, the understanding of justice and accountability in the Hereafter and the prohibition of waste are taken into consideration, it will be seen that the Islamic view is the most reasonable approach in terms of protecting nature and preventing environmental problems.

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[3] Tatlı A. Bilimler Işığında Yaratılış. Üsküdar Üniversitesi yayınları, 2017.
[4] al-Jasiya, 45/3,4,5.
[5] ar-Rahman, 55/29.
[6] an-Nisa, 4/126.
[7] Aal-i Imran, 3/191.
[8] al-Mulk, 67/3.
[9] al-Qamar, 54/49.
[10] al-Hijr, 15/19.
[11] ar-Rahman, 55/7, 8.
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[14] Geldiay R. Kocataş A. Genel Ekoloji, Ege Üniv. Fen Fak. Kitaplar Serisi. No: 65,1983.
[15] Ergün and Çobanoğlu, ibid.
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[17] al-Baqara, 2/29.
[18] al-Mulk, 67/15.
[19] an-Nahl, 16/12.
[20] al-Jasiya, 45/13.
[21] Luqman, 31/20.
[22] al-Baqara, 2/30.
[23] al-Isra, 17/70.
[24] al-A’raf, 7/10.
[25] Feyzioğlu E. Ekoloji, İnsan ve Din. Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Selçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Konya.2011. Access: 25.12. 2016.
[26] Dursunoğlu I. Sosyal Darwinizm, Karabük Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 6(1), 2006.
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[28] Dursunuğlu, ibid.
[29] Çakmak M. Evrim teorisi tanrının varlığı için gerçek bir tehdit midir? Uludağ Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi, 22 (2), 55-81, 2013.
[30] al-Anbiya, 21/47.
[31] at-Takathur, 102/8.
[32] al-An’am, 6/141.
[33] al-A’raf, 7/31.
[34] al-Jasiya, 45/23.
[35] Demir R. Doyumsuz tüketim arzusu ve çevre sorununa Kur’an çerçevesinde bakış, Tüketim toplumu ve çevre sempozyumu, 16-17 November 2012 Karabük.

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