What is the difference between test-tube baby and human cloning? If human cloning is possible then can the absence of the sprit be true as it is claimed? If everything has a record in DNA, then can man reach immortality by cloning himself?
Submitted by on Mon, 03/10/2011 - 11:25
Dear Brother / Sister,
Question 1: What is the difference between test-tube baby and human cloning?
Under normal circumstances, for the formation of a baby, the ovule in the womb of the mother must unite with the sperm of father and form the zygote. The zygote which is unicellular develops in the mother’s womb and becomes a baby by the permission of God.
Test Tube Baby
If the ovule and the sperm cannot form the zygote after uniting under normal circumstances, then the method of test tube baby is applied. In order to achieve this, the ovule which is taken from the mother’s womb and the sperm from the father are united in a tube that has the same warmth and nutrition conditions of the womb. In this tube, the sperm and ovule unite and form the unicellular zygote. After a short time, this zygote is put inside the mother’s womb where the ovule is taken from and by the normal development of this zygote, a baby forms after 9 months.
So, test tube baby is the way of uniting sperm cells and ovules in a place other than the womb and let the zygote be formed there and putting it in the womb again in order to ensure the normal zygote development.
Here, the role of man is eliminating negative conditions and uniting the sperm and ovule and then putting it into the womb. The creation of the sperm and ovule and the formation of the zygote, the development and differentiation of it, the formation of organs and tissues, the coming of the spirit into the body are all beyond the will and control of man; they are the work of God’s knowledge, will and power.
Cloning and Copying
The event of cloning can also be defined as copying. The event of cloning is a bit different than the test tube baby. It was first tried with a sheep.
As it is known, for living things, including plants, animals and humans, the number of chromosomes of the sperm and ovules reduce by half in a certain period. Thus, when the ovule and sperm unite, the total chromosomes of them become the chromosome of a normal cell.
Chromosomes contain genes, namely DNAs, which are the basis of the genetic structure. In humans, the normal cell has 46 chromosomes, on the other hand, the ovule and sperm cells have 23 chromosomes. The number of the chromosomes of a zygote which is formed by the unification of the ovule and the sperm is 46. These zygote cells are at first divided into two, and then to four and so on by multiplying and differentiating; they form tissues and organs. However in every division, the chromosomes are divided too; and their pairs are formed and the number of the chromosomes remains stable in every cell. That is, the number of the chromosomes in all cells except the sperms and ovules, which are the reproduction cells in human beings, is 46.
The number of chromosomes in the normal cells of the sheep is 54, in the sperm and ovule cells, it is 27. In cloning, the 27-celled ovule cell in the womb of the sheep is removed.
The 27-chromosomed nucleus of this ovule cell is replaced by the nucleus of the 54-chromosomed normal cell of the sheep. From then on, this ovule cell has 57 chromosomes before uniting with the sperm. This 57-chromosome cell that is called a zygote is placed in the womb of the sheep again; and it is left for the normal development. Since the ovule cell has the ability of being divided, it develops and differentiates as if it has been fertilized by a sperm; then, it yields the lamb in the normal time.
The role of the researcher here is to remove the nucleus of the ovule and replace it with the nucleus of a normal body cell and then to place this cell again in the womb of the sheep. The creation of the ovule cell and the normal cells, the development and differentiation of the zygote, the formation of the organs and tissues, the arrival of the spirit in the body of the sheep are not under the control of man; they are the work of Allah’s knowledge, will and power
Question 2. Some people say if cloning is possible, the spirit is not in question. They say Dolly, the first cloned sheep, did the same acts as the sheep it was cloned from. Is it true?
The spirit of every living being is different and peculiar to that being. Identical twins act in the same way regarding some issues; does it prove that they have the same spirit? It is nonsense. Can it have anything to do with science and logical thinking?
Question 3. Are the memory of man, his personality, and character recorded in his DNA? Can man reach immortality by cloning himself?
All of the characteristics of man are recorded in his DNA but they can be activated only through the existence of the spirit. There is an independent spirit for every individual.
The immortality of man is impossible due to two reasons. The first one: The fact that the material structure of a person is the same as with another person does not make those two individuals the same because every living being has a different spirit. The creation of the spirit is independent; so, every spirit has characteristics peculiar to it. For instance, when a clever person is cloned it is possible that a mentally retarded person will come into being.
Question 4: Have any human beings been cloned so far?
It is forbidden to clone human beings. Even if there is a work like that, it will be kept secret.
Question 5: Is it possible to clone fully the people who died in the past?
The method of cloning has been explained above. It is necessary to remove the ovule cell from the mother’s womb because the other cells have no ability to divide, reproduce and to produce organs and cells.
Besides, there has to be a normal body cell because its nucleus has to be removed and placed in the ovule cell. The answer to the question needs to be thought under those circumstances.
Prof. Dr. Âdem Tatlı
Questions on Islam
- Question 4: What is the difference between a test tube baby and cloning a sheep?
- Can you make some explanations about test-tube baby?
- Is it permissible to have a test tube baby in order to have a male baby?
- Is it permissible to have a test tube baby? What are the conditions of having a test tube baby? Are the methods of determining the gender of the baby permissible?
- Does the claim that beneficial mutation exists constitute evidence that the theory of evolution may be correct?
- How can we refute the claims that the hadith about the determination of the sex of the child was copied from Hippocrates?
- Question 2: How did different races emerge if humanity came from Hz. Adam and Hz. Hawwa?
- How does creation occur according to modern medicine and Islam?
- Is sperm, which is the essence of semen, meant in verse 8 of the chapter of at-Tawba?
- Will you give information about the scientific reason for the differences of human faces and the faces of the other beings among themselves and the wisdom behind this creation?