How does creation occur according to modern medicine and Islam?

The Answer

Dear Brother / Sister,

     5.1.5-Creation According to Modern Medicine and Islam

According to modern medicine, pregnancy begins fourteen days after the last menstrual bleeding of the woman. Between the twenty-first and thirtieth days after fertilization, “alaqah” is transformed into “mudghah”. The formation of nervous system is initiated between the twenty-first and twenty-eighth days. The upper regions are formed on the thirty-fifth day, and lower regions on the forty-second day. One week later, first the upper muscles and then the lower muscles are formed and blood circulation is initiated. The heart, which starts to work at the end of the sixth week and the beginning of the seventh week, continues its activities until the end of man’s life. The shaping of the face is completed in the eighth week. The development process of the fetus continues.

In the sixteenth week (one hundred and twentieth day), a new creation begins. This continues until the twentieth week. During this period, the brain, upper regions of the brain and nerve cells are produced. In this period, the fetus ownsall of the organs that it will need in life and that it will usefor his deliberate deeds. It performs abstract operations such as feeling, thinking, remembering and dreaming with them.1

The First Stage
A Place of Rest, Firmly Fixed

“Then We placed him as (a drop of) sperm in a place of rest, firmly fixed.”  Verse (Quran)

Nutfah lexically means a little water or pure water.2As a term, it meansmale reproduction cell (sperm), female reproduction cell(ovum) and fertilized ovum(zygote).*

The meaning of “nutfah” as “zygote” (fertilized ovum/egg) in the Quran is in the foreground.3

In the intercourse of a man and a woman, only a few hundred of the 200-300 million sperm coming from the man reach the egg. When the first sperm contacts the egg, fertilization occurs. In a few minutes, the outer membranes fuse. Meanwhile, the egg sucks the sperm insideto prevent other sperm from attaching it, and a chemical substance that pushes the other sperm away is released. Consequently, a membrane in which no other sperm can penetrate is formed, and this membrane gradually becomes stiff. The new single cell formed after the sperm and egg cell unite in the tube is called zygote (nutfah). The zygote is divided and sent into the womb; it is placed in the womb by being stuck on the wall of the womb due to some wisdom.4

The Quran, which describes in detail all of the stages of creation at a time when man was assumed to grow in the womb like a tree, states that the sperm is converted into a zygote in a sheltered place where nothing can enter it as follows:

“Then We placed him as (a drop of) sperm in a place of rest, firmly fixed.”5
Who but Allah may have informed Hz. Muhammad (pbuh), who was illiterate, that the zygote developed in a firmly protected shelter?

The Being Shaped within the Nutfah

Can it be imagined for a person to know the characteristics of the fetus, which is smaller than a pinpoint, in the 7th century AD without revelation?

Hundreds of characteristics of man, including hair and eye color, exist in the sperm that unites with the egg when it is in the state of “nutfah”. Scientists were able to determine itmany centuries later. Is it possible to attribute the following verse, which states that the fetus is shaped as a human being in the first encounter in the nutfah, to a power other than Allah, who created and shaped man?

     “Woe to man! What hath made him reject Allah; From what stuff hath He created him? From a sperm-drop: He hath created him, and then mouldeth him in due proportions.”6

According to the verse, the sperm had many characteristics of man as it was transformed into fetus. Can it be imagined for a person to know the characteristics of the fetus, which is smaller than a pinpoint, in the 7th century AD without revelation?

Determination of the Gender

The Quran states that the gender is determined when the fetus is in the form of nutfah as follows:

     “That He did create in pairs,- male and female, From a seed when lodged (in its place).”7

The verse states that nutfah (fertilized cell) occurs when the sperm enters into the egg. Scientists managed to determine the gender of the fetus, whether it was male or female at this stage of nutfah only with the advanced models of electron microscope, which was invented in 1932.

However, the Quran states in the 7th century AD that the gender is determined when the sperm enters intothe egg. When the medical books written half a century ago are compared with the tafsir books written centuries ago, it will be seen that many tafsir scholars stated that gender was determined in the stage of nutfah.8

Nutfah’s Walk

After the male’s sperm unites with the female egg, the journey of nutfah(fertilized cell) continues until it is placed in the womb. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) states the following regarding the issue:

     “When the drop (of semen) remains in the womb for forty or fifty- five nights, the angel comes and asks: My Lord, will it be good or evil? And one of these things is written. Then, the angel says: My Lord, willit be male or female? And one of these things is written. And his footprints on earth, his death, his livelihood are also recorded. Then his document of destiny is rolled and there is no addition to nor subtraction from it.”9

Scientists state that spermenters into the egg and moves toward the womb for a while as nutfah; when it reaches the womb, its movement is stopped and it settles there. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) states that sperm does not remain in a fixed place until it is placed in the womb after fertilization, and that its gender is created in that stage and recorded by the angel. Is there anything other than revelation that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) speaks of the course and stability in the womb at a time when there are no imaging devices? Can the source of what the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) says about the movement and settlement in the womb at a time when there is no imaging device be anything other than revelation?

Women are a field for you

The nutfah splits the wall of the womb and enters into the womb like a seed entering split soil; then, it is pulled inward and it is covered. For this reason, Medicine and Anatomy books call this period “sowing period”. Embryologists compare this state of the womb to the soil in which seeds are planted. The Quran mentioned this relationship, which scientists have observed recently, many centuries ago: “Your wives are as a tilth unto you.”10

The use of “Ma” (What) instead of “Man” (Who)

The following is stated in a verse related to creation:

     “Allah doth know what every female (womb) doth bear, by how much the wombs fall short (of their time or number) or do exceed. Every single thing is before His sight, in (due) proportion.”11

Although the gender is certain when the sperm enters into the egg, the word “ما” (what), which is used for non-living beings, is used instead of “من“ (who), which is used for living beings; the verse does not say “أُنثَىكُلُّتَحْمِلُمنيَعْلَمُاللّهُ”. The wisdom behind this use is to emphasize that gender is an ordinary event compared to the numerous features from the color of the hair to the shape of the eye.

Falling Short and Exceeding in the Womb

That the Quran mentions the diminishing occurring as a result of the cells that are separated from the nutfah and transformed into “placenta” and mentioning the growth of the rest to become a baby cannot be explained in any other way except as a miracle.

After the mother’s egg and the father’s sperm cell combine and are fertilized, they are divided and reproduced. The placenta is produced from some cells and the baby is formedfrom the rest of the cells through differentiation.12

      “Falling short” mentioned in the verse is related to the division in the formation process of the placenta and the separation in “nutfah” as a result of it; the word exceed “تَزْدَادُوَمَا” describethe formation of the child by the growing of the remaining nutfah.As a matter of fact, the “placenta” that is separated from the nutfah remains about half a kilo while the nutfahgrows up and is transformed into a baby.

      That the Quran mentions the diminishing occurring as a result of the cells that are separated from the nutfah and transformed into “placenta” and mentioning the growth of the rest to become a baby cannot be explained in any other way except as a miracle.

The second Stage

Nutfah is converted into “alaqah" after a while. As a matter of fact, Allah states the following: “Then We made the sperm into a clot of congealed blood.”13. That is the second great transformation occurring in the fetus.

The Miracle of Alaqah

“Alaqah” lexically means attaching to something and sticking to it. Blood in general is called alaqah but some scholars interpret alaqah as “frozen blood”.14

The “alaqah (leech)” in water sucks blood by attaching itself to the mouth of the cow and the “alaqah” in the woman sucks blood by attaching itself to the womb.   It is not possible for the Messenger of Allah to have received the knowledge that the nutfah attaches to the womb by being converted into “alaqah” and feeds on blood like the “alaqah” in water and that it is likened to alaqah (leech) so as to be expressed concretely from anyone but Allah.

It is stated in the chapter of al-Alaq based on this second stage that man is created from “alaq”.15 In Arabic, leech is also called “alaqah”. The following relationship exists between the fetus, which is an “alaqah” and a leech: Leeches living in the ponds attach themselves to the mouths of sheep and cattle that drink water and suck their blood. The state of “alaqah” in water is the same as that of the fetus, which is transformed into “alaqah” from nutfah. Both the fetus and the alaqah are surrounded by water.

The “alaqah” in water sucks blood by attaching itself to the mouth of the cow and the “alaqah” in the woman sucks blood by attaching itself to the womb. It is not possible for the Messenger of Allah to have received the knowledge that the nutfah attaches to the womb by being converted into “alaqah” and feeds on blood like the “alaqah” in water and that it is likened to alaqah so as to be expressed concretely from anyone but Allah.

Mudghah

It is not possible for the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) to learn that the fetus, which is far smaller than a grain of rice, is in the form of something chewed in any way other than revelation.

“Mudghah”, which means “a piece of chewed meat16is the name given to the stage of the fetus after “alaqah”. In that stage, an image like something chewedoccurs on “alaqah”. Keith Leon Moore, the American embryologist, takes a piece of soil from the ground, chews it with his teeth, and puts it next to the “mudghah” to show the similarity between the mudghah and something that is chewed and says, “This is the mudghah state of the fetus and the other is the mudghah chewed by the teeth.”17

The mudghah assumes different shapes like a piece of meat chewed in the mouth but it always maintains the signs that resemble teeth marks. It is not possible for the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) to learn that the fetus, which is far smaller than a grain of rice, is in the form of something chewed in any way other than revelation. 

The bones of the fetus originate form that “mudghah”. The Quran describes it as follows:

“Then We made the sperm into a clot of congealed blood; then of that clot We made a (fetus) lump; then we made out of that lump bones and clothed the bones with flesh.”18

The mudghah is not converted into bone at once. In some part of it, the cells are not formed fully while in the other part, the mudghah, which forms the basis of the human body, approaches the final stage: The Quran explains it as follows:

     “We created you out of dust, then out of sperm, then out of a leech-like clot, then out of a morsel of flesh, partly formed and partly unformed.”19

Can a statement made by an illiterate prophetthat some of the organs of the fetus form in it in that state and that the others do not appear yet be explained by anything except a miracle?

The Hadith of Forty-Two Days

By the end of the sixth week, the brain, eyes, mouth, inner ears, heart, lungs and digestive system begin to take shape in the fetus, which is smaller than the rice grain. Do they not show a Creator that has infinite knowledge, will and power?

By the end of the sixth week, the brain, eyes, mouth, inner ears, heart, lungs and digestive system begin to take shape in the fetus, which is smaller than the rice grain. In this period, the ears of the fetus are in the form of small dots. The arms and legs start to take shape. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) states the following about those stages, which can be observed after the fetus is magnified tens of thousands of times under the microscope:

“When forty-two nights pass after the semen gets into the womb, Allah sends the angel and gives it shape. Then,He creates its sense of hearing, sense of sight, its skin, its flesh, its bones.”20

Bones are Created Earlier

Until recently, it was written in the books that flesh was created first in the fetus and that bone was created after that. However, God Almighty states in the Quran that bone is created before flesh: “Then, we made out of that lump (fetus) bones and clothed the bones with flesh”.21Afterwards, He clothed those bones with muscle.

      In a British university, a teacher told the students that flesh was created first and that bone was created afterwards. When he discovered years later that bone was created first, he told his students that he made an important discovery and that bone was created first. A Muslim who was among his students said,“The Quran stated it fourteen centuries ago.” The teacher said it was impossible. Finally, the student read the verse from an English translation of the Quran and the teacher had to accept that the Quran mentioned it before.

The Third Stage

After the bones are clothed withmuscle, the third stage begins in the fetus. In this stage, the fetus continues to develop and the body continues to grow and finally it reaches a structure that will carry the soul. The phrase “آخَرَخَلْقًاأَنشَأْنَاهُ”mentioned in the verse means Allah Almighty constructs the fetus in another way and places the spirit in it.

Until recently, it was written in the books that flesh was created first in the fetus and that bone was created after that. However, God Almighty states in the Quran that bone is created before flesh: “Then, we made out of that lump (fetus) bones and clothed the bones with flesh” (al-Mu’minun, 14).

      The two important events of this stage are the continuation of the material development of the fetus and the blowing of the spiritinto it.Therefore, Allah states the following about this incident:“Then, we developed out of it another creature.”22

Nothing in the universe resemblesman, who is created from matter and spirit. As the Quran states, he is a completely different being. An animal is born, grows, develops, lives as an animal and dies as an animal. However, man grows, becomes a genius, scholar, thinker, reformer, explorer and inventor because he is a completely different being with his spirit.

      Today, science is unable to know in which stage of the fetus feelings and emotions occur and when and how the body and spirit merge. Therefore, when classifications and determinations are made related to creation, if Medicine and Biology, which still remain silent in many issues, take into account the verse of the Quran in which Allah says “We developed out of it (the fetus) another creature” and the hadiths stating that the spirit is blown at the end of the fourth month, they can cover more distances in the journey of discovery.

Conclusion

           Allah states in the following verse that He creates human beings in three veils of darkness in three stages: “He makes you, in the wombs of your mothers, in stages, one after another, in three veils of darkness.”23

Embryologists say that the development of the fetus in the womb is completed through three embryological stages.24 Accordingly, we can classify the stages of creation as the stages of “nutfah”,“mudghah”and “ruh (spirit)”, which starts with the blowing of the spirit and which distinguishes man from all other living beings.

As our process of understanding man, whom we think we know but who is the great unknown, develops, humanity will be completely saved from the Tale of Evolution and face the reality of Creation.

Evolution is a theory invented to deny creation; on the other hand, the process of creation that begins as a result of the meeting of the zygote with the egg is a fact that Allah imposed as a law.

      In order to understand creation, which is a miracle,better, it is necessary to readthe Holy Quran, which is a concise and miraculous word, more deeply. If some of the students of Islamic Sciences do their masters and doctorates in the faculties of medicine under the supervision of competent academicians, the miraculous declarations of the Quran related to creation will be understood more deeply.

Evolution, which does not and cannot exist, is a fairy tale and Creation is a fact. While Creation has been repeated billions of times for thousands of years, there is not a single notable fact showing that Evolution exists in any written source.

      As our process of understanding man, whom we think we know but who is the great unknown, develops, humanity will be completely saved from the Tale of Evolution.

*The following is stated in al-Mawsuatul-Fiqhiyya: “Some tafsir scholars hold the view that nutfah consists of the sperm of man. They use the verse stating that man is created from “a drop emitted” (at-Tariq 86/6) as the reason for their view that it is the sperm of man. Other scholars say it is nutfah consisting of man’s sperm and woman’s liquid. That is the view of the majority of scholars and tafsir scholars.” See Wizaratul-Awqaf wash-Shuunil-Islamiyya, al-Mawsuatul-Fiqhiyya, Kuwayt 1409/1989, “Janin” item, XVI, 117, 118.
1.Muhammad al-Barr, al-Janinul-Mushawwahwal-Amradul-Warasiyya, Darul-Qalam-Darul-Manar, 1411, 35-48; al-Qahtani, ibid, 168-170.
2.Abul-FadlJamaluddin Muhammad b. MukramIbnul-Manzur, Lisanul-Arab, Beirutnd., IX, 334.
3.al-Insan, 76/2.
4.http://www.jinekolojivegebelik.com/2012/05/sperm-ve-yumurtanin-birlesmesi-dollenme.html ;https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iKNPyJi-ouU
5.al-Mu’minun, 13..
6.Abasa, 17- 19.
7.an-Najm, 45-46.
8.Tabari, ibid, IX, 7715.
9.Muslim, Qadar, 2.
10.al-Baqara, 233.
11.ar-Ra’d, 8.
12.http://www.jinekolojivegebelik.com/2010/07/plasenta-bebegin-esi.html
13.al-Mu’minun, 14.
14.See. Wizaratul-Awqafwash-Shuunil-Islamiyya, ibid, “Janin” item, XVI, 118.
15.al-Alaq, 2..
16.Wizaratul-Awqafwash-Shuunil-Islamiyya, ibid, “Janin” item, XVI, 118.
17.Nayif Munir, ibid, I, 223.
18.al-Mu’minun,14..
19.al-Hajj, 5.
20.Muslim, Qadar, 3.
21.al-Mu’minun,14..
22.al-Mu’minun,14..
23.az-Zumar, 39/6.
24.Williams S.L, Basic Human Embryology, 1984, p. 64.

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