When is spirit given to the fetus in the uterus?

Details of the Question
When is spirit given to the fetus in the uterus?
The Answer

Dear Brother / Sister,

When the Prophet (pbuh) explained the formation of the baby in the uterus, he used different expressions. While some hadiths show that the fetus becomes alive when it is one hundred and twenty days old, other hadiths state that it becomes alive when it is forty days old.

The scholars who interpret the hadith asone hundred and twenty days say that it is not haram to have an abortion before the first four months but that it is haram after four months.

However, the scholars who base their views on the hadiths stating that a fetus becomes alive on the fortieth day of the pregnancy say it is haram to have an abortion after the fortieth day. We will give the research that explains the issue with resources below.

We base our view on the narrations the spirit is blown into a fetus on when it is forty days old.

WHEN IS SPIRIT BLOWN INTO THE FETUS?

ABSTRACT

This research deals with the time the spirit is blown into the fetus. This is a very important issue closely connected with some significant issues like abortion. In the research, I explained the meaning of spirit and life in religious texts and that spirit and life are not the same thing. For instance, a plant is a living thing but it does not have a spirit I also explained that there is no drawback to researching the issue of spirit. In this research, I quoted the religious texts stating the time when the spirit is blown into the fetus. After examining and comparing the hadiths, I concluded that the spirit was blown into the fetus after the first forty days, not after the third forty days (120 days) as it is commonly supposed.

In Arabic, the word "ruh (spirit)" is derived from the root, "Rih: entering into something".(1) It might have been given the name ruh because it was blown. Allah states the following in the Quran:

"When I have fashioned him (in due proportion) and breathed into him of My spirit, fall ye down in obeisance unto him."(2) The following is stated in another verse:

"And He breathed into him something of His spirit."(3)

The word 'ruh' is masculine. Its plural form is 'arwah'. There are some people who say it is used both as masculine and feminine. Its usage as feminine emerges from the fact that it is used in the sense of nafs (soul, person). For, according to some scholars, ruh and nafs are the same thing.(4)

Terminologically, it is used in several senses, most of which are in the Quran. The following are the senses it is used in the Quran:(5)

1. The Quran. Allah states the following:

"And thus have We, by Our command, sent inspiration to thee: thou knewest not (before) what was Revelation, and what was Faith; but We have made the (Qur'an) a Light, wherewith We guide such of Our servants as We will; and verily thou dost guide (men) to the Straight Way."(6)

In the verse above, the Quran is called as ruh because there is life for people in the Quran.

2. Hz. Jibril (Gabriel). Allah states the following:

"With it came down the Spirit of Faith and Truth―To thy heart and mind, that thou mayest admonish."(7)

3. Revelation. Allah states the following:

"…By his command doth He send the spirit (of inspiration) to any of His servants He pleases that it may warn (men) of the Day of Mutual Meeting."(8)

4. Hz. Isa (Jesus). Allah states the following:

"...Christ Jesus the son of Mary was (no more than) a Messenger of Allah and His Word, which He bestowed on Mary, and a Spirit proceeding from Him..."(9)

5. Another archangel other than Jibril. I could not find any scholar who mentioned his name. Allah states the following:

"The Day that the Spirit and the angels will stand forth in ranks..."(10)

"Therein come down the angels and the Spirit by Allah's permission, on every errand."(11)

6. A species that is called ruh and that eats and drink like a human being.(12) They are probably jinn.

7. A group of angels that eat and drink.(13) I could not find any evidence for this view. According to what is known widely, angels do not eat or drink.

8. Power. Allah states the following:

"...For such He has written Faith in their hearts, and strengthened them with a spirit from Himself..."(14)

9. Animal spirit

10. Human spirit blown into man when he is in the uterus. Allah states the following:

"But He fashioned him in due proportion, and breathed into him something of His spirit..."(15)

Doubtlessly, what interests us is the last sense, not the others.

IS IT PERMISSIBLE TO EXAMINE AND RESEARCH THE ISSUE OF SPIRIT?

Allah states the following: "They ask thee concerning the Spirit (of inspiration). Say: "The Spirit (cometh) by command of my Lord of knowledge it is only a little that is communicated to you (O men!)."(16) So, is it permissible to research the issue of spirit? Many people ask this question. It can be answered in several ways:

1. The word ruh (spirit) mentioned in this verse is not human spirit. The spirit mentioned here is Jibril, or another angel or Hz. Isa (jesus). Or, it is one of the other meanings mentioned above. (17)

In fact, according to the widely accepted view, the spirit mentioned in the verse is human spirit.(18) However, it may have been used in another sense, too.

2. Allah does not give an answer to those ask about the spirit in the verse. For, those who ask it did not ask about it in order to learn but in order to cause turmoil and trouble.(19) Accordingly, the verse does not indicate that the spirit is one of the unknown things that man cannot understand no matter how much technology advances. 

3. The phrase "... it is only a little that is communicated to you" mentioned in the verse means: 'O Jews! You were given a little knowledge in the Torah. The knowledge about spirit is not included in it.'(20) It is mentioned in several hadiths that those who asked questions about the spirit were the Jews. Accordingly, the meaning of the verse is the one we have mentioned. Therefore, it is not understood from this verse that human beings cannot know anything about the state of the spirit up to the Day of Judgment. 

4. What is asked is the nature of the spirit.(21) This is what is impossible to be known by a human being. The wisdom behind it is as follows: If human beings are too weak to understand the nature of their own spirits, how can they understand the nature of the Divine Being? They are too weak to understand it.(22) This is the mostly accepted view. Allah knows the best.

As for the properties and the signs of the existence or non-existence of the spirit, it is possible for man to know them. Therefore, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) tells us in sound hadiths about the issues like the time of the spirit being blown into the fetus, that spirits are like armies brought together, that those who know one another among them get on very well and that those who do not know one another among them do not get on very well. There is also information about the way the spirit is removed from the body of a believer and an unbeliever (23), that it will be returned to the body after the burial (24), but that its relationship with the body in Barzakh will be different from that of in the world and information about some other aspects of the spirit. That is, according to the sound view, there is no religious drawback to researching some issues about the spirit.(25)

HUMAN SPIRIT

Scientists and philosophers have been trying to know the spirit for thousands of years. Modern medicine also has been trying to find the nature of the spirit or at least some of the signs of its existence or non-existence. There are various views - it is said that there are a lot of - about one hundred - views about the spirit; (26) some of them are as follows:

Some say the spirit is life. Others say it is breath because when breathing stops, man dies. Yet others say it is blood because life ends when a person loses too much blood. While some say it is one of the properties of the body, others says it is a part of the body.(27) Ghazali states the following: "The spirit is the abstract aspect of man that enables him to perceive knowledge, to feel the pains caused by troubles and the pleasures caused by happiness."(28) Fayyumi writes the following: "According to the view of Ahl as-Sunnah, the spirit is "nafs an-natiqa" ª that can speak and understand what is said; it does not disappear when the body disappears ."(29) Ibnu'l-Qayyim states the following: "In terms of its nature, it is a thing that is opposite to the body, which can be perceived. It is luminous, lofty, light, living and mobile. It penetrates into the essence of the organs and moves in them like the water moving in the rose."(30) Ibn Kathir states that it is an immaterial essence that moves in the body like water moves in the grains of the tree.(31) Jurjani states the following: "It is the immaterial aspect of man that knows and perceives."(32)

As it is seen, the definitions of the spirit by Ahl as-Sunnah scholars do not mention its nature but mentions some of its properties, duties and influences.

In any case, scholars agree that the existence of perception, voluntary moves, hearing, sight and feeling shows that the spirit exists in the body and that lack of them shows that the spirit does not exist in the body.(33)

"...If thou couldst but see how the wicked (do fare) in the flood of confusion at death!― the angels stretch forth their hands, (saying) "Yield up your souls. This day shall ye receive your reward a penalty of shame, for that ye used to tell lies against Allah, and scornfully to reject of His Signs!"(34) As it is stated in the verse above, the spirit is sometimes called "nafs (soul)".

The following verses show that the spirit is something other than nafs:

"When I have fashioned him (in due proportion) and breathed into him of My spirit..." (35)

"...Thou knowest what is in my heart, though I know not what is in Thine..."(36) For, it is not right to replace one with the other. If there was no difference, it would be valid.(37)

The spirit is sometimes called the heart. It is also called life. This usage is sometimes valid for the living beings that have no mental faculties and even for non-living beings metaphorically.(38)

The spirit has five kinds of relationships with the body:(39)

1. When it is in the uterus as a fetus.

2. After it comes to the world as a living being.

3. During sleep. It is connected to the body in one aspect but to the other realms in another.

4. In Barzakh.

5. On the Day of Judgment. This is the perfect one because the connection here is such a connection that the body does not die, sleep or is spoilt.

LIFE IN THE QURAN

The word 'hayah (life)' has several meanings in the Quran. The most important ones are as follows:

1. Belief

Allah states the following: "Can he who was dead, to whom We gave life, and a light whereby he can walk amongst men, be like him who is in the depths of darkness, from which he can never come out? Thus to those without faith their own deeds seem pleasing." (40) The phrase "he who was dead, to whom We gave life" in the verse means "he who was an unbeliever, to whom we gave belief". Allah states the following in another verse: " O ye who believe! Give your response to Allah and His Messenger, when He calleth you to that which will give you life; and know that Allah cometh in between a man and his heart, and that it is He to Whom ye shall (all) be gathered " (41) This included all of the parts of belief.

2. Life of the martyrs

Allah states the following: "And say not of those who are slain in the way of Allah. 'They are dead.' Nay, they are living, though ye perceive (it) not." (42) The following is stated in another verse: "Think not of those who are slain in Allah's way as dead. Nay, they live, finding their sustenance in the presence of their Lord." (43)

3. Life of the plants

Allah states the following: "And Allah sends down rain from the skies, and gives therewith life to the earth after its death..."(44) The following is stated in another verse: "...We made from water every living thing..." (45) This includes humans, animals, plants and all of the living beings.

4. Life of the human beings, animals and similar ones

When Adam was sent down to the earth, Allah addressed Adam as follows: "...Therein shall ye live, and therein shall ye die..." (46) Allah also states the following: "Behold! Abraham said: 'My Lord! Show me how Thou givest life to the dead.' He said: 'Dost thou not then believe?' He said: 'Yea! But to satisfy My own undertaking.' He said: 'Take four birds; Tame them to turn to thee; put a portion of them on every hill and call to them: They will come to thee (Flying) with speed...' (47)

They are the most significant meanings of the word life as they are mentioned in the Quran. I could not find any other meanings to add to these meanings in the Sunnah of the Prophet. Doubtlessly, what interests us among them is the third and fourth meanings. The first and second meanings have no connection with our topic.   

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SPIRIT AND LIFE

Now, let us see whether or not there is a difference between spirit and life.

As we have mentioned above, some regard spirit as life. I could not see anybody mentioning any rational or scholarly evidence in the religious texts for this view.  

The view that I regard as true regarding the issue is that spirit and life are different things and that they sometimes unite and sometimes differ. There are various evidences showing this. Some of them are as follows:

1. A plant is a living thing as it is seen in some of the religious texts I have mentioned above and as botanists state clearly. It feeds, conducts photosynthesis, develops and reproduces. However, it has no will. A plant is a living thing without a spirit. As far as I know, it is not stated in any religious text that a plant has a spirit like a human being, animal or bird.

2. The fetus is a living being before spirit is blown into it. It starts to feed beginning from the time of fertilization and before reaching the uterus; and it develops. Doubtlessly, it has life at that time.

Ibn Qayyim states the following: The fetus develops and feeds like a plant before spirit is blown into it. This development and feeding is not based on will. When spirit is blown into it, feeling and will are added to development and feeding.(48)

Let alone the fertilized cell, even a sperm has life. However, it does not have the ability to survive and to develop unless it unites with an egg. Similarly, the egg also has life. However, it does not have the ability to survive and to develop unless it is fertilized. When fertilization is completed, the first human cell that is suitable for living and developing forms. 

In that case, the fetus is a living thing beginning from fertilization. However, it does not have a spirit as religious texts explain it. Willed movements are evidence for the existence of the spirit.(49)

3. The fetus has life before spirit is blown into it; similarly, when the spirit leaves the body, the body still has life. It changes from organ to organ. In some organs, life continues for a few minutes while in others it continues for hours. These organs continue to function until they get exhausted and stop.

It has become possible today to remove many organs from a person by maintaining their lives and to transfer them to other bodies as we see it in the transplantation of kidneys, hearts and other organs.  

5. A person who is asleep is definitely alive. The systems of his body work. He breathes in and out; his heart beats; the other signs of life are apparent. Does he have a spirit at that time? This question may seem weird at first. However, when we look at the religious texts, we can see clear verses and hadiths that answer this question. The most significant of them are as follows:

a. Allah states the following: "It is Allah that takes the souls (of men) at death; and those that die not (He takes) during their sleep: those on whom He has passed the decree of death, He keeps back (from returning to life), but the rest He sends (to their bodies) for a term appointed verily in this are Signs for those who reflect." (50)

Accordingly, Allah removes the spirits during death and sleep; the spirits of those who are decreed to die are not sent back to their bodies; the spirits of those who are not decreed to die are sent back to their bodies.

b. Allah states the following: "It is He who doth take your souls by night,..." (51)

c. Whenever the Prophet (pbuh) woke up, he said, "Praise be to Allah who revived us after we died. We will return only to Him."(52)

d. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) ordered us to say the following when we went to bed: " In Your name my Lord, I lie down and I in Your name I rise; so, if You should take my soul, have mercy upon it, and if You should return my soul, protect it in the manner You do so with Your righteous servants."(53)

e. Abu Qatada narrated the hadiths as follows: One night, we were on a journey with the Messenger of Allah (pbuh). Some of the people in the group said to him, 'Let us have a break(54) O Messenger of Allah!' He said, 'I am worried that you will fall asleep and miss the morning prayer.' Bilal said, 'I will wake you up.' Thereupon, they slept. Bilal lolled against his camel while waiting. He felt drowsy. Then, he was overcome by sleep. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) woke up when the sun rose. He said to Bilal, 'O Bilal! What happened? You said you would awaken us.' Bilal said, 'I have never felt so drowsy before. I was overcome by sleep. Thereupon, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said, 'Allah takes our souls whenever He wishes and returns them whenever He wishes '."(55)

The verses and hadiths above show that Allah takes the soul of a person who sleeps. However, it is a temporary or partial removal. The body is not destroyed during this removal as in death.

This state was explained through various expressions by scholars. Some scholars said the relationship between the spirit and the body is different while sleeping from the one while being awake; they said the relationship while being awake is stronger than the one while being asleep.(56)

Others stated the following: What is common between death and sleep is that the relationship between the spirit and the body breaks off. Therefore, some people say sleep is the brother of death. Sometimes it takes place esoterically, which is death. (57)

Abu Ishaq az-Zajjaj said, "The spirit (nafs) that leaves man while sleeping is for discernment. The one during death is for life. Breathing ends in the latter.(58)

Ibn Hajar states the following: Absolute death does not take place when the spirit is taken. Death is the breaking off the relationship of the spirit with the body apparently and esoterically. Sleep is the breaking off the relationship of the spirit with the body only apparently.(59)

Abu Nasr al-Qushayri rejects the view of those who say, 'the spirit is not taken during sleep; what is taken during sleep is nafs (soul)' as follows: It is a possibility that is far away from reality because it is understood from the following verse that the same thing is taken in both cases: "... those on whom He has passed the decree of death, He keeps back (from returning to life), but the rest He sends (to their bodies) for a term appointed..."{az-Zumar 39/42} In that case, Allah takes the spirit in both cases: during sleep and death .(60)

Ibn Kathir calls the removal of the spirit during sleep as small death.(61)

The verses and hadiths related to the removal of the spirit are clear. There is no evidence to interpret them differently from their literal meaning. They confirm the difference between spirit and life. Allah knows the best.

GIVING (BLOWING INTO THE SPIRIT)

I. The hadiths about the issue

1. The hadith reported by Abdullah b. Mas'ud  (r.a.):

Abdullah b. Mas'ud narrated the following: The Messenger of Allah (pbuh), who tells us the truth and who is always told the truth, told us the phases of the creation as follows:"The creation** of each one of you is put together in the womb of the mother in forty days; then he becomes a clot of thick blood (alaqah) like this, and then he becomes a piece of flesh (mudghah) like this.*** Then Allah sends an angel and he is ordered to write four things: the livelihood (rizq), date of death (ajal), deeds of this creature and whether he will be a person of Paradise or Hell...(62)

2. The narration of the same hadith in Muslim is as follows: "Each one of you is put together in the womb of the mother in forty days; and then it becomes a clot of thick blood (alaqah) like this, and then a piece of flesh (mudghah) like this. Then an angel is sent; he blows spirit into it and he is ordered to write four words: the livelihood (rizq), date of death (ajal), deeds of this creature and whether he will be a person of Paradise or Hell)..." (63)

3. According to the narration of Hudhayfa b. Asid (r.a.) reaching the Prophet (pbuh), the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said, "After the drop of semen (nutfah) remains in the womb for forty or forty-five nights and settles, the angel comes and says, 'My Lord, will he be good or evil?' And both of these things are written. Then the angel says, 'My Lord, would he be male or female?' And both of these things are written. And his deeds and actions, his death, his livelihood; these are also recorded. Then his document of destiny is rolled and there is no, addition to and subtraction from it." (64)

4. Hudhayfa b. Asid said he heard the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) say, "When forty-two nights pass after the semen gets into the womb, Allah sends the angel and gives him the shape. Then, he creates his sense of hearing, sense of sight, his skin, his flesh, his bones, and then says, 'My Lord, would he be male or female?' And your Lord decides as He desires and the angel then puts down that also and then says, 'My Lord, what about his lifespan?' And your Lord decides as He likes it and the angel puts it down. Then, he says, 'My Lord, what about his livelihood?' And then the Lord decides as He likes and the angel writes it down, and then the angel gets out with his scroll of destiny in his hand and nothing is added to it and nothing is subtracted from it." (65)

5. Hudhayfa b. Asid said he heard with his own ears the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) say: "The semen stays in the womb for forty nights, then the angel, gives it a shape..."(66)

6. Hudhayfa b. Asid, one of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), said the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said to him directly, "There is an angel who looks after the womb when Allah decides to create anything after forty odd nights are over..."(67)

7. Jabir b. Abdillah reported that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said, "When the semen stays in the womb for forty days or nights, Allah sends an angel to it. The angel asks, 'O Lord! What is its sustenance?..." (68)

II. The last five hadiths do not clearly mention that the spirit is blown. Those hadiths express the creation of the fetus and its destiny being written. The reason why I mention them here is as follows: The first and second hadiths state clearly that qadar is written at the same time as the spirit is blown. For instance, the second hadith states the following: "Then an angel is sent; he blows spirit into it and he is ordered to write four words: the livelihood (rizq), date of death (ajal), deeds of this creature and whether he will be a person of Paradise or Hell..." It is stated here that qadar is written at the same time as the spirit is blown. Both of them take place together. There is no hadith mentioning that they take place at different times. Therefore, I showed all of the hadiths mentioning the time of the spirit being blown, qadar being written and the fetus being created as evidence. They are all completed at the same time and when an angel is sent.

III. The views of scholars about reconciling two hadiths

Scholars noticed that there was a contradiction between the hadith of Abdullah b. Mas'ud reported by Bukhari and others along with the same hadith reported by Muslim and the narrations of the hadith of Hudhayfa and Jabir.

The apparent meaning of the first hadith states that the spirit is blown and man's qadar is written after the third forty days (120 days), that is at the beginning of the fifth month. On the other hand, all of the other hadiths clearly state that they take place after the first forty days, that is, approximately toward the middle of the second month. This is what hadith scholars call "mukhtalifu'l-hadith"§ (conflicting hadith).

Hadith scholars say that it is necessary to reconcile the hadiths that are contrary to each other before making a preference between them in those cases. If reconciliation is not possible, it becomes necessary to make a preference. The stronger one is accepted and the weaker one is left.(69)

It is not possible for those hadiths to abrogate each other because abrogation is in question related to orders and prohibitions, not news and information.

There are many views of the scholars about reconciling the first hadith with the other hadiths. It is possible to categorize these views under three headings:  

Firstly, the effort of reconciling between the hadiths based on their apparent meanings without interpreting one of them with the other. Here are some of them:

1. The destiny (qadar) is written twice; one after the first forty days, the other after the third forty days. The spirit is blown when the latter takes place, that is, after the third forty days.(70)

Ibn Qayyim states the following: A similar event is as follows: The Creator predetermined the qadar of the creatures fifty thousand years before the creation of the heavens and the earth. Then, He predetermines what will happen in a year on the Night of Power (Qadr) This is a more specific determination compared to the general one.(71)

Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali states the following: What is more apparent is that it takes place once.(72)

As far as I know, it is not mentioned even in a single hadith that qadar is written twice in the uterus.

2. Qadar's being written takes place after the first forty days, giving shape takes place after the second forty days and the spirit's being blown takes place after the third forty days. (73)

This view is not supported by verses and hadiths. For, they mention the angel being sent only once in which giving a shape, blowing the spirit and qadar's being written take place about the appointment of the angel. Allah knows the best.

3. . Qadar's being written takes place after the first forty days, giving shape and the spirit's being blown take place after the third forty days.(74)

This view is generally based on the wrong view that creation has not taken place yet after the first forty days. On the contrary, most of the creation is completed in this stage.(75)

4. It changes from fetus to fetus. The spirit is blown into some fetuses after the first forty days and some fetuses after the third forty days.(76)

Some scholars say that spirit is blown into most of the fetuses after the third forty days and into some of them after the first forty days.(77)

Ibn Hajar states that the first view, that is, the view stating that qadar is written twice, is more appropriate.(78)

5. The differences among the narrations emerge from different pregnancy terms. Some children are born in six months and some are born in two years. There are many steps between them.(79)

This view is not right because it is certain, as medicine tells us today, that pregnancy does not last longer than ten months. When it lasts more than ten months, the fetus dies in the uterus.

As for the views of some fiqh scholars that the pregnancy term sometimes exceeds this, they are not based on reliable resources, or the fetus dies in the womb and it becomes calcified, staying there for a long time; they regard this as pregnancy term. Or, it is a case of psychological pregnancy during which real pregnancy occurs and after that birth takes place; people think that it was a pregnancy that lasted for two years.(80)

6. The narration by Ibn Mas'ud is regarded for girls and the narration of Hudhayfa is regarded for boys.(81) This view divides the sex gland into two as sperm and egg and it is based on the fact that the formation of the male gonad is before the formation of the female gonad. This is an issue mentioned by our previous scholars. It was discovered by the science of medicine only toward 1970s. However, the difference between them is not so much, only three to five days. Both of them are known in the seventh week.(82)

Ibn Rajab says this is contrary to the apparent meaning of the hadith narrated by Hudhayfa.(83)

Secondly, the last six hadiths are interpreted by the first hadith. Those who hold this view say the hadith narrated by Ibn Mas'ud interpret the other hadiths showing that qadar's writing took place at the same time as the spirit was.(84) They state the following: This takes place only in the fourth phase after the stage of 'Mudghah'*. These scholars hold the view that 'mudghah' occurs on the third forty day. They say it is in accordance with the hadith narrated by Ibn Mas'ud.(85)

Another interpretation is that what is meant by "forty days" mentioned in the hadiths other than the hadith of Ibn Mas'ud is the third forty days. 

Ibn Qayyim says that it is highly improbable and that the apparent meaning of the hadith rejects it absolutely.(86)

Thirdly, the first hadith is interpreted by the other hadiths.

This is the preference of some scholars who lived later. They say, 'Creating, giving shape and qadar's writing take place in the second forty days. It is not contrary to the hadith narrated by Ibn Mas'ud.' These scholars base their views on the views of some doctors.(87)

The scholars who hold this view evaluate the hadith narrated by Ibn Mas'ud as follows: The expression of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) '...then, an angel is sent to him...' is not attributed to the expression '... then, it becomes mudghah like this...' before it but the following statement: 'Each one of you is put together in the womb of the mother in forty days.' The statements 'then, it becomes alaqah like this' and 'then, it becomes mudghah like this' become non-defining clauses between the sentence that is attributed and the sentence that attributes. This serves to mention three phases on end without a break. This kind of usage is possible. It exists in the Quran, sound hadiths and in the Arabic language.(88) What is understood from the words of these scholars is as follows: The spirit's being blown is completed after the first forty days. For, the creation and qadar's writing take place in the same phase as the blowing into the spirit as the first and second hadiths indicate.

4th Preference

Acting upon the apparent meaning of the first hadith, a great majority of the scholars held the view that the spirit is blown immediately or ten days after the third forty days, that is at the beginning of the fifth month in both cases. This view became so widespread that it became a doubtless fact and a belief taken for granted among scholars. Some scholars even wrote that there was unanimous agreement on it.(89)

It seems that those who acted based on the apparent meaning of the first hadith did so. For, the first hadith is more famous and most of the sources mentioned it. The hadith narrated by Hudhayfa can only be found in Muslim and the hadith narrated by Jabir can only be found in Musnad of Imam Ahmad.

Therefore, most of the scholars who dealt with the issue do not report anything from those hadiths. It is not something acceptable from the point of view of scholarly science. It is not appropriate to rely on some of the hadiths regarding an issue and to leave the others aside. On the contrary, it is necessary to bring together all of the hadiths regarding an issue and to reconcile them.   

Some scholars made a preference among the hadiths and preferred the hadith narrated by Ibn Mas'ud.(90) It is known that preference can be made only when reconciliation is not possible. As we have mentioned above, reconciliation is possible here. Besides, even if reconciliation is not possible, it is disputable whether to prefer the first hadith to others or not.

Based on their views that creation can take place only within the third forty days and not before, some scholars interpreted the hadiths by Hudayfa and Jabir and the narration of the hadith by Muslim (91) in favor of the hadith narrated by Ibn Mas'ud. However, it is now clear that such a view is wrong. Such a view is not valid to interpret them in favor of the other hadith.

Some scholars relied on the weak hadiths stating that the spirit is blown after the first four months like the following one: 'When the nuthah becomes four months old, Allah sends an angel to it and the angel blows spirit into it. However, this hadith is munqati' (interrupted). (92) Or  they base their views on weak narrations stating that the phases of 'nutfah', 'alaqa' and 'mudghah' each is forty days like the following hadith: 'Nutfah stays in the womb for forty days without changing...' (93)

Haythami states the following about some of the narrators in the chain of this hadith: Abu Ubayda did not hear it from his father. Ali b. Zayd has a bad memory.(94)

All of the hadiths that pronounce four months or that each 'phase' is four months clearly are weak hadiths. It is not appropriate to use them as evidence. 

It seems that the best thing is to interpret the first hadith in favor of the other hadiths. For, 'four months' is not pronounced in the first hadith; it is not pronounced that the 'phase of nutfah' itself is forty days. On the contrary, it is understood from the following statement of the hadith that all of the creation, from nutfah to alaqah, from alaqah to mudghah, is completed in forty days: 'Each one of you is put together in the womb of the mother in forty days.'(95) Therefore, the word nutfah is not mentioned after this statement in any of the sahih (sound) or hasan narrations.

As for the statements, 'then he becomes a clot of thick blood (alaqah) like this', 'and then he becomes a piece of flesh (mudghah) like this', it is not clear whether the periods of forty days are meant by them. On the contrary, it is possible that they have some other meanings. For instance, we can reach the following conclusion: The phases of alaqah and mudghah are like nutfah since the fetus does not have a spirit and its qadar has not been written yet. The statement 'Then an angel is sent; he blows spirit into it and he is ordered to write four things' points to this conclusion:

One of the things showing that the period is not meant by the phrase 'like this' is the Muslim narration of the hadith of Ibn Mas'ud. The narration in Muslim is as follows: "The creation of each one of you is put together in the womb of the mother in forty days; then he becomes a clot of thick blood (alaqah) in it like this, and then he becomes a piece of flesh (mudghah) in it like this...' The phrase 'fi dhalika' which is mentioned in the hadith and which is translated as in it means 'fi dhalika'l-waqt' (in that time period), which is the first forty days, not anything else. Therefore, the phrase "like this" in the hadith needs to be translated as something other than time. Then, the meaning becomes like the following without any force: Then he becomes alaqah and mudghah in that time period like this putting together of the creation. Here, there is a similarity between the first being put together with alaqah and mudghah - which is nutfah. This similarity may be the non-existence of the spirit yet - which is highly probable in my opinion - or its qadar not being written yet, or their formation taking place gradually, not as a whole, or the creation of fetus not being complete in those phases. Allah knows the best.

Some scholars think the statement of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) 'then, he becomes alaqah' cannot be explained in accordance with our evaluation. We can answer this claim as follows: The sequence with the conjunction 'then' here aims to list the things that are informed, not the ones that inform.(96)

Thus, the first hadith may have more than one meaning. The other hadiths are clear; they are not single; they were narrated from more than one Companion. Doubtlessly, the ambiguous one is interpreted in favor of the clear ones. The opposite is not appropriate. Therefore, the clear one cannot be interpreted in favor of the ambiguous one. Allah knows the best.

ON WHAT DAY IS THE SPIRIT BLOWN?

After preferring the view that the spirit is blown after the first forty days, let us deal with the question if it is possible to know the exact day on which the spirit is blown.

It is not possible to know the exact day on which the spirit is blown today scientifically within the framework of the developments so far. We can divide the hadiths regarding the issue into four in terms of determining the day on which the spirit is blown.

The first group: The spirit is blown between the fortieth night and the forty-fifth night.  "When the drop of semen remains in the womb for forty or forty-five nights, the angel comes …" The hadith mentioned in the third place above.(97)

The second group: It is blown after the forty-second night. "When forty-two nights pass after the semen gets into the womb..." The fourth hadith.

The third group: It is blown after the fortieth night. "The semen stays in the womb for forty nights; then, the angel, gives it a shape..." The second, fifth and seventh hadiths.

The fourth group: It is blown after  forty odds night pass. The seventh hadith.

Is it possible to reconcile those narrations?

Those narrations can be reconciled in a few ways:

Firstly, it changes from fetus to fetus.(98) The time when the spirit is blown is the fortieth night the earliest and forty-fifth night the latest. The spirit is blown into the most of the fetuses after the forty-second night, that is, on the forty-third day. This is so if we regard the phrase forty or forty-five days as a part of the hadith, not as the uncertainty of the narrator. What is essential for a reliable narrator is to report what he heard. I could not find anything showing the uncertainty of the narrator. However, the following can be said: This hadith was reported from Abu't-Tufayl, who reported it from Hudhayfa; some other hadiths without any uncertainties were also reported. However, in terms of apparent meaning, those hadiths do not agree on a certain day.

If we accepted that the uncertain expression in the hadith did not exist in its original form and that it originated from the narrator hence it would be appropriate to interpret it in favor of the other narrations, the blowing into the spirit would be between the fortieth day and the forty-third day.    

One of the things supporting the view that the blowing of the spirit changes from fetus to fetus is that the blowing of the spirit is probably related to the phases of the creation.  We mentioned above that the rate of the development of the fetus changed from fetus to fetus like in children and adolescents.(99) Therefore, there is nothing strange about the time of the blowing of the spirit to be different from fetus to fetus.

Secondly, the period about the blowing of the spirit for the time over forty days is not determined.(100) Therefore, we cannot determine a certain day for the blowing of the spirit. However, there is no doubt that the spirit is blown between the fortieth day and the forty-fifth day. It is neither before nor after this period. However, we cannot know on what day it is blown.

This view is based on the thought that some narrators made mistakes while narrating. However, the thought that some narrators made mistakes while narrating can only be accepted when it is impossible to reconcile narrations. What is essential for a reliable narrator is that he does not make a mistake. The opposite is not true. It is possible to reconcile the hadiths here.   

Even if we accept that some narrators erred, it will be better to make a preference here rather than accepting the view of those scholars. Therefore, it is better to accept of the other ways of reconciliation.

Thirdly, in the third hadith, the narrator is uncertain about the statement (Nutfah remains in the uterus for forty or forty-five nights...). Therefore, this hadith is interpreted in favor of the other hadiths that include no uncertainties. The other hadiths are reconciled as follows:

The spirit is blown after the forty-second night as the fourth hadith states clearly. This complies with the phrase "when the semen stays in the womb for forty odd nights..." For, the spirit is blown when the forty-second night ends. Two full nights and part of the third night is in accordance with the word odd. Accordingly, the numbers given in those two hadiths exist there in order to determine the number showing the time of the spirit being blown.

The numbers pronouncing the figure forty are mentioned as a round number. This kind of usage is abundant in the language - especially in the expressions of time.(101)

Fourthly, it is seen that the third, fifth and seven hadiths state clearly that the spirit is blown into the fetus forty days after nutfah remains in the uterus. Alla of the narrations pronouncing the number forty are like this. In that case, what is meant by those narrations is that the spirit is blown into the fetus forty days after nutfah remains in the uterus, not after fertilization.   

As for the expression "When forty-two nights pass after the semen gets into the womb,..." in the fourth hadith, it means the spirit is blown forty-two nights after the fertilization. The sixth hadith is also like that.

Thus, it is determined that nutfah enters into the womb on the third day after the fertilization. 

According to this view, the reconciliation among the hadiths is as follows: The spirit is blown into the fetus forty-two nights after the fertilization or forty days after nutfah enters the womb.  

However, the phrase after the drop of semen remains in the womb exists in the third hadith. Six or seven days is necessary for the formation of nutfah amshaj (mixed semen). This does not include the time for the entrance into the womb, which takes place on about the third day.   

When nutfah amshaj enters into the womb, it does not settle at once. It moves for about three or five days until it clings to the wall of the womb. Then, it settles.  

Therefore, this view is not strong. Allah knows the best.

Fifthly, as it is explained in the fifth view, the spirit is blown into the fetus not beginning from the fertilization of the egg, but after the forty-second night beginning from the settlement of nutfah in the spirit as it is stated in the third hadith. For, nutfah settles in the womb only on about the seventh day when it clings to the wall of the womb. Accordingly, the spirit is blown after the forty-ninth night, that is, at the beginning of the eighth week.   Allah knows the best.

That is the view that I find strong because it reconciles the narrations without ignoring any of them and regards the hadiths that do not mention settling in the womb as mutlaq (absolute), interpreting them in favor of muqayyad (conditional) hadiths.

If we rely on the first view stating that the spirit being blown changes from fetus to fetus - which is a strong view - , the spirit is blown into the fetus between the forty-seventh and forty-ninth nights.  

If we rely on the narration of 'forty-five nights', the blowing of the spirit takes place on the fifty-second night. Allah knows better.

THE RESULTS OF THE RESEARCH

1. There is no religious drawback to researching the spirit.

2. The spirit is different from life as the verses and hadiths indicate.

3. According to the stronger view, the spirit is blown into the fetus after the first forty days of the pregnancy, not after the third forty days.

4. There is not a single sound (sahih) or hasan hadith stating clearly that the spirit is blown into the fetus four months after the pregnancy.

6. It will be appropriate to understand the hadith of Ibn Mas'ud narrated by Bukhari in a way that will be in compliance with the Muslim narration of the same hadith and the other five hadiths.  

7. According to the preferred (stronger) hadith, the spirit is blown into the fetus forty days after the fertilization. 

Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Realms.

References:

(1) Ahmad b. Faris b. Zakariyya (D.395H/1004M), Mu'jamu Maqayisi'l-Lugha, 6J, Tahqiq: Abdussalam Harun, Matbaatu Mustafa al-Babi al-Halabi, Cairo 1980, II/454.
(2) Sad, 38/72
(3) as-Sajda, 32/9
(4) Ahmad b. Ali al-Muqri al-Fayyumi (D.770H/1368M), al-Misbahu'l-Munir fi Gharibi'sh-Sharhi'l-Kabir, Tahqiq: Abdulazim ash-Shanawi, Daru'l-Maarif, Cairo, p.245 (Henceforward, it will be referred to as 'Fayyumi, Misbahu'l-Munir'.)
(5) Ahmad b. Ali b. Hajar al-Asqalani (D.852H/1448M), Fathu'l-Bari Sharhu Sahihi'l-Bukhari, 13 J. Muqaddima, al-Matbaatu's-Salafiyya, Cairo, WIII/402.( Henceforward, it will be referred to as 'Ibn Hajar, Fathu'l-Bari '.) ; Muhammad b. Ahmad al-Ansari al-Qurtubi (D.671H/1272M), al-Jamiu li Ahkami'l-Qur'an, 20 J, Daru'l-Kutubi'l-Arabi, Cairo 1967M, X/323.( Henceforward, it will be referred to as 'Qurtubi, al-Jamiu li Ahkami'l-Qur'an'.)
(6) ash-Shura, 42/52.
(7) ash-Shuara, 26/193-194.
(8) Ghafir, 40/15.
(9) an-Nisa, 4/171.
(10) an-Naba', 78/38.
(11) al-Qadr, 97/4. NB: Many tafsir scholars state that Jibril is meant by the word ruh (spirit) in the last two verses. (Translator's Note)
(12) Ibn Hajar, Fathu'l-Bari, WIII/402.
(13) Ibn Hajar, Fathu'l-Bari, WIII/402.
(14) al-Mujadala, 58/22.
(15) as-Sajda, 32/9
(16) al-Isra, 17/85.
(17) Ismail b. Kathir al-Qurashi ad-Dimashqi (D.774H/1372M), Tafsiru'l-Qur'ani'l-Azim, 4J, Daru Ihyai't-Turathi'l-Arabi, Cairo 1969, III/61 (Henceforward, it will be referred to as Ibn Kathir, Tafsir.); IbnHajar, Fathu'l-Bari, WIII/402.
(18) Ibn Hajar, Fathu'l-Bari, WIII/402-403.
(19) Ibn Kathir, Tafsir, III/61.
(20) Qurtubi. al-Jamiu li Ahkami'l-Qur'an, X/324; Ibn Hajar, Fathu'l-Bari, WIII/404.
(21) Ibn Hajar, Fathu'l-Bari, WIII/402
(22) Qurtubi, al-Jamiu li Ahkami'l-Quran, X/324.
(23) Abu Dawud, Sulayman b. Al-Ash'as as-Sijistani (D.273H/886M), as-Sunan, IIJ, Matbaatu Mustafa al-Babi al-Halabi, Cairo1952, II/540. (Henceforward, it will be referred to as 'Abu Dawud, Sunan'.)
(24) Ahmad b. Husayn al-Bayhaqi (D.728h/1065M), Isbatu Adhabi'l-Qabr, Daru'l-Furqan, Amman 1983, p. 38
(25) Ibn Taymiyya, Ahmad b. Abdulhalim (D.728H/1327M), Majmuu'l-Fatawa, XXXWIIJ, IW/231.( Henceforward, it will be referred to as 'Ibn Taymiyya, Fatawa'.); Ibn Hajar, Fathu'l-Bari, WIII/404; Ibn al-Qayyim, Muhammad b. Abi Bakr (D.751H/1350M), ar-Ruh, IJ, Daru'l-Fikr, Amman 1985,p.212. (Henceforward, it will be referred to as 'Ibn Qayyim, Ruh'.)
(26) Ibn Hajar, Fathu'l-Bari, WIII/403.
(27) Ibn Taymiyya, Fatawa, III/31; Fayyumi, Misbahu'l-Munir, p. 245; Ibn Hajar, Fathu'l-Bari, WIII/403.
(28) Ghazali, Abu Hamid, Muhammad b. Muhammad (D:505H/1111M), Ihyau Ulumi'd-Din, 5J, Daru'r-Rashad al-Haditha, al-Maghrib, IW/494. (Henceforward, it will be referred to as, 'Ghazali, Ihya'.)
ª 'Nafsinatiqa' means the essence of man that determines his place among living beings, that he perceives general and partial issues that is isolated from matter in person but that cannot be separated from matter in terms of his deeds. (Translator's note)
(29) Fayyumi, Misbahu'l-Munir, p.245.
(30) Ibn Qayyim, Ruh, p. 249.
(31) Ibn Kathir, Tafsir, III/61.
(32) Ali b. Muhammad ash-Sharif al-Jurjani (816H/1413M), at-Tarifat, Maktabatu Lubnan, Beirut 1978, p.118.
(33) Ghazali, Ihya, IW/494; Ibn Qayyim, Ruh, p. 249; Ahmad ar-Ramli (D.1004H/1595M) Nihayatu'l- Muhtaj ila Sharhi'l-Minhaj, WIII J; Hashiyatu'sh-Shabramillisi and ar-Rashidi exist in the footnotes. WII/15; Ali b. Sulayman al- Mardawi (D.855H/1451M), al-Insaf fi Ma'rifati'r-Rajih mina'l-Khilaf ala Madhhabi'l-Imam Ahmad b. Hanbal, Matbaatu's-Sunnati'l-Muhammadiyya, Cairo 13761 H/1451M, WII/331, IX/452.
(34) al-An'am, 6/ 93.
(35) Sad, 38/72
(36) al-Maida, 5/116.
(37) Ibn Hajar, Fathu'l-Bari, WIII/403.
(38) Ibn Hajar, Fathu'l-Bari, WIII/403.
(39) Ibn Qayyim, Ruh, p.65.
(40) al-An'am, 6/122
(41) al-Anfal, 8/24.
(42) al-Baqara, 2/154.
(43) Aal-i Imran, 3/169.
(44) an-Nahl, 16/65.
(45) al-Anbiya, 21/30.
(46) al-Araf, 7/25.
(47) al-Baqara, 2/260.
(48) Ibn Qayyim, Muhammad b. Abi Bakr (D.751H/1350M), at-Tibyan fi Aqsami'l-Qur'an, I J, al-Maktabatu't-Tijariyya al-Kubra, Cairo 19331, p. 351. (Henceforward, it will be referred to as 'Ibn Qayyim, Tibyan'.)
(49) Ibn Qayyim, Tibyan, p. 339-351.
(50) az-Zumar, 39/42.
(51) al-An'am, 6/60.
(52) Muhammad b. Ismail al-Bukhari (D. 256H/869M), al-Jamiu'l-Musnadu's-Sahihu'l-Mukhtasar min Umuri Rasuli'llah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam wa Sunanihi wa Ayyamih bi sharhi Ibn Hajar, XIII J+Muqaddima, at-Tab'atu's-Salafiyya,11/115. {Bukhari, Daawat 8} Hadith No: 6314. (Henceforward, it will be referred to as 'Bukhari, Sahih'); Muslim b. Hajjaj an-Nishaburi (D. 256H/874M), Sahihu Muslim, W J, Tahqiq: Muhammad Fuad Abdulbaqi, Daru Ihyai'l-Kutubi'l-Arabiyya, Cairo 1955, 4/2083 {Dhikr 17} Hadith No:2711, Babu ma yaqulu inda'n-nawm. (Henceforward, it will be referred to as 'Muslim, Sahih'.)
(53) Bukhari, Sahih, Tawhid 13; 13/378, Hadith No: 7893. Babu's-Sual bi Asmaillahi Taala; Muslim, Sahih, 4/2085 {Dhikr 17} Hadith No: 2714, Babu ma Yaquluinda'n-Nawm.
(54) 'The term translated as to stop over toward the end of the night is 'Ta'ris. Ta'ris means to stop over (for a traveler) at the end of the night in order to sleep and rest.' Abu's-Saadat al-Mubarak b. Muhammad al-Jazari (Ibn Asir, D. 606H/1209M), an-Nihaya fi Gharibi'l-Hadith wa'l-Asar, IW J, al-Maktabatu'l-Islamiyya, 3/206. (Henceforward, it will be referred to as 'Ibn Asir, Nihaya'.)
(55) Bukhari, Sahih, 3/66; {Mawaqit 35}, Hadith No: 595; Abu Dawud, Sunan,1/104 {Salat 11} Hadith No:435; Nasai Ahmad b. Shuayb b. Ali (D. 303H/915M), as-Sunan, IW J Both volumes have two parts. Daru'l-Fikr,Beirut 1930, 2/106, Kitabu'l-Imama, 47 Babu'l-Jamaa li'l-Faiti mina's salat. (Hadis 'Nasai, Sunan')
(56) Ibn Qayyim, Ruh, p.65.
(57) Ibn Hajar, Fathu'l-Bari, XI/114.
(58) Ibn Hajar, Fathu'l-Bari, XI/114.
(59) Ibn Hajar, Fathu'l-Bari, II/67
(60) Sulayman b. Umar al-Ujayli (D.1204H/1789M), al-Futuhatu'l-Ilahiyya bi Tawdihi Tafsiri'l-Jalalayn li'd-Daqaiqi'l-Khafiyya, IW J, Matbaatu Isa al-Halabi, Cairo, III/602.
(61) Ibn Kathir,Tafsir, IW/55.
** The word we translated as creation is mentioned as 'khalq' in the hadith. (Translator's note)
*** The words 'Alaqah' and 'Mudghah' are mentioned in the verses narrating man's phases of creation, too. {See: al-Mu'minun, 23/14; al-Hajj 22/5} It is stated that 'Alaqah' is the group of cells consisting of the sperm of man and the fertilized egg of the woman clinging to the wall of the womb and it is also stated that 'Mudghah' is the phase of the fetus that has some forms like teeth marks on it and whose organs have not formed yet. (See: Kur'ân-Kerim Meâli, Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı Publications, Prepared by: Doç. Dr. Halil Altuntaş, Dr. Muzaffer Şahin. Explanations related to this verse.) (Translator's Note)
(62) Bukhari, Sahih, Kitabu Bad'i'l-Khalq (Babu dhikri'l-malaika) 6/303, Hadith No:3208; Kitabu'l-Anbiya 1, WI/363 Hadith No:3332; Kitabu'l- Qadar 1, XI/6594; Kitabu't-Tawhid 27, (Qawluhu Taala wa laqad sabaqat kalimatuna) XIII/440; Abu Dawud, Sunan, Kitabu's-Sunna 16 (bab fi'l-qadar) II/530; Tirmidhi, Muhammad b. Isa b. Thawra (Ö:279H/892M) al-Jami', Daru'l-Fikr, Beirut 1980, W J, Kitabu'l-Qadar 4, III/302, Hadith No: 2220, (Henceforward, it will be referred to as 'Tirmidhi, Jami'); Ahmad b. Hanbal ash-Shaybani (D.241H/855M), al-Musnad, WI J, Daru'l-Fikr, Beirut,I/382,430; (Henceforward, it will be referred to as 'Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad'.)
(63) Muslim, Sahih, Kitabu'l-Qadar 1, Hadith No: 2643, IW/2036
(64) Muslim, Sahih, Kitabu'l-Qadar 1, Hadith No: 2644, IW/2037; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, IW/7.
(65) Muslim, Sahih, Kitabu'l-Qadar 1, Hadith No: 2645, IW/2037.
(66) Muslim, Sahih, Kitabu'l-Qadar 1, Hadith No: 2645, IW/2037.
(67) Muslim, Sahih, Kitabu'l-Qadar 1, Hadith No: 2645, IW/2037.
(68) Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, III/397. Haythami writes the following in 'Majmau'z-Zawaid': "Ibn Main and a group of hadith scholars said Hasif mentioned in the chain of narrators of this hadith was reliable. However, it is disputable whether Hasif is reliable or not. The other narrators of the hadith are reliable." However, the hadith of Hudhayfa we mentioned in the fifth hadith supports this.  
§ "Mukhtalifu'l-hadith, which is one of the most important issues of the science of hadith, means reconciling two hadiths that apparently seem to be contrary or preferring one of them by leaving the other and acting in accordance with the one that is preferred." Prof. Dr. Talat Koçyiğit, Hadis Istılahları, Ankara Üniversitesi Basımevi, Ankara 1980, Ankara Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Publications (Translator's Note).
(69) Hafiz Iraqi, Abdurrahim b. Husayn (D. 806 H/1403M), at-Taqyid wa'l-Izah Sharhu Muqaddimati Ibni's-Salah, al-Maktabatu's-Salafiyya, 19691, p. 285; Suyuti, Abdurrahman b. Abi Bakr (D. 911 H/1505 M), Tadribu'r-Rawi fi Sharhi Taqribi'n- Nawawi, II J, Daru'l-Kutubi'l-Haditha, Cairo 19662, II/197.
(70) Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali, Abdurrahmanb. Shihabu'd-din Ahmad (D. 795 H/1392 M), Jamiu'l-Ulumi wa'l-Hikam, One volume, Maktabatu'r-Risala al-Haditha, Amman, p. 51. (Henceforward, it will be referred to as 'Ibn Rajab, Jamiu'l-Ulum'.)
(71) Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, Muhammad b. Abi Bakr (D.751H/1350M), Sharhu Abu Dawud printed in the footnotes of Awnu'l-Ma'bud, al-Matbaatu's-Salafiyya, XII/478 (Henceforward, it will be referred to as 'Ibn Qayyim, Sharhu Sunani Abi Dawud')
(72) Ibn Rajab, Jamiu'l-Ulum, p. 51.
(73) Yahya b. Sharaf an-Nawawi(D.676H/1277M), Sharhu Sahihi Muslim. IX J, Both volumes have two books each, Daru Ihyai't-Turathi'l-Arabi, Beirut, XWI/190. (Henceforward, it will be referred to as 'Nawawi, Sharhu Sahihi Muslim'.)
(74) Ibn Taymiyya, Fatawa, IW/240; Ibn Rajab, Jamiu'l-Ulum, p. 47; Nawawi, Sharhu Sahihi Muslim,XWI/191; Ibn Hajar, Fathu'l-Bari, XI/484; Ibn Qayyim, Tibyan, p.347.
(75) Dr. Bar, Khalqu'l-Insan, p. 378.
(76) Ibn Rajab, Jamiu'l-Ulum, p. 51.
(77) Muhammad b. Allan as-Siddiqi (D. 1057H/1647M), Dalilu'l-Falihin li Turuqi Riyadi's-Salihin, WIII J, Daru'l-Kitabi'l-Arabi, Beirut, IW/8. (Henceforward, it will be referred to as 'Siddiqi, Dalilu'l-Falihin'.)
(78) Ibn Hajar, Fathu'l-Bari, XI/486.
(79) Halil b. Ahmad as-Saharanfuri (D.1346H/1927M), Badhlu'l-Majhud fi Halli Abi Dawud, XX J, Daru'l-Kutubi'l-Ilmiyya, Beirut, XWIII/238.
(80) Bar, Khalqu'l-Insan, p. 452 ff.
(81) Siddiqi, Dalilu'l-Falihin, IW/8.
(82) Bar, Khalqu'l -Insan, p. 397; Dr. An-Nasimi, at-Tibbu'n-Nabawi, III/337
(83) Ibn Rajab, Jamiu'l-Ulum, p. 48.
(84) Qurtubi. al-Jamiu li Ahkami'l-Qur'an, XII/8.
* See the footnote 61 for the explanation of 'Mudghah'.
(85) Ibn Taymiyya, Fatawa,IW/242; Ibn Hajar, Fathu'l-Bari, XI/485.
(86) Ibn Qayyim,at-Tibyan, p. 346-347; See the relevant hadiths between the third one and the last one. 
(87) Ibn Taymiyya, Fatawa, IW/242;Ibn Hajar, Fathu'l-Bari, XI/485.
(88) Nawawi, Sharhu Sahihi Muslim, XWI/191; Ibn Rajab, Jamiu'l-Ulum, p. 51.
(89) Qurtubi. al-Jamiu li Ahkami'l-Qur'an, XII/8; Nawawi, Sharhu Sahihi Muslim, XWI/191; Ibn Hajar, Fathu'l-Bari, XI/481,484,485.
(90) Ibn Taymiyya, Fatawa, IW/241
(91) Ibn Taymiyya, Fatawa, IW/242; Ibn Hajar, Fathu'l-Bari, XI/484.
(92) Ibn Abi Hatim made takhrij (tracking, extraction and authentication) of this hadith. See Ibn Rajab, Jamiu'l-Ulum, p. 49; Ibn Hajar, Fathu'l-Bari, XI/486.
(93) Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, I/374.
(94) al-Haythami, Ali b. Abi Bakr (D.807H/1404M), Majmau'z-Zawaid wa Manbau'l-Fawaid, X J, Daru'l-Kitabi'l-Arabi, Beirut, n.d., WII/193. 'Sayyiu'l-hifz' is hadith term used for the narrators who could not memorize hadith very well; it is used as criticism.(Translator's Note)
(95) Ibn Qayyim, Tibyan, p. 337; Ibn Hajar, Fathu'l-Bari, XI/481
(96) Ibn Rajab, Jamiu'l-Ulum, p. 49; Ibn Hajar, Fathu'l-Bari, XI/485.
(97) The takhrij of this hadith and the ones to come after this were mentioned above.  
Ibn Hajar, Fathu'l-Bari, XI/485.
(98) Ibn Hajar, Fathu'l-Bari, XI/481.
(99) Bar, Khalqu'l-Insan, p. 233.
(100) Ibn Taymiyya, Fatawa, IW/241; Ibn Hajar, Fathu'l-Bari, XI/481.
(101) Ibn Taymiyya, Fatawa, IW/241.
Dr. Sharaf Mahmut al-Qudat
He is an academician at Jordan University Faculty of Shari'ah. He is also a member of Jordan Islamic Medicine Association. He completed his doctoral thesis at Azhar University in 1981. Dirasat Magazine, Vol. XIII, Issue: 12.

Translated by: Dr. Ekrem KELEŞ, Religious Affairs High Council Expert

Questions on Islam

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