Is time travel possible?
There is nothing like that mentioned clearly in verses and hadiths. They are theories and products of science-fiction imagination.
It is possible to see many examples of saints who have improved in the spiritual field traveling in the past and in the future during their spiritual journeys.
Expansion of time is a term which means living long in a short time.
Transcending space is a term which means surpassing space and appearing in different places at the same time.
The area of the earth expands with mountains. Small bubbles increase the area of the stomach. Lungs measure two hundred and fifty square meters when they are opened. They are examples of the fact that Allah has created area within area.
Therefore, God Almighty can also create time within time. As a matter of fact, He did: Dreams, expansion of time and miraj (the ascension of Prophet Muhammad)
We are restricted to what we experience and see. We have become slaves to familiarities and habits. We no longer wonder at the fact that sunlight reaches our world covering about one hundred and fifty million kilometers in eight minutes. As a matter of fact, this is a wonderful miracle of power.
When we say, “God Almighty may show this miracle in his beloved slave whose soul has surpassed his body”, objections arise instantly. “Why? Because we are bound by our sight and have never witnessed such a thing.” If we could witness this incident every day, then it would also be hidden before our sight; we would start not to wonder at it, either.
“In a dream, in a period of an hour, you see a year pass and many deeds are performed. If you were to read the Qur’an in the place of these deeds in that hour, you would finish reading the whole Quran a couple of times. This state takes place for the saints of Allah while they are awake. The issue is related to the capacity of the soul. In fact, the soul is not restricted to time. The deeds of saints of Allah whose souls are superior to their bodies take place with the speed of soul.” (Mesnevi-i Nuriye)
Today, we take it for granted that voices and visions instantly reach many places at the same time via television. However, we cannot grasp it that the throne of Balqis was instantly brought to the presence of Sulayman (pbuh). If we succeed in transferring things like voices and visions one day, we will then find it only natural and reasonable too, and begin not to wonder at it, either.
In the text above, there was an expression we are not acquainted with: the speed of soul. The speed of soul can be compared to neither light nor voice. Imagination is a servant of the soul. It can reach paradises at an instant. Reason is the tool of soul for understanding. Man can rise to stars and contemplate them with this tool.
When the soul surpasses the body, it becomes very easy to be present in different places at the same time. In dreams, our soul also surpasses our body to some extent. It covers great distances at a moment; we can easily go to the past and the future. We can talk with both our grandfathers and grandchildren.
Why should a soul, which surpasses angels by developing spiritually, not do the thing they easily do? Why should it not be present in different places at the same time?
If the world is a round globe, how can the Kaaba be the center of the world? Can a globe that has a round surface have a center?
The answer to the question, “What is the oldest building constructed in the world?” is definitely “the Kaaba”. No center in the world is visited as much as the Kaaba. Thus, with the present situation, Makkah and the Kaaba has become a center that has a uniting, combining and gathering role for people by eliminating the political borders. In no other place are people connected to a religious center continuously, 24 hours a day.
“The first House (of worship) appointed for men was that at Bakka: full of blessing and of guidance for all kinds of beings: In it are signs manifest; (for example), the Station of Abraham; whoever enters it attains security.” (Aal-i Imran, 96-97).
The Kaaba, to which people turn while praying, is the center of the Old World (Europe, Asia and Africa). It is almost equally far away from the three continents. It has a strategic importance and is located in the focal point of the transportation centers.
If you take hold of a world map and draw a straight line from North America to Australia and a straight line from South-East Asia to South America, you will see Makkah, hence the Kaaba in the point of junction. You should start from the endpoints of the continents while drawing the lines.
Is the center of the lands, Makkah (or rather the Kaaba), also the center of the world? Geographers divided the word into small squares symbolically with latitudes and longitudes in order to be able to find any point in the world more easily and to show them correctly in the most practical way. However, the beginning points of those lines were determined theoretically and arbitrarily. There is no definite scientific truth about it. For instance, the line of longitude that is accepted to pass from Greenwich, England is accepted as 0 (zero). It is known that the world, which is accepted as round, is actually bulgy in the middle. The latitude passing from the middle of that bulgy region is regarded as the “0” latitude. That latitude is known as the Equator. It is accepted that the Equator relatively divides the world into two equal parts.
The poles are the two endpoints of the axis passing from the center of the circle formed by the Equator. However, the reality is not like that. It is something that is accepted. The world has the real north and south poles. We know that the world rotates on the liquid iron-nickel like a dynamo and that during the rotation it forms electromagnetic field and electricity like a dynamo. That magnetic force exits from the north and south poles and forms the protective outermost layer of the atmosphere called the magnetosphere. Therefore, in the northern hemisphere, the compasses always points to the north pole.
Why are the poles that the latitudes and longitudes show are in different places from the magnetic poles that compass show? We know that the world has an inclination of 23° 27’ elliptically. If the world did not have an inclination like that, we would always have the same season; for instance always the summer or the winter. Days draw in and draw out because of it. That inclination changes the places of the poles, too. If we take into consideration the real magnetic north pole and the real magnetic south pole while drawing the latitudes and longitudes, we will have a new Equator. Then, that Equator, which is the greatest latitude with the number 0, will pass from the middle of Makkah. It denotes that the Kaaba is in the middle of the world.
On the other hand, the tropics of Capricorn and Cancer drawn according to the corrected form will pass from the block where Makkah is located. The latitude drawn in the same way will intersect with the tropics and the Equator in the same block. The intersection point will be Makkah again. The fact that those latitudes and longitudes intersect with each other in Makkah shows that the location of the Kaaba was determined specially and shows why people turn to the Kaaba while praying. Thus, it is understood that the Kaaba is the center of the continents now, and when the world was in the form of a big continent in the past.
Is it true that eating between times of asr (afternoon) and maghrib (evening) is forbidden? What are the appropriate manners for eating? Could you explain?
We do not know a period of time in which eating is forbidden. One can eat any time he needs. What matters is to eat little, not to eat when not hungry and to eat halal.
Could you give information about how the Prophet ate?
When did the Prophet (pbuh) have his breakfast, lunch and dinner? (after or before the call to the prayer?)
We do not know whether the Prophet determined a certain time for eating after or before prayer or not.
The Prophet’s way of eating:
Allah has placed humankind in the center of all creatures. He has made everything that exists, both living and non-living beings, servants for them. And He has placed sustenance in the center of the realm of the humankind and has made all human beings dependant on sustenance. The main reason why the humankind has been given so many privileges and attention and why they have been created to be dependant on sustenance and they strive for earning it throughout their lives is gratefulness. To be grateful means to know by whom all kinds of both physical and spiritual needs of ours, which we are in need of, are met; to feel grateful to Him sincerely; to express this when it is the time and to utilize all kinds of opportunities and energy that He has provided for us in a way that would please Him.
Given this basic criterion, the outlines of appropriate manners for eating are formed; mentioning Allah’s name before starting to eat food, which we have in our hands and we will utilize; being respectful towards food; contemplating the fine art in it and giving thanks to Allah after eating it.
The second important fact is that what one eats or drinks must be halal. And food is halal if there is not a religious objection to utilizing it and if we have got a right to utilize it. Meat of animals which were not slaughtered in the Islamic way, pork and other forbidden animal meats and drinking alcohol are a few of the examples of forbidden food and drinks. The range of food and sustenance which Allah has prepared for us on earth is really wide. Halals of them are much more than forbidden ones. And the forbidden ones were forbidden because of their harms, some of which we are aware and some we are unaware. The range of halals is wide enough to meet our all needs and desires. There is no need at all to do things which are forbidden. Indeed, it is also forbidden to eat or drink things which are halal, yet which belong to other people, without asking for their permission.
Another fundamental fact regarding the issue is that one must not exaggerate eating and drinking. Over-eating is not appropriate; under-eating is not appropriate, either. It is not regarded appropriate both for health concerned reasons and religion concerned reasons. It is not right to under-eat even if because of considering it a kind of worshipping. Our Prophet did not approve fasting every day of a lifetime. Moreover, he recommended saving one third of stomach for food, one third for water and keeping the other one third empty, disapproving filling the whole stomach with food. He also recommended not having food unless one is really hungry and stopping eating before being profoundly full.
The Prophet is a good example for us in this subject, too. As we find out from hadith books, his table was not a lavish one full of different dishes. As he led a moderate life, his table was moderate as well. He did not live to eat but ate to live. He would not mind if food was not ready when he came back home and would do with a few dates.
The Prophet ate twice a day. He recommended eating little. He ate all kinds of food and drinks except for those that are haram (forbidden). He did not take one-sided nourishment such as vegetables only diet or meat only diet. Although he liked some foods more than others, he did not say “I dislike this food” for any food. He attended dinner invitations. He washed his hands before and after eating. He began eating by mentioning Allah’s name and finished with an appropriate prayer. He ate with his right hand. He warned those who ate with their left hands. He ate from the part of the food, which was in front of him. He did not lean on his right or left while eating and he did not approve it. He forbade eating lying facedown. He forbade to waste foods. He did not approve being in public after eating dishes which included onion and garlic, for the smell could disturb other people. He forbade blowing into food and water. He said that dishes should not be eaten too hot. He recommended closing the caps of food bowls and water bowls. He recommended that family members eat together and said that it would make food more abundant. He talked in a moderate level while eating.
Depending on these sunnahs and the likes, appropriate manners for eating and drinking are as follows:
1- Washing hands before and after eating,
2- Eating from the part of the food which is in front of you,
3- Eating with the right hand,
4- Taking bites in sizes that are appropriate for the mouth and swallowing after chewing enough,
5- Not taking a second bite before swallowing the first bite and not talking while the food is in mouth,
6- Checking the glass before drinking water,
7- Not drinking water all in one gulp,
8- Not blowing/breathing into the glass,
9- Avoiding saying things which can disgust others,
10- Not staring at other people are eating,
11- Not stretching one’s head towards into the plate while eating,
12- Not wasting food, finishing all the food one has taken in his plate,
13- Turning the face off the table when one needs to take off something from his mouth and taking it off with his left hand,
14- Not dipping a bite of bread, etc which one has cut with his teeth, into the plate or bowl again,
15- Eating what is halal (permissible) and clean, and giving thanks to Allah,
16- Not leaving the table unless all the guests have finished eating, so that they will not hesitate to eat. (If he eats little, he should eat slowly and pretend to eat)
17- Seniors in age and position should start first,
18- Not eating out in the streets unless there is an obligation.
Do animals and plants have spirits?
As it is known, living things are divided into three categories. Plants, animals and humans. Thus, there are three levels of life here. The first one is the life of plants, the second is animals and the highest level is humans.
In plants, instead of a spirit, there are some kinds of laws. They are laws such as growth, development and differentiation. The law which causes semi-living things such as plants to develop can be called biological spirit. Actually, these laws exist in animals and humans, too. The level of spirits in animals, that is, some feelings and perceptions they have are at a far below level compared to humans.
Animals have a peculiar spirit, unconscious but favored with inspiration, specific to them. On the other hand, humans have a spirit which is conscious and it was created by God upon order and given an external body.
Does earlier puberty in hot regions originate from the effect of the climate and geography on DNA?
DNAs are molecules where the genetic structures of the living beings that they receive from their parents are coded. Their structure does not change so easily. Therefore, the age of puberty is directly related to the secretion of hormones.
In the individuals that reach a certain physical maturity, difference in attitudes and feelings develops in males and females based on the intensity of the sex hormones that are secreted. Whether they develop early or late is related to the temperature values of the environment not to DNA.
Imagine a cherry tree. In a cold place, it blossoms late. In a hot place, it blossoms early. Even in the same place, the time when the tree blossoms changes every year based on the weather conditions of each year.
Man is like that, too. The puberty of the members of a family that have immigrated to the south from the north changes depending of the temperature of the region that they have immigrated to.
Prof. Dr. Âdem Tatlı
Are scientific discoveries mentioned in the Quran?
Author: İbrahim Canan (Prof. Dr.)
The following is stated in a verse in the Quran: "…nor anything fresh or dry (green or withered) but is (inscribed) in a Clear Book (to those who can read)" (al-An'am 59). What is meant by the phrase, "Kitab al-Mubin" (Clear Book)? Islamic scholars interpreted it as both the Quran and "Lawh al-Mahfuz" (Prescribed Tablet).
Lawh al-Mahfuz is a tablet whose secret and content is known by Allah only and in which everything that is known by Allah and everything that happened and will happen is written. That is, it is the Qadar book of Allah.
We cannot claim that the verse denotes only one of those two possibilities. Then, it can be said that both Lawh al-Mahfuz and the Quran are meant by the phrase Kitab al-Mubin.
In this case, everything is written clearly in detail in Lawh al-Mahfuz and is summarized in the Quran. The difference between them is like the difference between a tree and its seed. For instance, a fig seed is as small as a point but it includes a big fig tree in it with all of its characteristics (its height, branches, leaves, fruits, taste, aroma, etc…); it carries all aspects (material and spiritual) of the fig tree in the genes that we cannot see in the form of programs. It is a reality proved scientifically.
Therefore, the important events of the past and the future are recorded in the Quran in the form of summaries and signs just like the seed.
However, it is not possible for everybody to see and understand it. Some scholars that are experts about the issue can perceive or see them.
It is normal for the following question to come to the mind: What is the reason why the scientific discoveries that are very important for the humanity like the plane, train and electricity are not explained clearly in the Quran? It is possible to answer this question, which comes to everybody’s mind, from a few aspects:
1- From the point of view of the main purpose of the Quran:The main purpose of the Quran is not to give us scientific information or to present us with historical information related to the past and the future. It is neither a book of history, geography, physics, chemistry or a book of discoveries and inventions. To look for the information that are found in those books in the Quran originates from lack of knowing the main purpose of the Quran and knowing it thoroughly.
First and foremost, the Quran is a book of religion. That is, it is a book informing people about Allah and their duties toward Allah. In fact, all religions try to explain “the Creator” and “the duties of the creatures”, which are two unknown things, for people. “Who is the Creator? What is the Creator? What kind of a being is He? What did He do? What is He doing? What is His purpose in creating people and things?”
Man wants to find out and understand those issues. We want to know and understand: “What are creatures? Where did they come from? What will happen to them in the end? What are their functions and duties in this world?”
The main purpose of the Quran is to inform people about their Lord and themselves by answering those questions.
The Quran mentions other creatures along with those issues. The earth and the sky, the moon, the sun and the stars, animals and trees, mountains, seas and rivers are all mentioned in the Quran. However, the reason why they are mentioned is the two purposes mentioned above: either to mention the power of Allah and His authority on them, and to inform people about Allah by using them as evidence and means or to mention their benefits and uses for people and to mention the purpose of their creation, to remind people of their duties of servitude and to encourage people to fulfill them.
Galaxies, the number of the stars, and scientific information like the diameter of the sun, its distance to the world, the rays it transmits, and the degree of its heat is not mentioned in the Quran because the information that describes those things is not important from the point of view of worshipping Allah. Despite all of its magnitude and service, the sun is mentioned as a “lamp” or “candle” in terms of its importance in the framework of worshipping. The world is sometimes a cradle and sometimes a mattress. The sky is a ceiling decorated with stars.
How can human inventions demand the right to be mentioned in the Quran while the vast universe is described like that? They are very small and insignificant in terms of their bodies and service compared to the components of the universe. Then, an indirect mentioning by the Quran for the human inventions is enough for them. We will see later that it is done like that.
2- From the point of view of the mystery of testing:Another reason why the Quran does not mention scientific inventions or the past and future events clearly enough for everybody to understand is a necessity of the mystery of testing. We mean this: Human beings were not created on a fixed and unchangeable ability like the other creatures. Man can progress (be elevated) or regress (descend) due to his nature. He can progress spiritually and surpass angels or he can regress ethically and fall down to a level lower than that of animals.
God Almighty did not leave man unattended after creating him like that. He taught human beings how to progress and reach lofty targets through prophets; He also showed them the obstacles that will prevent progress and the causes that will humiliate and lower them; He said to them, "Here are two ways before you; one of them leads to progress and the other leads to descent. Do not lower yourself by obeying Satan. Otherwise, you will be accounted for it and you will lose eternally."
The spiritual and even material elevation of man depends on choosing this true path, which is shown to him, with his free will. Life is an opportunity, a test given to man to make a choice.
It is necessary for man not to be forced while making a choice if the test is to be a real test and if he is to be accounted for what he did.
Prophets were sent in each era to renew this divine message; they explained the truths that were forgotten in the course of time and that were veiled in a way that the minds would understand. However, they did not force people. No prophet forced people to believe when they conveyed the divine message. In a way, the miracles that astonished the minds were not completely silencing and forcing people to believe. For instance, when the rod of Moses swallowed the illusory ropes of the magicians, they said,
"We believe in the Lord of Aaron and Moses" and believed in Allah; however, the Pharaoh said, "Surely this must be your leader, who has taught you magic" (Ta-Ha, 71) and continued to disbelieve. Similarly, when the Prophet (pbuh) split the moon into two when he pointed at it with his index finger upon the demand of the Makkan polytheists, they continued to resist by saying, "Muhammad started to influence the sky with his magic."
Thus, the religion is a test. In this test, a door is opened for the mind but the will of man is not removed. Then, it is contrary to this principle for the Quran to mention the technology human beings will invent and the events they will see in the future clearly enough for everybody to understand. In that case, nobody will be able to reject it; they will have to accept it.
3- From the point of view of gradual progress: As it is known, the law of gradualism is in question for man. This law made it possible for man to discover and invent various technologies and tools gradually when they were necessary and when man worked hard. If it had been a divine rule to mention science clearly in the heavenly books, it would have been contrary to the principle of gradual progress. Everything would have been given readily; so, man would not have had to work; there would have been communities of people at the same level everywhere since all people would have received the same message. It is contrary to the principle of gradualism, which is in question for man.
4- From the point of view of the honor of humanity:God Almighty allowed a great share of honor and pride to humanity by not mentioning science clearly in the Quran. It is a great honor for man, who is known as “the vicegerent on the earth” (dominant over the other living beings on the earth) and as “honorable”, to attain science and inventions by developing his ability through his personal efforts. Is there a human being that does not take pride in great discoverers and inventors that discovered America, that invented the alarm clock, Piri Reis, who drew the first world map, Ibn an-Nafs, who discovered the blood circulatory system, Edison, who discovered electricity, no matter what their nationalities are?
This honor is one of the millions of grants of God Almighty to humanity. The share of human beings in discoveries and inventions is present though very little; and it is a means of pride. If those discoveries and inventions had been mentioned in the Quran, we would have been deprived of that honor.
5- From the point of view of the capacity of the people that the Quran addresses:The Quran takes into consideration the understanding level of the majority of the people. In each era, more than three fourths of the people are common people. Even today, some scientific issues can be understood by experts of that branch of science only; the rest cannot understand it. When you speak in a way that the majority of the people understand you, it is clear that the ones at higher levels will understand you more easily.
Besides, if we consider that the Quran does not address only one single age but all ages until the Doomsday, we will understand the importance of the issue better.
If things that do not comply with the daily observations of people, their individual experiences and general information had been mentioned openly, it would have caused two important drawbacks:
1- It would have driven people who did not believe fully and who had hesitations away from the religion. Those who opposed the religion would have used it to increase their mockery. For instance, if the Quran had mentioned microbes and stated that there were millions of small living beings in one glass of water that we drink, that information would have confused believers who lived before the invention of the microscope and caused them to have superstitions; it would have led the unbelievers to total rejection and mockery.
2- It would have drawn the attraction of people to unnecessary and useless things. If the Prophet had informed people through the Quran and his personal knowledge that there would be televisions and that people would watch what happened in other parts of the world instantly in the rooms that they lived, or if he had said that there would be electricity and that a whole city would be transformed to brightness from darkness by pushing a button, people would have been engaged in unnecessary discussions and talks among them and would have forgotten about their main duties. However, it is not the purpose of the religion. The real purpose of the religion is to arrange the duties of people toward Allah and their relationships with other people, and to teach them the ways of material and spiritual progress.
No matter from which point of view you deal with it, the mind does not regard it appropriate for science and technology to be mentioned clearly in the Quran.
Due to many wisdoms and reasons the most important ones of which we have mentioned above, sciences are not mentioned openly in the Quran; however, it is observed that they are implied or indicated in various ways. We will try to explain the issue by giving some examples.
A – Information related to cosmos:The Quran often gives information about the universe. The creation, order, harmony of the universe, the night and the day following each other, the rain, clouds, plants, trees and animals are mentioned. The information about them represents the laws regarding things so truthfully that the science that developed in every field only confirmed it; science never stated anything opposite to it.
For instance, in many verses of the Quran, it is repeatedly stated that plants were created in pairs (twos) (ar-Rahman 52, ar-Ra'd 3, Taha 131); in a verse, it is stated that things that we do not know were also created in pairs (Yasin 36); in another verse, attention is drawn to the fact that everything was created in pairs (adh-Dhariyat 49). Thus, it informs us about the existence of pairs from good-bad, ugly-beautiful, hot-cold, night-day, belief-unbelief, to positive and negative particles that constitute the structure of atom and the two opposite poles of the electricity. This information may seem simple for today but it is a miracle for the era 14 centuries ago.
The verse of nur (light) is an interesting example that we need to mention here. It can be said that it indicates electricity, one of the most important discoveries of humanity: "Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth. The parable of His Light is as if there were a Niche and within it a lamp: the Lamp enclosed in Glass: the Glass as it were a brilliant star: lit from a blessed Tree, an Olive, neither of the East nor of the West, whose Oil is well-nigh luminous, though fire scarce touched it: Light upon Light! Allah doth set forth Parables for men: and Allah doth know all things." (an-Nur, 35).
We understand that the simile, "as it were a brilliant star" indicates light bulb, "whose Oil is well-nigh luminous, though fire scarce touched it" indicates electricity and we also understand from the simile, "a blessed Tree, an Olive, neither of the East nor of the West" that the oil mentioned in the verse is not the oil produced from plants that grow based on the climate.
The loftiness and profundity in the style of the verse and especially the similes are appropriate for deducing other meanings.
B – Historical Events:The Quran sheds light on the future by describing some events in the past and points to some technology that humanity can obtain through science. Some of those events are miracles granted to prophets. Some of them are not regarded as miracles. Let us give a few examples:
1- In the chapter of al-Fil, it is stated that the Ethiopian army, whose aim was to demolish the Kaaba, was defeated by stones of baked clay called “sijjil”. It is indicated there that particles that are small enough for a bird to carry can be used to defeat an army if they are thrown down from the air. Various weapons thrown down from airplanes, cannon balls and missile bullets that are exploded at a certain height applied this principle.
2- In the Battle of Badr, a miracle granted to the Prophet (pbuh) informs us about something further than the one mentioned above. As it is explained in the books of tafsir and siyar (life of the Prophet), a handful of soil and sand that the Prophet picked up from the ground and threw at the enemies hit the eyes of the each enemy and caused their defeat. The verse narrates the event as follows: "It is not ye who slew them; it was Allah: when thou threwest (a handful of dust) it was not thy act, but Allah's" (al-Anfal, 17).
It is a highly advanced technology for a bullet to follow the target and to catch it today. However, it is limited with big targets in the air. The verse indicates that it is possible to develop bullets that can find and catch small targets like human beings and that they can even be thrown by hand. Neutron bomb can be an example of it.
C - Miracles:The miracles mentioned in the Quran indicate some technology that human beings can attain. The miracle of Miraj (Ascension) is one of them. The Prophet (pbuh) ascended to the sky with his spirit and body through the miracle of Miraj (al-Isra 1; an-Najm 7-18). According to the complementary explanations that were reported together with hadiths, the descent to the sky was made by a vehicle resembling a horse and travelling very fast called Buraq. The description about the speed of Buraq is very remarkable. It is stated in the hadith that Buraq steps its front foot on the ultimate point that its eye reaches.
That miracle indicates that the way to the sky is open to human beings along with drawing attention to the magnitude of the speed to be reached in the vast space.
The miracle related to the rod of Hazrat Musa (Moses) is related to today. One of the miracles of the rod that does wonderful things is the gushing forth of water out of the ground when Moses hits the ground with it. The water comes out from 12 springs (al-Baqara 60). Today, extracting water through deep artesian wells even in deserts has become something ordinary. Besides, not only water but also petrol and natural gas gush forth out of the ground. Since 12 springs are mentioned in the verse, it is possible to make other bounties gush forth in the future.
As a matter of fact, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) states the following in a hadith: "The door of sustenance is open from the highest point of the sky to the depths of the ground. Allah gives sustenance to all of His slaves based on their efforts."
A miracle that is granted to Hazrat Ibrahim (Abraham) informs us about fireproof materials. As it is known, Hazrat Ibrahim, who did not give in to the community that worshipped idols, broke the idols that his community worshipped into pieces. He was given the punishment of being thrown into the fire due to his act. When Hazrat Ibrahim was thrown into the fire, he took refuge in Allah. God Almighty gave the fire this order: "O Fire! Be thou cool, and (a means of)) safety for Abraham." (al-Anbiya, 69) The fire did not burn Hazrat Ibrahim.
This miracle informs us about the existence of a waterproof material. As a matter of fact, human beings discovered amianthus; then, they developed it and produced materials that protect spaceships from being burned due to entering atmosphere very fast and getting hot very easily.
In conclusion, we can say this: There are many verses about information and technology to be reached in the future in the Quran. Those verses were not sent down only to tell us about the miracles of the prophets or the stories of the prophets. There are some scientific truths in various verses of the Quran, from the verses that give information about the creation of man and the universe to the verses that encourage man to contemplate and draw lessons. Experts of each branch of science will be able to discover the ones related to their branches in the course of time.
How should we inform our children about sexuality?
MAN AND WOMAN...
Both have sexual characteristics peculiar to them. Sexual needs that peak during the age of puberty, sexual problems, marriage and family, rules to be followed in order to have a satisfactory sexual life in marriage, pregnancy and birth, the bodily and spiritual health of the child, obscenity and obscene publications, man-woman relationship in the society...
Those are the main headings of the sexual life in humans.
We live in an age in which sexual issues are exploited incredibly.
On the one hand, sexual life is regarded as a taboo covered with shameful deeds... On the other hand, there exists a trend of exhibitionism that challenges the limits of privacy... The result of this contradictory situation is the prevalence of complete anarchy in sexual life. Then, the need for a sexual education based on religious resources and contemporary sciences is too urgent to ignore.
What is the place of sexual issues in human life? What are the things that we should know about sexual life? How can we be protected from the negative bombardment of the media? What things are right? What things are wrong? How can the concepts of thawab (reward), shame, sin are to be understood truly
Sexuality is a part of our life. Is the following not stated in our exalted book? We created you from a single (pair) of “a male and a female”. In many verses, the biological and psychological relationships of the spouses are pointed out.
There are some very important basic needs inherent in our nature: Eating and drinking, accommodation, sleep, sexuality, etc...
The sexual desire (libido, sexual pleasure) which is also called “lust” is one of the biological foundations of the need created in men and women to be together.
Let us listen to verse 21 of the chapter ar-Rum: “And among His Signs is this, that He created for you mates from among yourselves, that ye may dwell in tranquility with them, and He has put love and mercy between your (hearts); verily in that are Signs for those who reflect.”
The Owner of the Palace of the Body, who meets all of the needs of every cell in microcosmic level including the electrons through a fine plan, has met all of the needs of man based on certain orders. This order, which is based on two basic criteria (halal and haram) that our religion has given us, provides us with the conditions that make man peaceful in all aspects.
Since religious needs and desires are present in the nature of man, and since men tend to women and women tend to men, it is a healthy and indispensable thing to meet those feelings legitimately in a family environment.
Our religion gives great importance to marriage; most of the orders and prohibitions that regulate sexual life are determined based on this basic criterion.
The prohibition of things like fornication, homosexuality, giving up sex in marriage, castration, looking at others with lust, etc are some of the principles that aim satisfying sexual feelings through marriage legitimately.
Legitimate sexual intercourse is regarded as worshipping because meeting sexual needs in a consciousness of servitude to Allah and in accordance with the principles imposed by Him is one of the most of important conditions of happiness.
AIDS is a good example regarding the kinds of dangers that deviations in sexual life can cause.
Is sexual education necessary?
Is it not fard to learn the orders and prohibitions of Islam for every sane Muslim beginning from the age of puberty? Doubtlessly, the precision of some kinds of worshipping depends on having knowledge about them and practicing them. Can the life of worshipping be sound without knowing when it is necessary to make ghusl? Then, sexual information must be learned from true resources.
Children start to sense sexual differences beginning from the age of two or three. The sexual consciousness starts to settle with the age of puberty.
In fact, sexual education needs to start at birth. Boys and girls need to be educated differently in terms of many issues, from clothes to attitudes and from games to toys. The Prophet changed the yellow garment that Hazrat Hasan was wrapped in when he was born with a white one, attracting attention to the differentiation of color.
Sexual education follows a course that intensifies in accordance with the growth and development of children. It is more appropriate for the girls to be educated by their mothers and for the boys by their fathers.
The aim of the education is to make the child gain the attitudes that are peculiar to their gender in a normal and healthy way. The normal course of development of the child needs to be observed carefully; their questions need to be answered satisfactorily instead of vague replies and wrong comments. Reprimanding the child is as harmful as giving vague answers.
The sexual information regarding worshipping need to be given on time. Sexual information can be given to children when they are taught about the principles of performing prayers and fasting. The age of 6-7 is suitable. The beds and rooms of the children need to be separated at the age of 7, or at the age of 10 at the latest.
The most sensitive period: the age of puberty:
Due to the differentiation in their bodies and the changes in their world of feelings, it is necessary for parents to talk to them seriously and to guide them. They need to be told that they are no longer children, that they are young men or women and that their bodily and spiritual development burdens them with responsibilities. They need to be taught to control their relations with the opposite sex, to be careful about some issues and to avoid breaking the prohibitions. It is unnecessary to enter into details. However, it is necessary to prevent finding out the legitimate information about marriage life from harmful and obscene “sexual education” publications consisting of deviant, wrong, groundless and evil-minded information.
Sexual life within legitimate criteria is a way of worshipping Allah. A person who lives in accordance with the Sunnah will not get into trouble regarding sexual issues like every other issue.
Why should it be something to be ashamed of for a mother to present her daughter and for a father to present his son with correct information sincerely in a family environment? Allah does not order us to feel ashamed when we learn the truth.
A balanced and steady sexual life is a way of peace and happiness.
We are not too late to understand what is true and what is wrong in an atmosphere where an understanding of life freed from the feeling of sense of shame and where sexual energy is tried to be deviated from its course. If we understand it, peace and happy family environment that will transform the world into Paradise will make us be happy and smile.
SEXUAL EDUCATION: When and how?
One of the issues that challenge parents the most in child education is sexual education. It has two reasons. The first one is approaching the issue through the eyes of an adult. The second one is thinking that sexual education consists of the information on reproduction. Those two wrong approaches make things difficult for parents.
In fact, sexual education is not an issue as difficult as it is thought. We will solve the first wrong approach through a hadith. The Prophet (pbuh) says, “A person who has children should behave like a child when playing with them. What is meant by behaving like a child is to approach the events through the eyes of children; that is, empathizing with them as it is named in psychology. As a matter of fact, the way to understand people is through empathy. The easiest way to understand a person who talks to us or who discusses with us is to empathize with them.
The questions of children until they are seven years old regarding creation, reproduction, differences of gender and birth are innocent questions that are free from sexual curiosity and that aim to learn. There is no difference between the questions,” How did I come to the world?” and “How does the plane stay in the air and not fall down?” from the child’s point of view.
As we have mentioned above, sexual education does not consist of information regarding reproduction only. Information regarding reproduction is only a subheading of sexual education. However, in our community, sexual education is thought to consist of sexual intercourse and information regarding reproduction; therefore, people think it is necessary to give a person information regarding sexuality when he/she get married. And when that time comes, the information is given in a very ugly, coarse and inconvenient way. However, children and young people who have not been able to get reasonable and appropriate answers to their questions when they ask try to find answers through various other ways. In the end, the child who can have been relaxed if he has received an answer that does not upset his spiritual health is deformed both materially and spiritually when he hears many wrong things from his friends or is exposed to obscene publications.
When I used to work at a private school where most of the students were from religious families, I saw so obscene writings and strong language on the toilet doors and walls that I was surprised. There was only one explanation for it: These children were not given sufficient and healthy sexual education by their parents. You cannot get rid of the responsibility of something by ignoring it. If this issue is related to spiritual health, and if children are exploited and trapped by some groups, which is the case now, our responsibilities as parents and educators increase more and more.
Sexual Education Starts at Birth
The question that I am frequently asked by parents during my conferences, radio and television programs is this: When should we start to give our children sexual education? My answer: Beginning from the birth. The answer naturally astonishes those who ask the question. Yes, I am repeating it: Sexual education starts at birth.
When a mother shows discontent or grimace while cleaning the baby’s diaper, it gives the baby the message that the private parts are something disgusting. The baby touches its feet, head, ears and also genital organs in order to know its body. There is nothing strange about it. If the mother hits the hand of the baby or holds the baby’s hand and drives it away from the genital organs when the baby touches them, the baby will assume negative thoughts about it. You probably saw many times mothers and fathers react severely when they see their children playing with their genital organs and shout at them, “Move your hand away from there! What a shame!” It is something that the child does not deserve. Instead of prohibiting this act, the parents should try to think about what causes that act. Why does a child touch his/her genital organs? The genital organs might have been covered with tinea due to insufficient cleaning. It may cause itching and the child puts his hand there. When children play games, they may forget about the call of nature because playing games is their most serious need. They will not stop playing games in order to go to toilet; they will put their hands on their genital organs and delay going to toilet.
Mothers make the greatest mistake in sexual education when they try to teach them to go to toilet. They force their children to go to toilet because they want to get rid of changing diapers and cleaning the babies. Mothers try to condemn, threaten, frighten and punish their children to reach their aims. Those methods that they resort to are contradictory to the nature and honor of the child; so things get more difficult. Normally a child starts to hold his urine at the age of 2-3 during the day and at the age of 4-5 at night. The use of force before those ages will leave him in a difficult situation. Blaming and despising sentences like, "have you peed your pants again, you dirty boy?”, “If you pee your pants again, I will burn your weenie!” will cause the child to hate his genital and excretory organs, to have an inferiority complex and feel ashamed of his body. It may cause various sexual deviations in the future.
Mistakes Made During Sexual Education
There is no door that love cannot open. Love is the magic key of education. Allah stores love and compassion in the mother even in animals as soon as the baby is in the uterus. I cannot think of a mother who does not love her baby. However, some mothers cannot express their love to their babies due to lack of education, family problems and financial difficulties. If a child is not sure that he is loved and valued, he will continue to break the rules and conflict you until he becomes sure.
The attitudes of parents toward each other are also important in the sexual education of parents. When we made an interview with a girl who reached the age of puberty but never gave consent to marriage, we found out that the model of a mother who was always despised, cursed and beaten by her husband made the girl have negative feelings against marriage.
Do not Let Your Child Sleep in Your Bed
It is definitely a wrong act for parents to let their child sleep in their bed and make it a common practice. The feeling of dependence continues in the babies that are used to sleeping in the same bed with their parents and the development of their personality is delayed. There is also a sexual private aspect of the issue. The child may not be sleeping at all times. His eyes may be closed but he may not be sleeping. He may hear the private talks of his parents and see their intercourse. Or, he may wake up suddenly. In both cases, sexual privacy is harmed; the child can assume wrong ideas about sexual intercourse; and the mental health of the child may be harmed.
We advise parents not to let their children sleep with them and place them in a different room after the age of four. If you share the same room with your children, you must separate the room of the child that reaches puberty (the age of 13-14). The importance of privacy is great in the development of the personality. The room of a teenager is private just like your room. You must not enter his room without knocking on the door; you must not search in their bags, drawers, pockets, wallets and diaries.
It is not Difficult to Answer the Questions of the Child
One of the difficulties of sexual education for parents is not to know how to answer the questions of their children. The reason for it is to see the issue through the eyes of an adult. A child does not like long explanations and details. When you start to explain something in detail and scientifically, the child will get bored and start to deal with something else; he may even forget his question. Your answers must be in accordance with the level of the child, short and easy to understand.
When your child asks a question about sexuality, it is no use getting into a flap, blushing and trying to change the topic. If you do so, the child will not ask you any more questions about sexuality and try to meet this need through other ways.
Children sometimes close the door of their room when they play and they do not want others to see what they do and to hear what they say. When they close the door, they probably play at families or narrate the things that they have seen-heard. If you encounter such a situation, do not panic and do not rush into their room. If you do so, you will show them that you do not trust them. There is no need to fear if you educate them healthily and correctly.
We said that it was not difficult to answer the questions of the children regarding sexuality. What matters here is the attitude that you assume while answering their questions. If you speak with a soft tone and behave calmly, the child will feel at ease. Let us explain it with an example. Suppose that my child asked me,” Dad, where did I come from?” My answer would be something like this: “A mother and a father are necessary for a child to emerge. There is no child without a mother and father. When a mother and a father want to have a child, they pray together and say, “O Allah! Give us a baby!” If Allah accepts their prayer, He puts a tiny baby in the abdomen of the mother. The baby starts to grow there and when it becomes big enough to suck the mother’s milk, it moves and informs the mother. The father takes the mother to the hospital and the mother gives birth to the baby with the help of the doctor and mid-wife. If he wondered about the duty of the hospital, doctor and midwife, I would explain it in short. If he asked, "Where does the baby come out?”, there would be no problem in telling him that Allah created women like that and that He made the abdomens of women enlarge during birth and that they gave birth to children like that. What we tell them must be simple and true information.
Children are curious about the differences of sexuality regarding men and women. A girl may ask why she does not have the thing that her brother has. She may think that it is a deficiency and that she was punished by Allah. If we receive a question like that, we can make the answer easy by referring to the roles of the mother and father. If we have answered the question above previously, it will be easier. This answer will be enough: “You do not have the thing that your brother has because Allah creates girls differently from boys so that they can be mothers when they grow up.” We can answer the possible questions that she will ask when she sees a woman, for instance her mother, suckling her baby as follows: “The chests of mothers are different from fathers. Allah created mothers like that so that they will feed their babies. Babies cannot eat themselves because they are too young; they grow up by sucking their mothers’ milk.” Such an answer will be convincing for a child.
(You will appreciate that it is impossible to list and answer the questions that children can ask here. If you send you questions to my email address, I will try to answer them.)
The Foundations of a Healthy Youth are Laid in Childhood
The effect of the media and peer groups on the sexual identity cannot be denied. Young people who cannot establish a healthy communication with their parents are easily affected by the environment and peer groups. Youth and fashion magazines, televisions, cinema and the internet altogether separate your children from you. So many parents call us and complain, "My child has become a victim of bad friends; he comes home late; he does not obey us; he regards us as narrow-minded and repressive. Children from good families who receive a good education from their parents and who are valued do not usually choose bad friends because the education they have received from their families gives them a strong feeling of confidence. When he receives an offer that does not comply with the education and good manners that he has received from his family, he will be able to say no and if his friend insists, he will break off the relations with him.
There is no man without a mistake. Then, there is no child without a mistake. Your children will make mistakes, strengthen what you have taught them through trial and error and learn new things. For instance, you will teach him not to enter his parents’ room without knocking on the door and until hearing the permission, “Come in!”; however, if your child enters your room by mistake without knocking on the door while you are changing your clothes, what will you do? Instead of shouting at him and reprimanding him, cover your body and tell him softly that our Lord wants us to enter others’ rooms by knocking on the door and remind him that Allah will love us more if we do so.
If you do not want to be in conflict with your children who are at the age of puberty, show them with your words and attitudes that you trust in them, you value them and that you love them despite their habits. There is nothing more oppressive for a teenager than sentences that start with, "When we were at your age,...". When I talk to teenagers and ask them what they dislike most about their parents, the most frequent answer is, "My parents do not trust me." The other complaints are as follows: "They always regard me as a child; they do not accept that I have grown up; they do not like my friends; they do not value my ideas; they interfere with everything; they do not accept that they may make mistakes, too; they do not love me."
If you do not want to drive your children away from you, act tolerantly, softly, patiently and compassionately toward them. You should spare some time to them, listen to them, and make them feel that you will always be with them when they have difficulties. They are your children with their good and bad deeds.
When can the Aqiqa (sacrificing animals to thank God for the baby He has given to somebody) be observed?
Aqiqa (sacrificing animals to thank God for the baby He has given to somebody) can be observed from the time the baby is born until it s/he reaches puberty. The 7th, 14th and 25th days of the birth are regarded as the most appropriate times to observe it; especially the 7th day is considered to be excellent. On the same day, the hair of the boy or girl is shaved and gold or silver or money equal to the weight of the hair is distributed as charity. It is better to name the child that day, too.
Thus, this sacrifice can be observed from the day of the birth until puberty. However, the seventh day of birth contributes to gain more thawabs.
Can you give information about wiping with the wet hand (mash) on the foot covering? What is necessary for it?
Instead of washing the feet while making wudu, wiping on the foot covering with the wet hand in accordance with its rules is called mash. Mash on the foot covering is ease and permission provided for every Muslim, whether man or woman, by Islam. Mash on the foot covering can be carried out only while making wudu. Mash on the foot covering is not permissible while making ghusl. Mash on the foot covering is sunnah muakkadah. According to many hadiths, it is definite that the Messenger of Allah sometimes wore foot coverings and wiped on them while making wudu.
Does the existence of memory molecules (RNA, DNA) not show that the evolution is true? How should we evaluate the instinct in living creatures especially the magnificent arts of the living beings like the spider and bee?
Allah (SWT), who is the creator of living things, normally codified and stored the genetic structure of every living thing in their genes that are located in the chromosomes of cell nucleus. There are approximately 100 trillion nuclei in the human body. In every nucleus, this genetic structure exists. The structure of those genes in the chromosomes comes into existence by DeoxyRibo Nucleic Acids known by the initials of DNA. They are big molecules. C, H, O and N atoms form the structure of them, too. All characteristics of the living things are coded there. We see the expansion of these things in plants, animals and humans. The whole program of a fig tree is in this genetic structure thereby in its seed. With its expansion, all the characteristics of a fig tree become apparent.
The recorded information in these DNAs is just like recording information on CDs or DVDs. Thousands of pages of information can be recorded in a very small place.
The recording of all characteristics of all genetic elements in every living thing or even in every cell of every living thing on the elements such as C, H, O and N is significant since it shows us that Allah (SWT) has power on everything and His wisdom and will covers everywhere. That the same law is valid in all the plants, animals and humans in the world is the greatest evidence that their Creator is the same and His domination is valid everywhere.
It is not possible to understand how such genetic information is attributed to the theory of evolution which puts forward that all living creatures come into existence as a result of coincidence and a line of descent without a creator and which is completely based on atheism.
Let us put it briefly: if there is not a wise maker, doer and recorder of the information of the CDs or DVDs in your hand and if you accept that the information and images in them come into existence coincidentally, then you can claim that the information on DNAs does not have a maker. If you believe it so, you can only believe yourself. It is not even possible to make a primary school student believe it. Such a sophistry has no connection whatsoever with scientific information.
As for the art of the bee and its honey, Allah (SWT) declares that He recorded that information in the mind of the bee in the “Chapter an-Nahl”. Just like we load a carpeting program on a computer and weave a carpet by pressing a button, so too does the bee perform his duty according to the program given to it. More precisely, the bee is being employed on that work. You can call it instinct or divine motive. Scientific information researches about how and from where this bee is making the honey. It cannot answer the questions about for what purpose and by whom the bee is being employed. The answer of this can be given by the creator of the bee.
Prof. Dr. Âdem Tatlı.
“What was the average lifespan of the previous people? Was it longer or shorter in comparison to that of today? I want a reasonable answer with evidence.”
We can learn how long the previous people lived from three main resources. The first one is philosophical thought and evaluation. The second one is scientific knowledge that is based on experiments and laboratories. The other one is heavenly resources. They are: the Old Testament, the New Testament and the Quran. What science and philosophy say about the issue does not have a value. Among the heavenly sources, the only one that maintains its original form is the Quran. If there is no information in the Quran, it is possible to refer to the other heavenly books.
The age of Noah is clearly mentioned in the Quran. The meaning of the relevant verse is as follows:
“We (once) sent Noah to his people, and he tarried among them a thousand years less fifty: but the Deluge overwhelmed them while they (persisted in) sin. But We saved him and the Companions of the Ark, and We made the (Ark) a Sign for all Peoples!” (al-Ankabut, 14-15).
We understand from the verse that the Deluge took place when Noah (pbuh) was 950 years old. We do not know how long Noah lived after the Deluge.
According to the Old Testament, Hazrat Adam lived 930 years. (Genesis: 5/5; İslâm Ansiklopedisi, Volume 1, p.363).
In some tafsir books, it is stated that Hazrat Adam lived one thousand years. (Ibn Athir Ali b. Muhammad al-Jazari, al-Kamil fi’t-tarikh, Beirut 1965, Volume 1, p.150-151).
In conclusion, it is understood that Hazrat Adam and Hazrat Noah lived about one thousand years. We do not know whether their communities lived as long as they did or not. However, since prophets are examples to their communities, it is probable that they lived as long as their prophets. As a matter of fact, our Prophet lived as long as the average lifespan of the community and died when he was 63 years old. Allah knows the best.
Prof. Dr. Âdem Tatlı
Is it Islam which causes us to go back?
“As it is true that the truth always prevails. Why then does the unbeliever defeat the believer, and the power defeats the truth?” The Risale-i Nur Collection, The Words, 725
There is a malady which was often mentioned and which now and then recurs today: To assume that the religion is an obstacle against development and to attribute our lack of development in comparison to the Christian world to the religion of Islam.
Before answering this question, firstly I want to mention some points. The line that we draw between these points will bring us to the first answer to this question.
The First Point
At the time when Islam newly showed up, the Muslims suffered the oppression and aggression of the idolaters for some time and then became a state and continuously made progress just until a century ago. It is the first proof of this fact that the Era of Bliss (the time of the Prophet) was an age of faith, morals, virtues, justice and peace. After that, the Andalusia became such a pioneer in knowledge to the Europe, and the Seljuk and the Ottoman Empires rose to such great peaks in knowledge and arts that it is impossible to conceal these with such claims.
Here, we need to differentiate between the terms Islam and Muslim. It is the Muslims who both develop and go back. Islam is whatever it is.
“This day I have perfected for you your Religion (with all its rules, commandments and universality), completed My favor upon you, and have been pleased to assign for you Islam as religion.” (The Qur'an, Al-Ma'idah Surah, 5:3)
Then the answer to this question should be searched for:
When were we good followers of Islam? When we built empires or when we moved backwards?
The Second Point
Those who attribute our going backwards to Islam are obliged to leave Muslims aside and to deal with Islam; saying “So and so principles of the Qur'an and so and so hadiths of the Prophet are against development.”, they, as a result of their claim, are bound to try to bring evidence.
For instance, they should prove that prohibiting lying, wrongdoing and oppression, alcohol, gambling, adultery and fornication, manipulation, interest, backbiting, racism and in short prohibiting all evils are against progress.
The Third Point
There is another duty incumbent on those who attribute it to Islam that the Christian are more developed than us. And this duty is to search for and find the principles of today's technology and material progress in the New Testament and to bring up an argument saying “We went back because we lack these and these.” They cannot do that. For there is no one single verse in the New Testament about either the commercial life or the governing of the state.
Let us mention a final point and move on to the answer:
Those who put forth this claim are obliged to prove that the system of education which turned the hard working, brave, patriotic and honest person of former times into today's unruly, lustful and egoistic person is originated in Islam.
Let us now try to answer the question in reference to the works of the author of Risale-i Nur Collection, Bediuzzaman Said Nursi.
In the Risale-i Nur Collection, in The Words, there is a question:
Once an asker of questions asked: “As it is true that the truth always prevails. Why then does the unbeliever defeat the believer, and the power defeat the truth?”
That's to say, “As the truth is superior, and as it cannot be defeated. Why then do the unbelievers defeat the Muslims and the powerful defeat the rightful?”
The answer to this question is given concisely and satisfactorily with its four different aspects:
Firstly, the means are dealt with and it is pointed out that in this world of wisdom the means and causes collide with one another. Whether Muslim or Non-Muslim, whoever fulfills the prerequisites of what s/he intends to attain, and complies fully with its causes and means, s/he will succeed. It is definite how one can obtain high performance out of a product under what conditions, with what techniques and with what kind of a planning. Whoever abides by these conditions and applies to these means, it is s/he who will succeed.
We may explain the notion 'power' stated in the question as follows: “Power has a right of it, and there is a mystery in its creation.”
If you want to succeed, and if you want to overcome your enemies or your rivals, you should try to be powerful. For power also has its own right. Whoever has this right in his/her hand will most probably be victorious. If you crash steel and wood against one another, it is definite that the wood will be defeated.
Secondly, the matter is dealt with in relation to the world of qualities in humans. All beautiful qualities are included in the name of the word “Allah” and are exhibited in the best way by Allah's Messenger, peace and blessings upon him. However, in practice, a Muslim may not succeed in exhibiting all these beautiful qualities in his/her life because of the soul, devil, degenerated social composition, and because of many other factors. Similarly, a non-Muslim may possess some beautiful qualities as a result of the education s/he has received and of the social constitution. These are the Muslim qualities that s/he has. When a work will be performed, not the beliefs inside hearts but these qualities come into prominence.
Let us give an example from commerce: Such qualities as knowledge, honesty, hardworking, being planned and principled affect the result of commerce directly. If a non-Muslim possesses these qualities and a Muslim not, it is just natural that this non-Muslim will be richer than the Muslim. Here, the unbeliever did not defeat the believer; but the Muslim qualities defeated the non-Muslim qualities. And the victor is, in the realm of qualities, again the truth.
This point may be mentioned so as to open perspectives for us :
“And in the world, the right of life is all-encompassing and covers all. This all-encompassing mercy has a meaningful point and a mystery of wisdom; unbelief is not an obstacle.”
The right of life is all-encompassing. That's to say, in this respect, there is no difference between believer and unbeliever, human and animal. Whoever is given life is also given livelihood. Livelihood is not the recompense of faith and worship, but is the recompense of life. The recompense of faith and worship is the eternal bliss in the abode of Hereafter.
We may continue our ideas from this perspective as follows:
For the reflection of each one of Allah's names there are different mirrors and various platforms. Most of them are not related to the belief of the person. For example, a farmer who wants to obtain more shares from the reflection of the name Ar-Razzaq (The Ever Providing) will receive more crops when s/he complies with the necessary conditions for this. Here, the faith of the person is not a criterion. Again, somebody who wants the name Ash-Shafii (Giver of Health) to reflect on himself/herself applies the necessary medicine. Here, too, his/her faith is not a criterion. For s/he knows how to ask for the reflection of this name and as a result s/he is bestowed with health. Somebody who has not followed this way, even if s/he is a perfect believer, may not attain health.
So, if a Muslim wants to benefit from the blessings of the Divine names in the life of the world, s/he should try to become a deserving mirror for these reflections. Otherwise s/he cannot attain the result s/he wants. However, the same believer aims at the Divine blessings in the abode of the Hereafter by complying with the requisites of worship, good deeds and sincerity.
A person who does not comply with these requisites will not have any share in Paradise, however successful s/he is in the world.
A third dimension of the subject is pointed out in the Risale-i Nur Collection as follows:
Allah has two categories of rules. One of these is the principles of the Qur'an, which bring into order the human deeds that depend on free will. The other category is comprised of the rules which ensure the order of the universe and of the things inside it. The first one is Shari'ah (Islamic Law); and the second is Shari'ah at-Takwiin (The Law of Creation). The laws of nature fall into this second group.
It is pointed out by Bediuzzaman that those who obey and those who rebel against the decrees of the Qur'an will receive their reward and their punishment generally in the Hereafter and that those who comply with the law of creation and those who do not will receive their reciprocation generally in this world. Accordingly, a believer who does not comply with the law of creation suffers its punishment with lack of success and with misery in this world. And a non-Muslim who follows these laws receives the recompense of having acted in accordance with the Divine will in this world, even if s/he doesn't realize.
These three points are the reasons for success and lack of success. And most of this matter can be explained by one or some of these points. It may also happen that we do not succeed though we have fulfilled all conditions. Here, we should search for a mystery of mercy and wisdom of the Divine Determining. In the fourth part of the answer, this point is explained; in other words, the perspective of Divine will and the Divine Determining is highlighted.
In the fourth point, in Risale-i Nur, it is emphasized that it sometimes helps the truth flourish for the falsehood to overcome the truth even if temporarily, and it strengthens and brightens the truth.
This point is of great significance in this respect:
In a hadith (saying of the Prophet), it is said: “The majority of troubles befall the prophets, and then other beloved servants of Allah according to their ranks.” It is a mystery of the Lord and a Divine wisdom that most of the prophets were insulted by their communities, were driven away from their land and were exposed to torments. The troubles they suffered are each a 'negative worship', with the expression of the author of the Risale-i Nur Collection. The recompense of this worship, which is based on patience, which necessitates doing what one should do in the first place and then trusting Allah with the result, and which is very hard to endure, is accordingly huge. With these ordeals, the beloved servants of Allah, the prophets taking the lead, both improve spiritually and most often their true cause becomes settled in the hearts of people however late it may be, as a result of their suffering patiently. While those who oppressed and wronged them suffer in their graves, their followers live and make others live the truth in the world.
Just as day and night have different benefits in the growth of a plant, so too the reflections of Jalal (majesty) and Jamal (beauty) affect the flourishing of the human spirit.
This is a Divine wisdom. And the troubles and ordeals that the friends of The Truth are faced with in the circle of this mystery are not related to the first three points.
How should we regard the existence of unicellular hermaphrodite creatures though it is stated that all creatures were created in pairs?
One of the timeless scientific truths that the glorious Quran informs us is the issue of the creation of everything in pairs. The verse, ‘And of everything We have created pairs: that ye may receive instruction.' (az-Zariyat, 51/49) is of great significance in that it expresses this truth. It is possible to see this truth everywhere and in everything, from particles to planets, from systems to galaxies. Human beings and animals were created in pairs. Plants were also created in the same form.
The same state exists everywhere with male-female and inseminating-being inseminated. Although there exists pollination in plants, it is not possible for them to continue their species unless the male seed meets the female seed. Similarly, when the human body is examined, it will be observed that the same law is valid there because atoms, which are the building blocks of the body cells, are made up of some positively and negatively charged particles.
The Quran expresses this apparent truth as follows: ‘And of him He made two sexes, male and female.' (al-Qiyama, 75/39)
The verse, 'And it is He Who created fruit of every kind in pairs, two and two.' (ar-Ra'd, 13/3) reminds us that fruits are created in pairs (male-female). The word “kull” in the verse means everything. The word kull modifies the noun that comes after it. It is called a noun phrase. The second word in the phrase is either marifa (definite) or nakra (indefinite). If it is definite, it includes all parts of a being. If it is indefinite, it includes all members of that thing. In the verse, “shay’” (thing) is modified by nakra. Therefore, it is understood that everything (all of the things) is created in pairs.
In the chapter Yasin, the following is stated: ‘Glory to Allah, Who created in pairs all things that the earth produces as well as their own (human) kind and (other) things of which they have no knowledge.' (Yasin, 36/36); thus, the phrase,”created in pairs” is explained here. In the verse, at first the fact that everything was created in pairs is presented to the attention, then it is emphasized that all of the beings that grow in the ground like grass, flowers, tress, etc are included in the scope of this general law as female and male.
'As well as their own', that is, the things in your own are also in pairs. You were created in pairs as male-female, and your bodies were created like that. They also have positive and negative values.
By the expression, ‘who created in pairs things of which they have no knowledge’, the Quran reminds us the following: 'Human beings and animals were created in pairs as female and male; similarly, plants were created in pairs, too. Therefore, no reproduction takes place among them without insemination. However, there are more pairs that you do not know now but will know in the future. Your present science and research facilities are not enough to determine it. However, in the future, science and technology will develop and you will see that many more beings have been created in pairs. We created everything in pairs from the great system and galaxies to the attraction and repulsion between the stars and the sun and from it to the smallest realm, to the elements in human beings, animals, plants, seeds and atoms.'
Maurice Dirac, established the fundamental principle of the creation in pairs with the discovery of elementary particle positron. Electron is one of the fundamental elements that constitute atom. It has the smallest electric charge unit negatively. Positron has a mass as big as that of electron but it is an elementary particle carrying positive electric charge unlike electron.
According to the rule of creation in pairs, which is one of the fundamental structures of physics, when a particle is created at any point in the world, its twin, that is, its opposite, comes into existence automatically. The most famous ones are as follows:
1) Positron, the opposite twin of electron.
2) Antiproton, the opposite twin of proton.
3) Antineutron, the opposite twin of neutron
4) Antineutrino, the opposite twin of neutrino.
When matter is examined more deeply, pairs are seen again. As it is known, every matter consists of atoms; and atoms consist of protons, neutrons and electrons. Protons and neutrons consist of particles called quarks. They are also in pairs as follows:
The existence of the top quark, which was the last one to be discovered, was known theoretically. According to the standard model, particles had to be in the form of pairs too. There had to be a quark that would increase the number of quarks from five to six. Acting upon this fact, 440 scientists discovered the top quark in 1995 as a result of hard work that lasted 17 years, making a breakthrough in discovering the secrets of matter.
The positive charge of atom is in its nucleus, and its negative charge is in its other parts. Then, there may just as well be atoms whose nuclei are negative and whose electrons are positive. That is, opposite twin of matter may exist. The experts of this field accept the existence of antimatter in our galaxy, which consists of stars, the sun, gas and dust. Maybe some of the star systems that astronomers see through telescopes are comprised of antimatter only. The fact that there are two kinds of electricity, as positive and negative, which has a fundamental role in the creation and running of the universe, was discovered in 1733. Like electrical charges repel each other and opposite electrical charges attract each other. It is also known that a magnet has two opposite poles as south and north. No matter into how many tiny parts you divide a magnet, two different poles form each time. That is, it is impossible to form a magnet with one pole. Like poles repel each other and opposite poles attract each other just like the charges in electricity. Our world is like a huge magnet; it has two opposite poles as north and south. We have seen above what the Glorious Quran said many centuries ago; that is what science says. Although so many centuries passed and science has developed so fast, nothing has changed much. What the Quran said then was valid for the science and mentality of that time and it is similarly valid for the science and mentality of today. They all show that the Quran is a miraculous word of Allah, who is the sultan of pre-eternity and post-eternity.
There are pairs of cells in hermaphrodite beings, too.
Learning of which sciences gain us the reward (thawab) of worshipping?
The glory of science increases or decreases correspondingly depending on its duty of representing Almighty Allah (SWT). It is obvious that there is a superiority of sciences that directly teach Allah’s knowledge, contentment, orders and prohibitions such as tafsir, hadith and fiqh.
However, sciences that lead man to Allah such as physics, chemistry and astronomy are full of materials that increase the admiration, love and respect towards Him. Because of this, any scholar, no matter what branch of science he is engaged with, is included in this good news if he uses his knowledge in an area that Allah is pleased with,.
This glorious hadith is one of the prophetic news that signifies the value of science and scholars.
In this hadith, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) compares the level of scholarship with the level of martyrdom, which is an extremely highly spiritual level, and explains the superiority of a scholar.
We understand from the verses and hadiths that martyrdom is at the top of the levels which are enviable. A martyr is a person who sacrifices himself/herself in the way of Allah (SWT) and his/her Creator rewards him/her with an eternal life and Paradise. As for a scholar, that person has also taught the rights of Almighty Allah (SWT) to His slaves, informed them the right way and enlightened people on the way of eternal happiness.
Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) used a figurative expression to compare the blood of martyrdom with the ink of a scholar in the hereafter, informing us about the unearthly superiority of science and scholar in an unforgettable way.
When science is mentioned, the first thing that comes to mind is the sciences about Allah and basics of Belief. That is why, Imam Azam called his book, in which he explains the basics of belief, “the Great Fiqh” (Fiqh al-Akbar).
A Muslim’s works which are performed with a good intention are considered a kind of worshipping. The yeast turns the milk into yoghurt when mixed; similarly, a person can turn his/her work and deeds into worshipping by adding the yeast of belief and worshipping to his/her work. Therefore, all works that have been performed with good intentions, belief and prayers can be considered as worshipping.
The saying, “Every seed is a tree” is true. However, although every seed has the programme of a tree, it does not become a tree if it is not sown according to its rules. Similarly, every science has a mystery that leads man to Allah (SWT) and causes his/her sins to be wiped away. However, some conditions are necessary for a mystery, which is just like a seed, to be revealed. People who fulfill the conditions such as belief, worshipping, good intention and avoiding harams will let their seeds be grown just like trees.
The thing that makes a chandelier valuable is its electricity. A chandelier which is made of gold but has no electricity cannot save you from darkness. Likewise, our works and services are like chandeliers. What illuminates and gives light to it is our belief, intentions and worshipping .
It is said that plants have some feelings. Do they have spirits? If they have no spirits, then how can we explain the existence of some feelings that they have?
Plants form the lowest level of the living beings. When you break off a branch of a tree and plant it, the laws of growth and development function and a new individual forms.
In plants, there is no spirit in the sense that we know. Some laws like growth, development and differentiation carry out the duties of the spirit in plants.
Some feelings and acts seen in the living things including human beings are produced by the effects of some hormones and enzymes. Man hears a sound. That sound causes the formation of some secretion in the body, and tears come down his eyes.
The hormone of growth in plants moves away from the sunlight. When the sunlight hits the stem of a plant that is put in next to the window, the growth hormones accumulate at the back side of the stem, which receives less sunlight, that is, the side that faces inside the room. The growth hormones that accumulate there cause that part of the stem to grow more; an asymmetric form occurs since the part of the stem that faces inside the room grows more and the part that faces the sunlight grows less. Consequently, the stem of the plant leans outward.
This state is explained as the behavior of the plant. With this behavior, the plant turns its face toward the light. Thus, it benefits more from the light. Here, there is no spirit that arranges the act in the sense that it happens in human beings. However, there are laws of growth and differentiation that can function like that spirit to a certain extent.
It has been determined that there happen some differences in the behavior of the plants as a result of some secretions. We can summarize one of them as follows:
Electrodes are placed on the leaves of a plant and the electric circuit is completed. An ammeter that measures the strength of the electric current, a graph paper and a device that can draw graphs based on the strength of the current on the graph are placed on the circuit. Somebody breaks off a part from the plant. Then, when that person who has broken off that part from the plant passes in front of the plant, the strength of the current increases and a different graph is drawn. When other people pass, the plant does not react like that.
This act and similar ones are shown as evidence for the existence of feelings in plants; these feelings are noticed by different strengths of current and the secretion of different enzymes and hormones. The plant reacts based on the enzymes and hormones that are secreted in the environment that it lives.
The reactions that are conscious in human beings exist in the form of feelings or behavior in plants.
Can DNAs not be shown as the unique reason for the harmony among the living beings as long as there are adequate conditions? Is it not possible that life may have existed after the coincidental formation of the first DNAs?
All living beings and even non-living beings consist of 114 elements. The most common elements in living beings are carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen. Along with those elements, magnesium, iron, phosphorus and sulfur unite based on certain laws and yield DNAs (Deoxyribonucleic Acids). Those DNAs unite and form chromosomes. There are genes in certain regions of the chromosome structures. All genetic characteristics of a living being are recorded in the form of codes.
It is just like the large amount of information recorded in a flash disc, Cd or DVD. The information in the flash disc or CD is recorded in the form of codes. When you look at the flash disc with naked eyes, it is not possible to see any writing or figures on it. Thus, the genetic characteristics of every living being are recorded in genes or in DNAs that form the foundations of genes.
One of the reasons of harmony or similarity among living beings is DNAs. However, the difference in the arrangement of atoms in DNAs causes the genetic structure to be encoded differently. The material used in a flash disc or CD are materially the same. However, the information that is stored or encoded are different. It is necessary to look at the difference of information in DNAs from this point of view.
In the second part of the question, this is asked:“Is it not possible that the first DNAs have formed coincidentally?”First of all, it is necessary to ask this:
- Why are DNAs expected to form coincidentally?
First, let us examine the issue of coincidence. Let us see what is behind it. We will ask a question here. Answer the question not ideologically but based on your mind, reason and the most important of all your conscience. This is the question:
-Will you accept that your socks or your shirt settled on your body coincidentally or they left your body coincidentally? Can you give only one example that something like that took place coincidentally? For instance, since all of the food items are together in the kitchen, can you claim that the soup cooked coincidentally?
It is not possible for a person who heeds his mind and conscience to answer those questions positively.
Since even soup does not form coincidentally, how can DNA, which stores thousands of information, form coincidentally? Then, how can that much information come coincidentally from the realm of the unknown and settle in DNA? Then, how can a cell form coincidentally? How can DNA enter that cell coincidentally and give life to that cell?
You cannot see such a story even in 1001 nights.
Is it not more reasonable that living beings and DNAs are the work of a creator who has endless knowledge will and power?
The world is a place of testing. A person can heed his mind reason and, the most important of all, his consciousness and attribute the formation of everything to a creator if he wants to do so. Another person can abandon his mind, reason and conscience, be stuck in his feelings and ideology and see everything as a work of coincidence and nature if he wants to do so.
What do you say about the claim that Big Bang does not prove the creation from nonexistence?
The quantum fluctuation is a unit of energy which matter achieves at a speed close to the speed of light. According to the formula e=mc², you achieve the matter if you stop the speed of the energy; you convert the matter into the energy if you make the matter reach the speed of the light.
Whether you discuss about the matter or the quantum which is a unit of energy, both are existing things indeed. There is a past for that existing thing that you discuss and a future time after it. The past before that quantum unit is nonexistence for it. At least, that quantum was not in existence in that physical world. Definitely, it may come into existence only through a chooser’s willing and taking it out of the world of nonexistence into the world of existence.
The second stage is that particle’s forming the universe by getting expanded. How will that happen? From where and how will the atoms which are the building stones of that wide universe come into existence from one particle? Definitely, they must have been taken from the world of nonexistence into the world of existence through will and predestination, planning and programming of a creator because expanding of that first particle means adding it new elements. Since those new elements had not existed in this world, they should have been created anew from nonexistence.
Regardless of their shapes and processes of coming into existence are, all being things have been taken into that world of existence from the world of nonexistence through the knowledge, will and power of a creator and they have been formed through His sphere of knowledge according to a certain plan and program.
Some expressions have confused my mind, how should we understand these expressions: “The creator of the car is Allah, The creator of the computer is Allah”? Could you please explain them?
We should understand from this these expressions: the one who created the raw materials of cars and computers is Allah. The inspirer of the advanced technology thereby who let them be made by humans is Allah.
As a matter of fact, this is clearly emphasized in the verse which narrates the words of Abraham, who addresses the people who made idols from stone and wood is as follows: "But Allah has created you and your handiwork!" (As-Saaffat, 37/96).
There are two similar approaches by scholars for the expression of the verse, “"But Allah has created you and your handiwork!":
Firstly, the pronoun “MA” appearing in the verse is masdariyya, which means infinitive. According to this, the meaning of the verse is as follows: “It is Allah who has created you and your actions” because, it is Allah who created all of your equipment; hands, feet, brain, power, in short all of your things. Thus, all of the things you will make with the equipment that was given by Allah actually belongs to Allah.
Secondly, “MA” appearing in the verse is mawsula (a relative pronoun) and the meaning of the verse is as follows: “It is Allah who has created you and the materials of the things you make.”
These two approaches are true and support each other. Accordingly, we can explain the meaning of the verse as follows:
“It is Allah who gives you the power of working and the materials of the things you make.”
For example, it is Allah who created the raw materials of a computer and let it have an ability of processing and recording; in short, it is Allah who both teaches the computer that information then lets it process them with mathematical codes ; it is also Allah who inspires humans how to make them through His assistance.
Though it is human who prefers and wants it to be made, the creator of it is Allah (SWT).
We can compare all things and works to it.
How did the current four blood groups emerge though Hz. Adam and Hz. Hawwa (Eve) had the same blood group?
How does the person who asks this question know thatHz. Adam and Hz. Hawwa (Eve) had the same blood group? Did he analyze their blood?
Each character in everybody is controlled by a pair of genes (two genes). One of these genes comes from the mother and the other from the father.
The genes that determine blood groups are A, B and 0 genes. These genes are present in an individual in one of the following combinations: AA, A0, BB, B0, AB and 00. The gene 0 has a recessive structure compared to A and B genes. Therefore, both AA genes and A0 genes form the blood group A. Similarly, both BB and B0 genes form the blood group B; BB genes form AB, and 00 genes form the blood group 0. In other words, in a person with the blood group A, the genes that form this blood group are AA or A0. If Hz. Adam had A0 and Hz. Hawwa had B0, the following situation would occur:
As it is seen in the diagram, if both Hz. Adam and Hz. Hawwa had the blood group B in heterozygous genetic structure, all four current blood groups would form from them.
What needs to be explained here is how the blood group A0 in Hz. Adam passed to Hz. Hawwa as B0. It is necessary to note that the creation of both Hz. Adam and Hz. Hawwa are not in compliance with the normal law of reproduction (from a mother and father).
Since this creation did not emerge from a mother and father in the sense that we know, it is impossible to apply the laws of Mendel here. Therefore, it is necessary to accept the transfer of the blood group A in Hz. Adam as the blood group B to Hz. Hawwa contrary to the laws of Mendel as normal. For, the first creation is in question here.
These kinds of questions will be asked one after another as long as events are attributed to coincidence and nature. In fact, it is necessary to view the events from the viewpoint of the power and endless knowledge of God Almighty. Then, it will be seen that the creation of all blood groups or the whole mankind will be as easy as the creation of one man or one blood group.
Adem Tatlı (Prof.Dr.)
Is studying at a university regarded as tahsil al-ilm (acquisition of knowledge/science)?
As you will accept, the phrase "learners of ilm (science/knowledge)" is a term used only for students. However, demanding science/knowledge is not limited with students in general; it includes teachers too. In that sense, every teacher is also "learner of ilm". For, a teacher cannot teach without searching and learning science. He also gets the reward of teaching.
Then, whether an academician is included in the class of "learners of ilm" is related to his fulfilling his duty properly or not.
As it is known, the duty of an academician is not only informing a student about the subjects he is interested in but also equipping him with the information he will need in life. It becomes possible by teaching him all kinds of knowledge and information useful for this world and the hereafter and trying to realize it and making it practical.
"Proclaim! (or Read!) in the name of thy Lord and Cherisher, Who created." (al-Alaq, 96/1)
In the first verse that was sent down, sciences are advised without categorization. The only condition is to read in the name of Allah.
In fact, all sciences remind us Allah; it is the duty of the teacher to open this window.
It is an indisputable fact that not only life in this world but also in the other world interest people.
Abdullah b. Amr b. As narrates: Once, Hz. Prophet (pbuh) saw two different groups form a circle in the mosque and said:
"Both groups are good. However, one of them is better than the other.
One group is praying to Allah and begging Him for their wishes. Allah will give them what they want if He wishes or will not give them.
As for the second group, they are learning fiqh and science and teaching what they know to those who do not know. Therefore, they are more virtuous. I was sent only as a teacher." Then, he sat near them. (Darimi, Muqaddima, 32).
As it is seen here, learning and teaching are shown to be together.
"Be a scholar or a learner or a listener; do not be the fourth; otherwise, you will be destroyed." (Ajluni, I/148)
In the hadith above, the virtue of being a teacher and a student is indicated.
That Hz. Prophet prayed as follows shows that science needs to be useful for both the world and the hereafter:
"O Allah, I ask You for beneficial knowledge, goodly provision and acceptable deeds." (Ibn Majah, Iqamah, 32)
"O Allah! I take refuge in you from the word that is not heeded, the deed that does not rise, the heart that does not fear/respect You and the knowledge that is not useful." (Ahmad b. Hanbal, III/192)
Since humanity need sciences like medicine, engineering, computing, sociology, psychology, psychiatry, business and administration, it is rewarding to help humanity through these sciences.
There is no doubt that the most honorable science is the one that makes man know Allah in the shortest way, places His greatness into hearts and opens a window from art to the Artist from boons to the Sustainer by showing His wonderful arts and boons. Primarily the sciences of aqaid (creed), which teaches the principles of belief, and the science of tafsir (interpretation of the Quran), hadith (the sayings of the Prophet) and fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) teach Allah and His orders and prohibitions.
The benefits of sciences like astronomy, geology, botany, gynecology, physics and chemistry in this sense are indisputable. The side effects here are the products of shabby ideas of those who misinterpret them and turn them into poison. The reason for this is having only one side. However, man, who was created for two worlds, has two important mechanisms. Those who do not satisfy both of them will be bound to be affected by hunger in terms of science and hence move to right and left and deviate as a result of the dizziness caused by this hunger.
The light of consciousness is religious sciences. The light of the mind is modern sciences. Reality becomes manifest when they unite. With those two wings, the effort of the student flies. When they disunite, bigotry emerges in the former and doubt in the latter. (see B. Said Nursi, Münazarat)
Therefore, religious sciences need to be studied together with modern sciences lest bigotry and doubt should occur.
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What does dying as a learner of ilm (science) gain us? How does Azrail come to take our life? How can a person be a learner of science?
Will you give information about the scientific reason for the differences of human faces and the faces of the other beings among themselves and the wisdom behind this creation?
Let us think what comes to the mind when we say "complexion". Complexion includes elements like eyes, eyebrows, ears, nose, lips, cheek, forehead, chin, mustache, beard and skin. Is that all? Of course not. It is necessary to deal with each of them separately. For instance, when we deal with the skin, we see that some the skin colors of some people are dark, some are white, some are black and some are red. The skin does not consist of colors only. The appearance of the skin changes based on whether it is oily, dry, thin, thick, porous, etc. What gives the skin its shape is not the epidermis only; the muscular tissue and connective tissue under it, glands, bone form and many other factors should not be forgotten.
Almost everybody knows the role played by the growth hormone being secreted less or more in the formation of the chin structure.
Let us deal with the eyes, about which a lot of poems are written. When we say the eye, its color comes to the mind first; the roles played in the appearance of the color by the muscular tissue and connective tissue in the eye, factors like blood-vein structure and the color pigment called melanin are ignored. Besides, the place of the eye, its shape, size, etc plays roles in the formation of the eye.
Along with the mutual relationships of the factors in the structure of the face, structures in other parts of the body play their role in the formation of human complexion. If we take into consideration the factors like the secretion of the thyroid hormone and the effect of the place of the eye on the face, it will be seen that the human complexion occurs as a result of the operation of a very complex system.
It is clearly shown that trillions of face types can be created with the mechanisms operated at genetic level from two face (complexion) templates (Hz. Adam and Hz. Hawwa) in the world of causes. The information about the basic archetype (first example) of the complexion is encoded in DNA polymers, which have a special array called 'gene' like all the structures in our body.
There are two copies of genetic information of every trait in man; one of them comes from the mother and the other from the father. During cell reproduction, genes are folded with proteins and transmitted into daughter cells through regular, systematic structures called chromosomes. In each cell of man that contains a nucleus, there are 23 pairs (46) of chromosomes. In germ cells, 23 pairs of chromosomes are reduced to half through meiosis. In the first phase of the meiosis that takes place in germ cells, along with the number of chromosomes being reduced to half, the incident of genetic recombination called crossing-over, which plays a role in versatile, reproduction takes place. Any two of the millions of different alleles that form can unite during reproduction. For instance, a mother can transmit the first allele of her first chromosome to one of her children while she can transmit the second allele of the same chromosome to the other child.
Let us suppose that all chromosome pairs are different and that two different alleles that were active in the formation of all traits are located in two different chromosomes: If we consider it for all chromosomes, there is a possibility of the creation of 8.388.608 types of germ cells as a result of the division based on the formula of 223. The baby receives 23 chromosomes of different variations from its mother and 23 recombinant chromosomes of different variations from its father and has 46 chromosomes like its parents.
If we consider that each germ cell has the potential for forming a baby by uniting with a different germ cell, a maximum of 70.368.744.180.000 (about seventy trillion) types of babies can format genetic level. In other words, the possibility of the formation of two babies of the same complexion from the same mother and father is one in seventy trillion. According to the calculation of genetic variability produced by crossing-over mechanism only, without taking into account the anatomical and physiological changes in the period of embryonic development, it is reasonable and normal, in terms of causes, for seventy trillion different complexions to form from the time of Hz. Adam up to now. We made a presupposition above that a property of the face was determined by only two different genes. However, it is a fact that more than two genes are active in the formation of a property. If we suppose that at least four genes, not two, are active in the determination of a property, the amount of genetic variability will increase to about one hundred and forty trillion.
In meiosis, not only chromosome pairs but also different genes on each chromosome can be transferred in various combinations. In crossing-over, as many chromosome types as the genes carried on a chromosome can be created.
Although different scientists have mentioned different numbers up to now, it is estimated that there are at least between 30.000 and 100.000 genes in the human genome. Let us suppose that there are about 6.000 genes on a chromosome and that each pair of chromosomes can have different alleles of the same gene (like brown eyes, blue eyes). It is impossible, but suppose that human genome is made up of only one pair of chromosomes, even then the number of haploid germ cells that can occur about with the recombination variability of the 6.000 genes it carries is 26.000. If we consider that the haploid genome actually includes 23 chromosomes, (26.000)23 types of gametes (germ cells) can theoretically be produced. If we think that the alleles of each gene change places mutually in crossing-over, a very huge amount of number of various germ cells that cannot be expressed can be created.
In addition, if we calculate the possibility of these haploid germ cells uniting the haploid germ cells of the same variability of the opposite gender, the number of the variability of the zygote (fertilized egg) will be too big to write in calculators. The number of the types of complexions from the time of Hz. Adam and Hz. Hawwa up to now will be very small compared to the number of the possibility of the types of complexions that can form. If we take into account that the germ cells in genetic variability unite in different combinations, it is possible to create types of human complexions hundreds of times more than the people that lived and that will live. In this genetic level, the first biologic operation is the one that works in the production of variability.
Furthermore, the reading and usage frequency of the special recombinant genes can change in the fetus that is formed with the development of the zygote. While the product (enzyme) of one of the allele genes whose duties are to produce colors can cause the formation of the brown color, the product of the other allele can play a role in the formation of the blue color. This second mechanism, which is known as the reading and usage preference and frequency of alleles, is the cause of the additional variability.
In conclusion, we can say that our complexions are different fortunately. If there were people of the same complexions around us, there would be confusions and we would not be able to establish healthy relationships with one another. Since those confusions do not occur, it means there is an order, measurement and wisdom in the creation of complexions.
The similarities in the human complexions that clearly show the manifestations of oneness in the unity and the differences in the similarities, and the complexion seals peculiar to each individual are clear signs for the existence, oneness, Lordship and Compassion of Allah.