Will you give information about the "Miller-Urey Experiment", which is shown as evidence for evolution?
Submitted by on Sat, 01/06/2019 - 14:48
Dear Brother / Sister,
Stanley Miller showed that some amino acids could be synthesized by combining the gases considered as the gas composition of the primitive atmosphere.
In 1953, Stanley Miller, who was a chemistry student, solved methane, ammonia and hydrogen in water and exposed them to electrical discharge by putting them in a glass balloon.
Miller used energy sources and the mixtures that were supposed to be found in the world at that time. In addition to ultraviolet rays, Miller accepted lightning, that is, electrical discharge, occurring as a result of atmospheric movements as a source of energy. In addition to many compounds, three amino acids found in nature formed within 24 hours in this experiment. They are glycine, asparagine and alanine.
The Criticism of Stanley Miller Experiment
Miller's experiment is criticized in several ways.
1. The crucial part of Miller's tools is the cold trap. This structure served to collect the products that originated from chemical reactions. If he had not used a cold trap, those amino acids would have been destroyed by electric sparks. However, a means similar to this protector of Miller did not exist on the primordial earth. 1-3
2. After 1980, the literature showed that the first world conditions were not a homogeneous mixture of metal, rock and ice, and that the first atmosphere did not consist of methane, ammonia and hydrogen. Recent studies indicate that the world was very hot at first and that it consisted of a mixture of molten nickel and iron. It is generally believed that there was a mixture of nitrogen, carbon dioxide and water vapor in the atmosphere at that time. However, they are not as suitable as ammonia and methane for the formation of organic molecules. 4
3. Stanley Miller did not use oxygen in his experiment, assuming that there was no oxygen in the first atmosphere. For, oxygen prevents the formation of amino acids due to oxidation. However, oxygen is released from water and carbon dioxide as a result of photolysis. Water and carbon dioxide are decomposed by the effect of ultraviolet ray. Because there was no ozone (O3) layer in the first atmosphere, it is assumed that an adequate amount of ultraviolet light reached the earth.
The explanation of photolysis with a formula:
H2O + UV photon è OH- + H+
OH- + OH- è H2O + O=
CO2 + UV photon è CO + O=
4. All proteins present in the body are levo (left handed) amino acids. No dextro (right-handed) amino acid has been seen in any living being so far. Stanley Miller's experiment yielded both levo and dextro amino acids. However, dextro amino acids spoil the living structure and its function.
The issue of how life first occurred on earth has been a matter of debate for many years. There is no explanation that satisfies everyone even today.
That "living things arose from non-living things spontaneously and by chance" was commonly accepted for centuries. That is, living things arose from non-living things spontaneously without needing a mother and a father. Greek philosophers that lived Before Christ like Thales, Anaximander and Xenophanes believed that this view was true. According to them, plant lice originated from the dew on the plants, and frogs originated from mud at the bottom of the puddles.
This is called "Abiogenesis Theory". Francisco Redi showed that worms did not occur on meat covered with something because flies could not lay eggs there. After that, it was understood that a living thing could originate only from another living thing. However, it still remains unclear how the first living thing occurred.
The "Heterotroph Hypothesis" is proposed in relation to the emergence of the first living being. According to this hypothesis, the world was warmer than today millions of years ago. There was hot water in the oceans. The sun's rays were more severe than today. Since there was no free oxygen, ultraviolet rays reached the earth. Electrical discharge and volcanic eruptions occurred frequently in the atmosphere. Simple organic compounds were produced in the oceans from substances such as NH3, H2, CO2, which were present in the atmosphere.
A living being formed spontaneously from one of these substances “by chance”. Some other living beings originated from it by chance. It is chance (coincidence) that planned and conducted all incidents in the Heterotroph Hypothesis.
If such an explanation related to the emergence of the first living being satisfies you, the first living thing occurred in this way. If such an explanation does not satisfy you, let me quote an explanation given by an evolutionist biologist. This biologist states exactly the following about how the first living things emerged in the textbook:
“Living beings found a way to the earth somehow.”
If you are not satisfied with it, there is no other explanation that science and biology can offer you. Besides, science world has satisfied itself with this scenario for two hundred years. You have to believe in this explanation related to the emergence of the first living being for the time being.
This scenario about the formation of the first living being was put into practice by Stanley Miller, a chemistry student, in 1953. Miller put methane, ammonia and hydrogen gas, which are accepted to have existed in the primordial atmosphere, into a glass balloon and exposed it to electrical discharge. As a result, along with several compounds, three amino acids that exist in nature emerged. They are glycine, asparagine and alanine.
Acting upon this, they claim that the gases in the atmosphere combined to form amino acids, that amino acids combined coincidentally to form proteins, that proteins combined coincidentally to form the structure called coacervate soup in the seas, and that this coacervate produced the first living thing coincidentally.
Could a soup form spontaneously or coincidentally if the ingredients were ready? You can try it at home if you want. For example, you can prepare all the ingredients of the lentil soup and put it on the kitchen counter. Then you need to wait for the soup to form by chance. It will take place in the course of time. For, the most magical thing here is time. It will happen in a very long time.
The reason why man cannot see such coincidental things is his short life. Do not starve by depending on the soup that will occur by chance. Fill your stomach with something else and wait for the chance soup. For, the advocates of the theory of evolution insistently tell us that all the coincidental things will occur spontaneously when given enough time.
If you say that there must be someone to make the soup, this view will not be accepted by evolutionists because they will say it is not scientific.
How is it possible for a living cell, in which a realm is virtually placed, to form by chance though even a soup does not form spontaneously by chance?
A scientific explanation about how complex and conscious living beings emerged from simple molecules on their own has not been made up to now. It is not possible to do it in the future either. For, if there is a work, there must be its master. It is not a scientific approach to attribute the existence of something to chance and to nature or to claim that it came into being spontaneously by rejecting its doer or master. It is the view of atheism, that is, materialist philosophy based on irreligiousness. It is an ideological attitude, not a scientific one, to insist that the first living thing and other living things emerged based on such a philosophical view. Such ideological thoughts should not be taught under the name of science.
Since there is no life and vitality in the atoms and elements that make up the human, the trait of life that does not exist in an atom will not exist in groups of atoms according to the rule, "Something that does not exist in an individual will not exist in the group.” In other words, the traits of life in man come to him from outside, from a living body. Just like the gleams on water droplets in the river come from the sun so too does man reflect the names and attributes of Allah like a mirror. For example, some attributes like knowledge, possessions, power, hearing and vision that exist in man indicate His qualities. Man says, “I see some things; Allah sees everything. I own this house. Allah is the owner of the universe.” Thus, man understands and knows, to some extent, the meaning of Allah's attributes and names with his mind through the names and attributes that become manifest in him. Animals do not have these attributes; nor do they have mind and reason to evaluate them. For example, a sheep does not know that Allah has knowledge because it does not have the attribute of knowledge; nor does it have the mind to reason. This is what makes man superior to other beings. That is, man thinks logically with the mind in him and he has a position over all beings; thus, he becomes an addressee of Allah. He gains the attribute and rank of being the most honorable being. The value of man increases as he meditates on the purpose of creation and duties of the beings in the universe.
The qualification that makes man superior to the angels is his contemplation and meditation on the beings in the universe and his efforts to study and understand them. For, each one of the angels has a duty and is responsible for doing a deed of worship. One of them always stands while another is always in prostration. However, man can understand and do all kinds of deeds of worship. An angel cannot have the same pleasure and reach the same degree as man when man takes pleasure as his hunger is appeased or his thirst is quenched and when he thanks Allah. For, angels do not get hungry and thirsty. Therefore, an angel does not know the pleasure received when those are met; an angel’s thanking Allah regarding the issue cannot reach the level of man. For instance, an angel cannot know the manifestation of the name ash-Shafii (the Healer) of Allah. For, angels do not get ill. However, man appreciates the value of health after his illness and the being that gives him health more than the angels; he praises and thanks Him for it.
The ability and capacity to think and understand, which elevates man to such a rank, does not exist in elements and atoms. This feature becomes manifest in man only through life. Man reaches the rank that is superior to all beings through life, a very broad, comprehensive and general contemplation and thought that he has; he becomes an addressee of Allah, who is the Creator of the whole universe, due to his praise, thanking and worshipping.
The philosophy dominating today's scientific community is the materialist philosophy. This philosophy tries to explain everything with atoms and matter. However, it is not possible to explain the phenomenon of life with such a mechanistic and materialistic approach. For, the features of life, such as vision, hearing, taking pleasure, suffering, fury, mind, imagination, love and affection do not exist in the structure of atoms and molecules.
1. Bliss, R. B. and Parker, G. E. Origin of Life. California. 1979.
2. Demirsoy, A. Kalıtım ve Evrim. Meteksan Yay. No.11. Ankara. 1984.
3. Miller, S.L. Production of Amino Acids Under Possible Primitive Earth Conditions. Science, 1953, V ol.117.
4. Gribbin, J. Carbon Dioxide, Ammonia and Life. New Scientist. Vol.94. May 13. 1982, p.143.
Questions on Islam
- Is the genetic similarity between humans and apes 98%? Can this similarity be a proof for evolution?
- Will you give information about the book, ‘Science and Creationism’ published by National Academy of Sciences (US)? It is said that this book proves evolution definitely.
- Can living cells be produced in laboratories?
- What is the Essence of Kenneth Miller’s Court about Evolution?
- Purposefulness and Coincidence
- Can DNAs not be shown as the unique reason for the harmony among the living beings as long as there are adequate conditions? Is it not possible that life may have existed after the coincidental formation of the first DNAs?
- Do environmental conditions change the genetic structures of beings?
- What are the Evidences of Existence of Allah? How can we prove the Existence of Allah?
- If the sky is a well-guarded canopy, why are living beings harmed by meteorites?
- Nowadays, some people who do not believe utter statements like the following: "Since you created the whole universe, show me a miracle so that I will believe in you." How should we answer them?