A short explanation about Friday prayer and sermon

There are detailed explanations about Friday prayer and sermon in fiqh books. 

We want to mention Friday prayer and manners sermon briefly to give our readers some short information.

Friday prayer being fard

In the religion of Islam, the first Friday prayer was rendered fard during the migration of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) in the mosque of Banu Salim in the land of Salim Ibn Awf near Madinah.  

It is definite by the Book, Sunnah and consensus that Friday prayer is fard. All madhhab imams unanimously agree on it.

The following is stated in verse 9 of the chapter of Jumua:

"O ye who believe! When the call is proclaimed to prayer on Friday (the Day of Assembly), hasten earnestly to the Remembrance of Allah, and leave off business (and traffic): that is best for you if ye but knew."

With this divine order, Friday prayer is fard for those who have its conditions.

Some important information about Friday prayer

1. Friday prayer is not fard for women and travelers.
2. If a person who does not have one of the conditions of performing Friday prayer performs Friday prayer, it replaces the noon prayer of that day. 
3. A person who is a traveler can lead Friday prayer.
4. It is not permissible to perform Friday prayer in a place that is open for some people and closed for others; for, such a place is not open to public. 
5. It is not permissible to perform Friday prayer as qada (to perform it after its time ends).
6. There must be a congregation of at least two or three people except the imam. 
7. In a town, Friday prayer can be performed in several places.
8. Friday prayer was rendered fard before the Islamic state was founded. Therefore, it is not necessary for a country or town to be an Islamic state or the laws of shari'ah to be applied in that country or town for Friday prayer to be performed. It must be performed.
9. Due to the disagreements over the conditions of Friday prayer, a four-rak'ah prayer called the last noon prayer (zuhr al-akhir) is performed like the fard or sunnah prayer of the noon prayer after Friday prayer. It is more virtuous to perform it like the sunnah prayer of the noon prayer.  
10. Two-rak'ah prayer that is performed as the sunnah of the time can be performed as qada of a missed morning prayer.

To sum up, Friday prayer consists of 10 rak'ahs. Two rak'ahs of fard and eight rak'ahs of sunnah prayers (four rak'ahs before and four rak'ahs after the fard prayer). It is rewarding and virtuous to perform the extra six rak'ahs mentioned above; one should not miss them.

Manners of sermon (khutba)

Khutba (sermon) is delivered before the fard prayer of Friday prayer and after eid prayers. Friday sermon is fard and eid sermons are sunnah.

The sermon has one essential part. It is mentioning Allah. This essential part is performed when the preacher says Alhamdulillah, Subhanallah, Lailaha illallah. It is more appropriate to lengthen it.

The conditions for the sermon to be valid

1. The sermon must be delivered within the time period for Friday prayer.
2. It must be delivered before the fard of Friday prayer.
3. It must be delivered with the intention of sermon.
4. It must be delivered in the presence of the congregation.
5. One must not be busy with anything between the sermon and the prayer.
6. It is better for the preacher (imam) who delivers the sermon to lead Friday prayer.

Wajibs of the sermon

1. To be careful about cleanliness.
2. To be careful about covering the parts of the body that need to be covered.
3. To deliver the sermon while standing.

Sunnahs of the sermon

1. To listen to the adhan.
2. The adhan needs to be called in the presence of the preacher.
3. To divide the sermon into two.
4. To start both sermons by praising Allah.
5. To preach and to give advice to the Muslims.
6. To pray (say dua) in the second sermon.
7. To read both parts of kalima ash-shahadah.
8. Not to lengthen the sermon.
9. To deliver the sermon with a voice that can be heard easily.
10. To sit between the two sermons.
11. To wear black.
12. Some items that are sunnah in Hanafi madhhab are fard in Shafii madhhab. 
13. Therefore, if sunnahs are performed, the views of both madhhabs will be fulfilled.

How is the sermon delivered?

1) The preacher arrives at the entrance of the pulpit, puts his right foot on the first step and reads the following prayer silently:
 

اَللَّهُمَّافْتَحْعَلَيْنَااَبْوَابَرَحْمَتِكَوَيَسِّرْعَلَيْنَاخَزَائِنَفَضْلِكَوَكَرَمِكَيَااَكْرَمَاْلاَكْرَمِينَ

 وَيَااَرْحَمَالرَّاحِمِينَ*

2) He stands on the third step and reads the following prayer silently:

 

رَبِّاشْرَحْلِيصَدْرِيوَيَسِّرْلِيأَمْرِيوَاحْلُلْعُقْدَةًمِنْلِسَانِييَفْقَهُواقَوْلِي*

 

رَبِّقَدْآتَيْتَنِيمِنَالْمُلْكِوَعَلَّمْتَنِيمِنْتَأْوِيلِاْلاَحَادِيثِ*

 

 رَبِّزِدْنِيعِلْمًاوَفَهْمًاوَاَلْحِقْنِيبِالصَّالِحِينَ*

 

3) He reads the following prayer silently on the seventh step:
 

اَللَّهُمَّهَذَاالشَّانُلَيْسَبِشَانِي* وَهَذَاالْمَكَانُلَيْسَبِمَكَانِي*

 

اَللَّهُمَّيَسِّرْلِياَمْرِيوَتَقَبَّلْهُمِنِّي* وَسَلاَمٌعَلَىجَمِيعِاْلاَنْبِيَاءِوَالْمُرْسَلِينَ*

 

 وَالْحَمْدُلِلَّهِرَبِّالْعَالَمِينَ*

4) He turns toward the congregation and sits; after listening to the adhan, he stands up and reads the following sermon: 
 

اَلْحَمْدُلِلّٰهِرَبِّاْلعَالَمِينَوَالصَّلاَةُوَالسَّلاَمُعَلٰىرَسُولِنَامُحَمَّدٍوَعَلٰىاٰلِهِوَاَصْحَابِه۪أَجْمَعِينَنَشْهَدُأَنْلاَإِلٰهَإِلاَّاللّٰهُوَحْدَهُلَاشَر۪يكَلَهُوَنَشْهَدُأَنَّمُحَمَّدًا

 

عَبْدُهُوَرَسُولُهُ. أَمَّابَعْدُفَيَاعِبَادَاللّٰهِاِتَّقُوااللّٰهَوَأَطِيعُوهُإِنَّاللّٰهَمَعَالَّذِينَاتَّقَوْاوَالَّذِينَهُمْمُحْسِنُونَ 

 

قَالَاللّٰهُتَعَالٰىف۪يكِتَابِهِالْكَر۪يمِ

 

أَعُوذُبِاللّٰهِمِنَالشَّيْطَانِالرَّجِيمِبِسْمِاللّٰهِالرَّحْمٰنِالرَّحِيمِ

 

5) He reads a verse and hadiths that are relevant to the topic of the sermon; he preaches briefly and gives advice to the congregation in the light of the verse and hadiths. He tries to inform the congregation about the realities of belief and the Quran. If the text of the sermon very long, he chooses and reads the most important parts. "The beautiful speech is the short one." Long sermons disturb the congregation and decrease the number of the people. Concise sermons are more influential. When the sermon ends, the preacher reads the following:

 

اَلاَ اِنَّ اَحْسَنَ الْكَلَامِ وَاَبْلَغَ النِّظَامِ كَلَامُ اللَّهِ الْمَلِكِ الْعَزِيزِ الْعَلاَّمِ*

 
كَمَا قَالَ اللَّهُ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى فِى الْكَلاَمِ* وَاِذَا قُرِأَ الْقُرْآنُ فَاسْتَمِعُوا لَهُ وَاَنْصِتُوا لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُونَ*
 

اَعُوذُ بِاللَّهِ مِـنَ الشَّيْطَانِ الرَّجِيــمِ* بِسْــــمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيـمِ* اِنَّ الدِّينَ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ اْلاِسْلاَمِ*
 

صَدَقَ اللَّهُ الْعَظِيمْ*

 

6) Thus, the first sermon ends and the preacher sits. When he sits, he reads the following prayer silently:

 

بَارَكَاللَّهلَنَاوَلَكُمْوَلِسَائِرِالْمُؤْمِنِينَوَالْمُؤْمِنَاتِ* وَالْمُسْلِمِينَوَالْمُسْلِمَاتِ*

 

 اَلْاَحْيَاءِمِنْهُمْوَاْلاَمْوَاتِ* اِنَّهُسَمِيعٌقَرِيبٌمُجِيبُالدَّعَوَاتِ*

 

7) When he finishes reading the prayer, he stands up and reads the following second sermon:

 

اَلْحَمْدُلِلَّهِحَمْدَالْكَامِلِينَوَالصَّلَاةُوَالسَّلَامُعَلَىرَسُولِنَامُحَمَّدٍوَعَلَىآلِهِوَصَحْبِهِاَجْمَعِينَ*
 

 تَعْظِيمًالِنَبِيِّهِوَتَكْرِيمًالِصَفِيِّهِ*
 

فَقَالَعَزَّوَجَلَّمِنْقَائِلٍمُخْبِرًاوَآمِرًا* اِنَّاللَّهَوَمَلَئِكَتَهُيُصَلُّونَعَلَىالنَّبِيِّ*
 

 يَااَيُّهَاالَّذِينَآمَنُواصَلُّواعَلَيْهِوَسَلِّمُواتَسْلِيمًا*

8) After reading this verse, he reads the supplications of "Allahumma salli" and " Allahumma barik". Then, he opens his hands and reads the following prayer:   

 

اَللَّهُمَّصَلِّعَلَىمُحَمَّدٍوَعَلَىآلِمُحَمَّدٍكَمَاصَلَّيْتَعَلَىاِبْرَاهِيمَوَعَلَىآلِاِبْرَاهِيمَاِنَّكَحَمِيدٌمَجِيدٌ*

 

وَبَارِكْعَلَىمُحَمَّدٍوَعَلَىآلِمُحَمَّدٍكَمَابَارَكْتَعَلَىاِبْرَاهِيمَوَعَلَىآلِاِبْرَاهِيمَاِنَّكَحَمِيدٌمَجِيدٌ*

 

اَللَّهُمَّوَارْضَعَنِاْلاَرْبَعَةِالْخُلَفَاءِ* سَيِّدِنَااَبِىبَكْرٍوَعُمَرَوَعُثْمَانَوَعَلِىٍّذَوِىالصِّدْقِوَالْوَفَاءِوَبَقِيَّةِالْعَشَرَةِ

 

الْمُبَشَّرَةِوَآلِبَيْتِالْمُصْطَفَىوَعَنِاْلاَنْصَارِوَالْمُهَاجِرِينَوَالتَّابِعِينَاِلَىيَوْمِالْجَزَاءِ*

 

اَللَّهُمَّاغْفِرْلِلْمُؤْمِنِينَوَالْمُؤْمِنَاتِوَالْمُسْلِمِينَوَالْمُسْلِمَاتِاْلاَحْيَاءِمِنْهُمْوَاْلاَمْوَاتِ

 

 بِرَحْمَتِكَيَااَرْحَمَالرَّاحِمِينَ*

 

اَللَّهُمَّانْصُرِالْإِسْلاَمَوَالْمُسْلِمِينَ* اَللَّهُمَّاَيِّدْكَلِمَةَالْحَقِّوَالدِّينِ*

 

9) Thus, the sermon ends. The preacher reads the following verse and steps down from the pulpit to lead Friday prayer:

 

عِبَادَاللَّهِ* إِتَّقُوااللَّهَوَاَطِيعُوهُ* اَعُوذُبِاللَّهِمِـنَالشَّيْطَانِالرَّجِيــمِ* بِسْــــمِاللَّهِالرَّحْمَـنِالرَّحِيـمِ*

 

 اِنَّاللَّهَيَأْمُرُبِالْعَدْلِوَاْلإِحْسَانِوَاِيتَاءِذِىالْقُرْبَىوَيَنْهَىعَنِالْفَحْشَاءِوَالْمُنْكَرِوَالْبَغْيِ*

 

 يَعِظُكُمْلَعَلَّكُمْتَذَكَّرُونَ*

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