In Arabic, Jumua (Friday) means to come together, to gather.
Friday is a very important day for Muslims. Muslims come together in the mosque on Friday and perform Friday prayer in congregation. This worship performed in congregation elevates this day to the value of the day of eid.
Therefore, Friday is also called Sayyidu'l-ayyam, that is, the Lord of the days.
It is reported that good incidents took place on Friday and that many holy events happened on Friday throughout history.
The following is stated in a hadith:
"The best day on which the sun has ever risen is Friday. Adam was created on Friday, was sent to Paradise on that day and was sent out of Paradise on that day. Doomsday will strike on Friday..."
Contrary to what many people think, it is not haram to work and to be busy with good and useful things on Friday. The prohibition of working is valid at the time of Friday prayer. It is permissible to work and to buy and sell outside the time of Friday prayer. Besides, Muslims are ordered in the verse to disperse through the earth to seek sustenance.
What is the Decree about the Sermon (Khutbah)?
Friday sermon is fard. Friday prayer is not valid without a sermon.
Two sermons are recited. In the first sermon, believers are preached and given advice; in the second sermon, dua (supplication/prayer) is uttered for all Muslims. Allah is praised and His Messenger is greeted in both sermons.
There are two fards of Friday sermon:
1 - The time for the prayer has to start. The sermon is recited after the time for the noon prayer starts. It is not permissible to recite it before its time or after the prayer.
2 - It is necessary to mention or to praise and glorify Allah in the sermon. They have to be done with intention of sermon.
It is necessary not to intervene between the sermon and the prayer through anything.
The Sunnahs of Friday Sermon are as follows:
1 - The sermon should be recited standing. It is permissible to recite the sermon by sitting or leaning on something but it is contrary to the sunnah.
2 - The preacher (khatib) should face the congregation when he ascends to the pulpit.
3 - The adhan should be called in the presence of the preacher.
4 - To start the first sermon by praising Allah.
5 - To recite the sermon aloud.
6 - To utter kalima ash-shahada and salawat for the Prophet.
7 - To give useful advice to Muslims about their world and the hereafter.
8 - To utter audhu basmala and recite a verse. To recite one long verse or three short verses.
9 - To divide the sermon into two and sit for a while between the two sermons. To sit long enough to read three verses.
10 - To start the second sermon by praising Allah and uttering salawat like the first sermon.
11 - To pray for believers in the second sermon.
12 - To recite short sermons. It is makruh to recite long sermons. The following is stated in a hadith:
"Lengthen the prayer and shorten the sermon. Doubtlessly, some words fascinate hearts like magic." Thus, the sermon needs to be concise and eloquent. When we examine the sermons of the Prophet, we can see these properties easily.
We must not talk to anybody when the sermon is uttered. We must not say anything; we must not even gesture for a person who is speaking to keep quiet. It is necessary to keep silent as if one is performing a prayer and to listen to the preacher.
The Messenger of Allah stated the following regarding the issue:
"If a person says, "keep quiet" to his friend while the sermon is being recited, he is regarded to have spoken and to have broken the silence. The Friday prayer of a person who breaks the silence while the sermon is being recited has no virtue."
It is necessary to turn one's face to the preacher while listening to the sermon; one should not turn his face to the right and left, and look around.
* A person who enters the mosque while the imam is about to ascend to the pulpit on Friday sits down and waits. He performs the first sunnah of the prayer after performing the fard of Friday prayer.
If a person starts to perform the sunnah prayer before the imam stands up to ascend to the pulpit and the imam starts the sermon while he is performing the sunnah of Friday prayer, he needs to perform only two rak'ahs and listen to the sermon. If the sermon starts after he has performed the second rak'ah, he needs to hurry and perform four rak'ahs.
* Friday prayer is not fard for women and travelers but if they perform Friday prayer, it is regarded as their noon (zuhr) prayer. They do not have to perform the noon prayer. As a matter of fact, the same thing is valid for the Muslims who live in dar al-harb. Friday prayer is not fard for them but if they come together and perform Friday prayer, it is regarded as their noon prayer.
* It is makruh for those who do not perform Friday prayer to perform the noon prayer in congregation.
Those who do not perform Friday prayer should perform the noon prayer after the Muslims perform Friday prayer. It is sunnah. It is makruh for those who do not perform Friday prayer to perform the noon prayer before Friday prayer is performed in a town.
* Those who catch up with the imam in the tashahhud or sajda as-sahw need to complete the prayer after the imam utters salutation.
* The qira'ah of Friday prayer has to be aloud. It is performed like the fard of the morning (fajr) prayer.
* A person who does not have enough time to make wudu in order to catch up with the imam for Friday prayer cannot make tayammum to perform it because if he misses Friday prayer, he can perform the noon prayer instead of it. However, he can make tayammum for eid and janazah prayers because there are no prayers to replace them if they are missed.
* Whatever invalidates a prayer also invalidates Friday prayer. If the time for the noon prayer ends while performing Friday prayer, it is invalidated.
On Friday, Muslims come together and perform Friday prayer in congregation; they meet and see one another. It is necessary to pay attention to the following adab regarding the issue:
1 - Those who can should prepare for Friday prayer in the morning. This preparation includes cleaning, making wudu, wearing new and clean clothes, wearing perfume, going to the mosque early and solemnly.
The following is stated in hadiths regarding the issue:
"If a person who cleans his clothes, makes ghusl, goes to the mosque early, sits near the imam and listens to the imam, his sins between two Fridays, and three more days, are forgiven."
"On Friday, angels sit at the gate of the mosque and record those who come to the mosque early."
"There are three things that people would compete to obtain if they knew how virtuous they were: calling the adhan, performing fard prayers in the first line and going to the mosque early for Friday prayer."
2 - To make ghusl on Friday. It is all right if one makes ghusl in order to be purified of janabah. The following is stated in a hadith:
"It is nice to make wudu on Friday but it is nicer and more virtuous to make ghusl."
3 - To read the chapter of al-Kahf, ad-Duhan or Yasin or some other chapter before Friday prayer or Thursday night; if it is not possible, one can read any verses of the Quran.
It is a nice deed and virtuous act to adorn this holy day with the light of divine word (the Quran).
4 - When a person enters the mosque for Friday prayer, he should sit in a free place near the qiblah if the sermon has not started yet and to listen to the preacher very carefully when he starts to recite the sermon.
5 - When the preacher descends from the pulpit, those sitting between the pulpit and the mihrab should stand up to allow the preacher to proceed to the mihrab.
6 - To take lessons from the sermon recited by the preacher.
7 - It is mustahab to utter salawat a lot for the Prophet.
It is stated in hadith that salawat will be a means of forgiveness.
8 - It is mustahab to give sadaqah to the poor on Friday. The reward is doubled on Friday.
- What are the Sunnahs of Friday Sermon?
- A short explanation about Friday prayer and sermon
- Is it permissible to perform prayers when Friday sermon is delivered? Is it not fard to listen to Friday sermon?
- Is it makruh to start to perform the sunnah prayer on Friday while the second adhan is being called?
- Eid and Eid Prayers
- Is it permissible to perform sunnah prayers which are needed to be performed before fard after fard? For example, performing the sunnah of the fajr prayer after its fard in order to catch up with the jamaah (congregation).
- Is it permissible for a person who is late for Friday prayer to run to the mosque?
- If a person cannot perform the first sunnah of the noon prayer before the fard prayer, which one should he perform after the fard first; the first sunnah or the last sunnah? What should be the order like?
- Is Jumuah (Friday) prayer not fard (obligatory) for a musafir (traveler)? Should a person who is a musafir not perform the Friday prayer?
- What are the hadiths related to sunnah/nafilah prayers and their virtues?