Is it haram to do shopping/business at the time of Friday prayer?

The Answer

Dear Brother / Sister,

It becomes fard to hurry for Friday prayer when the second adhan is called at the time the preacher ascends the pulpit. According to the soundest view in Hanafis, it becomes fard to go to mosque after the first adhan is called though it did not exist during the time of the Prophet (pbuh) and it was introduced during the caliphate of Hz. Uthman.

According to Hanafis, it is makruh tahrimi and according to the majority of the fiqh scholars, it is haram to miss Friday prayer by doing shopping and similar things like renting, making peace and handcrafts. According to the majority of the fiqh scholars, this haram starts when adhan starts to be called in front of the preacher. For, in that case, missing Friday prayer is in question. As a matter of fact, Allah states the following regarding the issue: "When the call is proclaimed to prayer on Friday (the Day of Assembly), hasten earnestly to the Remembrance of Allah, and leave off business (and traffic)." There is nass about the prohibition of buying and selling at that time. The things other than buying and selling are likened to it, whether there is a deal or not. For, all of them prevent a person from doing what is desired, that is performing Friday prayer. (1)

Shafiis add the following: "It is makruh to buy and sell and to do similar things after zawal and before adhan on Friday."

According to Hanbalis (2), it is not makruh to do things like renting, making peace and marriage except buying and selling at the time of Friday prayer. For, the prohibition in the verse is related to buying and selling only. The other things are not equal to buying and selling in terms of keeping a person busy and preventing him from going to Friday prayer. For, they are things that happen rarely. Therefore, it is not appropriate to compare them with buying and selling.

The prohibition of buying and selling and hurrying for Friday prayer are valid for those who are obliged to perform Friday prayer. Such a prohibition is not in question for women, children and travelers, for whom Friday prayer is not fard. 

Is shopping done during the time of Friday prayer valid or is it invalid and needs to be annulled? (3) According to Hanafis, shopping done during the time of Friday prayer is valid but it is makruh tahrimi. For, according to them, stopping shopping is not because of shopping itself but because of listening to the sermon. The view of Shafiis is similar: shopping is valid but haram.

According to Malikis, this shopping is invalid; according to the widespread view, it is annulled. Hanbalis say this shopping is not valid.
The reason why scholars have different views regarding the issue is whether the prohibition of something which is originally permissible due to a limitation because of an attribute in the prohibition causing the prohibited thing invalid makes it valid or not.

According to many scholars, all of the things done during the time of Friday prayer are haram.

However, this prohibition and the obligation to stop shopping and to go to mosque are valid for those who are obliged to perform Friday prayer. Such a prohibition is not in question for women, children and travelers, for whom Friday prayer is not fard. It is permissible for them to do shopping at that time.

It is makruh for the people who are obliged to perform Friday prayer to do any worldly deed during the time of Friday prayer. The mujtahids who regard it makruh tahrimi are in majority. According to what Ibn Abidin and Qasani write, a shopping that causes a person to miss Friday prayer and the sermon is makruh tahrimi. (4)

1- ad-Durrul-Mukhtar, I, 770; al-Badayi', I, 270; Bidayatul-Mujtahid, 1,160, II, 167; al-Qawaninul-Fiqhiyya, 31; al-Muhadhdhab, I, 110; Hashiyatud-Dusuki, I, 386; Mughnil-Muhtaj, I, 25 ff.
2 - al-Mughni,II, 297 ff.
3- Tabsiratul–Hukkam, Ibn Farhun bi-Hamish Fathil-Ali, II, 378; ash-Sharhu’s Saghir, I, 514.
4-Raddul-Muhtar, 1. 552; Badayius-Sanayi, 1: 270

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