How can people benefit from "dark energy" with the development of science? Does the Quran give any clues about this issue?

The Answer

Dear Brother / Sister,

2.METAPHYSICAL REALM IN UNDERSTANDING THE CREATION

2.1.LUMINOSITY AND QUANTUM REALM*

2.1.1.Matter, Energy and Luminosity

The physical world that we know consists of energy. In the first phases of the big bang that is estimated to have taken place 13.7 billion years ago, there was only energy. In that phase, everything was inside everything; and it was not possible to talk of taking up volume. In the fractions of the first second of the big bang, elementary particles like quark and gluon formed as a result of the sharp fall in temperature and the condensation of energy; then, protons and neutrons formed as a result of their combination. The formation of the electrons and the transformation of the most of the particles into energy again as a result of the matter-antimatter interaction took place in the first second. The temperature fell to one billion degrees in the first minutes and some protons and neutrons combined to form the nucleus of helium. However, most of the protons continued to exist as hydrogen nuclei. According to the calculations, 379 thousand years after the big bang, the nuclei and the electrons combined to form atoms (mostly hydrogen); matter and energy started to disintegrate. The energy that was not transformed into matter due to some wisdom continued to exist as cosmic background radiation.1

Matter is a condensed form of energy; and matter and energy can be transformed into each other as it is stated by the famous formula of Einstein: E = mc2.

Matter consists of molecules; molecules consist of atoms and atoms consist of subatomic particles like electrons, protons and neutrons. Matter is a condensed form of energy; and matter and energy can be transformed into each other as it is stated by the famous formula of Einstein: E = mc2. It can even be said that matter is a condensed form of energy, which has lost its subtlety. Two basic properties of matter are as follows: it has mass and it takes up space. Therefore, matter is defined as ‘anything that has mass and takes up space’. Matter and energy are physical beings; both are subject to laws of physics; both can be observed and measured. However, unlike matter, energy (like the light from the sun) does not take up space and it has no fixed mass (it has the equivalent mass calculated by the formula of energy: E = mc2). That is, unlike condensed matter, energy is a subtle being that has no mass and that does not take up space on its own. However, as a physical being, it is subject to some limitations – for instance, the speed of electromagnetic radiation cannot exceed the speed of light.

Quantum theory is dominant in the subatomic world and Einstein’s theory of relativity is dominant in the supra-atomic world

Matter and energy are two components of the same whole and they are virtually sources of each other. In the sun, matter constantly turns to energy and the solar energy travels to the world in the form of heat and light with a speed of 300 thousand kilometers per second. That is, matter turns to something that has no mass and that does not take up space (antimatter) and travels at a speed that matter can never reach. Then, it can be said that matter and energy that form the visible, physical world and whose existence are certain through observations are not the same kind of beings. One of them is condensed and the other is subtle. The subtle things are beyond time and space to a certain extent; subtle things are also called half-luminous things. If there exists the state of subtlety or half-luminosity, which is a state of being partly conditional, then, there exists the state of full luminosity and nur, which is an extension of that state and the state of being completely free from the conditions of time and space.

Luminosity is dominant in the subatomic level in the beings and density is dominant in the supra-atomic level. For instance, both the place and speed of the tennis ball, which is a supra-atomic condensed being, can be measured with precision. However, the speed and place of the electron, which is a subatomic subtle being, cannot be determined. If its speed is certain, its place is not certain. That is, it is either nowhere or it can be anywhere. It can even be in two different places.

Then, it is necessary to classify beings in a scale of subtlety-density beginning from full luminosity to full density and to regard beings as a combination of nur and matter. It is certain through observations that luminosity is dominant in the subatomic level in the beings and density is dominant in the supra-atomic level. For instance, both the place and speed of the tennis ball, which is a supra-atomic condensed being, can be measured with precision. However, the speed and place of the electron, which is a subatomic subtle being, cannot be determined. If its speed is certain, its place is not certain. That is, it is either nowhere or it can be anywhere. It can even be in two different places. However, the probability of the electron to be in some places is higher; and this probability distribution is expressed in the form of a wave function. This phenomenon is known as ‘the Heisenberg uncertainty principle’ in physics. That is why the quantum theory is dominant in the subatomic world and Einstein’s theory of relativity is dominant in the supra-atomic world; and a theory to combine those two theories has not been put forward yet despite all efforts. Some phenomena were tried to be explained by some approaches like non-physical parallel universe or multi universe but it has not been possible to reach a conclusion because the concept of illumination was not put forward clearly.

The dilemma of particle-wave property in the subatomic world is one of the cornerstones of the quantum mechanics. That is, electrons and other subatomic particles sometimes act like a particle and sometimes like a wave. Then, it can be said that subatomic particles are neither particles nor waves.

The subatomic particle neutrino, which is much smaller than the electron, is so far away from being dense that it is virtually between existence and non-existence; and it is difficult to measure it.

We imagine the electron as a particle but it is also a wave – just like electromagnetic waves. The wave property of the electron is seen clearly in interference experiments. That is why the dilemma of particle-wave property in the subatomic world is one of the cornerstones of the quantum mechanics. That is, electrons and other subatomic particles sometimes act like a particle and sometimes like a wave. Then, it can be said that subatomic particles are neither particles nor waves because they are different properties.For instance, the sound spreads in the air as a wave; the bullet from a gun moves as a piece of mass. The opposites of them are not possible. Similarly, a fruit cannot be an apple and a pear at the same time. If it can be, then, that fruit is neither an apple nor a pear. Then, subatomic particles must be such things that they should be able to be manifest in two opposite characteristics – both as waves and particles). That can only be achieved by keeping away from density, that is, by being close to luminosity.

A similar argument can be presented for light, which is generally an electromagnetic wave but which also shows the property of particle (photon). The subatomic particle neutrino, which is much smaller than the electron, is so far away from being dense that it is virtually between existence and non-existence; and it is difficult to measure it. It will be seen that the particle of Higgs, also known as ‘the god particle’, whose existence is tried to be proved in the experiments of CERN, is closer to luminosity due to its smallness – if it can be measured.

Unlike the dense beings like tables and chairs that are made of matter, subtle beings made of energy (for instance, light) have no mass and they do not take up space. They settle where there are other things. As a matter of fact, there are hundreds of broadcasts in the same point in the form of electromagnetic energy in the air but there is no jam. All of them travel through one another with a speed of 300 thousand km per second. That is, they can travel round the world a few times in a second and they can virtually be everywhere at the same time. Similarly, a lamp is something that has mass and that takes up space; therefore, it is dense. However, the light coming from the lamp has no mass; it does not take up space and it has no certain place – it is virtually everywhere. However, the intensity of the light decreases as it moves away from the lamp.

Most of the universe that we live in is not in a physical state but is known scientifically; it can only be seen through the eye of the mind.

The closest form of matter to luminosity is probably dark matter and the closest form of energy to luminosity is dark energy because dark matter and dark energy exist scientifically but they have not been observed experimentally. Calculations show that it is impossible for the force of gravity that keeps the stars in galaxies together to be realized by the mass that is seen. Then, a kind of unseen matter called “dark matter” must be providing additional force of gravity. Dark matter does not give, absorb and reflect light. It does not consist of electrons, protons and neutrons. Besides, the observations of the Hubble Telescope in 1998 showed that the expansion of the space does not slow down due to the force of gravity; on the contrary, it speeds up. Astrophysicists have concluded that it can be caused by a mysterious type of energy that is called “dark energy” but that is not known by anybody. It is not possible for this acceleration effect to be caused by anything that exists in the universe now. The view that is seen as a result is that about 70% of the universe consists of dark energy, 25% dark matter, and the remaining 5% consists of the normal universe that includes everything including the neutrinos that can be observed through devices. It means most of the universe that we live in is not in a physical state but is known scientifically; it can only be seen through the eye of the mind.2

The smokeless fire, that is, type of matter or energy for whose existence there is no physical sign, mentioned in the following verses of the Quran is probably dark matter/energy:‘We created man from sounding clay, from mud molded into shape; And the Jinn race, We had created before, from the fire of a scorching wind’‘3And He created Jinn from fire free of smoke.4 In the future, with the development of science, those who will be able to control and use dark matter and dark energy might be able to rule the jinn too, using them for tasks that we cannot even imagine today. As a matter of fact, the verse mentioning the transportation of the throne of Balqis,

“Said an Ifrit of the Jinn: "I will bring it to thee before thou rise from thy Council: indeed, I have full strength for the purpose, and may be trusted." Said one who had knowledge of the Book: "I will bring it to thee within the twinkling of an eye!"5 and the verse expressing that Hz. Sulayman (pbuh) governed the jinn and devils and made them do useful deeds, “And of the evil ones were some who dived for him, and did other work besides; and it was We Who guarded them6 and similar verses point out to that issue. Badiuzzaman Said Nursi draws the following lessons from those verses:

The jinn, the most important inhabitants of the earth after man who are conscious, may serve man. Contact may be made with them. Devils too may be compelled to give up their enmity ‘and whether they want to or not made to serve. Thus, Almighty God made them ‘subject to one of His servants who was obedient to His commands. And through the allusive tongue of the verses, in meaning Almighty God is saying: "O man! I made the jinn, devils, and their evil obey one of My servants who obeyed me. If you too are subjugated to my commands, numerous beings, and even jinn and devils, may be subjugated to you Thus, these verses trace the final limit of this, like spiritualism, the attraction of spirits, and conversing with jinn, which have been strained from the blending of art and science, and have appeared out of their extraordinary material and spiritual sensitivity. And the verses specify the most beneficial form of these and open up the way to them.7

*It was published earlier (ÂdemTatlı. Bilimlerin IşığındaYaratılış. 2nd impression, ÜsküdarÜniversitesiYayını no:2, Istanbul,  2017, p. 87-106).
1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_Bang
2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_Bang
3. al-Hijr, 26-27.
4. ar-Rahman, 15.
5. an-Naml, 39-40.
6. al-Anbiya, 82.
7. Nursi, B. S. Sözler. p. 306.

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