What is the meaning of the two centromeres in human chromosome?

The Details of the Question

- The ‘number 2’ chromosome of humans have two centromeres and two telomere DNA’s close to the center. Furthermore the 12th and 13th genes correspond to primate chromosomes.”

- Can the intelligent designers and creationists explain why we have such a chromosome?” asked Dr. Kenneth Miller.

- How can a scientific answer be given to such a question?”

The Answer

Dear Brother / Sister,

This question of Kenneth’s originates from not being aware of the difference between the philosophical approach of evolutionists and the philosophical thought of creationists about the formation of the creatures in the universe.

According to evolutionists, everything in the universe occurred by coincidences and has a very complicated structure. Living beings formed from one another in a chain. Therefore, they claim that the anatomic, physiologic and biochemical similarities of living beings is an evidence that they came from one another. They claim that the structures, formations and similarities whose wisdom and meaning they do not know and understand in their studies are a result of coincidences and randomness.

According to the view of the creationists, everything, from atom to galaxies, is a work of Allah. At every single moment, Allah is creating plants, animals and humans from a single cell. In the past, He created the ancestors of each of those living beings from a single cell representing their genetic structures too. Allah’s knowledge, power and will are endless and eternal. Therefore, Allah did and can create each kind of living beings at any shape and style He wishes. Therefore, the similarities in the body, shape and function of all living beings are not an evidence that they have originated from one another in a chain but they are a very strong evidence that the creator of all living beings is the same.

The whole universe is like a book consisting of 114 letters.

That thousands or even millions of English books in a library consist of only 26 letters shows that they are all works of man who has knowledge, will and power. The similarities among those books in terms of letters cannot be interpreted that they have originated from one another.  Living beings also consist of 114 letters; similarly, this book of universe consist of 114 elements together with their isotopes; it was written by Allah. Each spring season is like a page of this universe book. Plants, animals and humans are also written from the same elements, in other words, the same letters in that page.

The topic and duty of sciences is to analyze that book of universe and to try to understand the function of the beings written in that book. For example, man is written in that book like a word. The sciences of biology, medicine, sociology, psychology and biochemistry considering man as their topic and try to understand the secrets of his creation.

The tooth of man is only a piece of bone in terms of appearance. However, hundreds of scientists started from assistantship and made a lot of study on that tooth and became professors for decades but not all secrets of the creation of a tooth have been discovered yet. Therefore, human tooth will probably continue to make thousands of people professors for hundreds of more years.

On the other hand, the brain and DNA structures of man are much more fantastic and miraculous masterpieces. Even if thousands scientists investigated them for hundreds of years, the secrets of their creation would not be understood. What is known about those structures today is probably not even ten percent of them.

So, to ask creationists to find out and to show the subtleties of the duty and structure of any human organ means to show an ideological attitude in the name of irreligiousness by ignoring all of those facts and scientific working methods.

Two answers to Kenneth’s question

Creationists will have two answers to Kenneth’s question. The first one is that this similarity in human DNA definitely proves that the creator of those living beings is the same. The other is that if there is an organ whose duty is not known, it is obvious that scientists will research and find it. As the research on living beings will go until Doomsday, the existence of a lot of bodies whose duty and structure are not known is normal. Those researchers might or might not believe in a creator.

The view put forward by Kenneth is not scientific information

The reader wants a scientific answer to be given to Kenneth’s question. The claim put forward by Kenneth is not scientific information, but a philosophical consideration. He makes an analogy by matching the difference he sees in the structure of a human chromosome with the one in the monkey, repeating the claim that both of them come from the same ancestor. A creationist regards the same similarity in the structure of those chromosomes as an evidence that their creator is the same. Kenneth’s view is not based on science but on the atheistic thought of the positivist philosophy.

How the religion of Islam views scientific studies

If Kenneth asks, “How does the religion of Islam view this research on DNA?”, we will say that Islam encourages people to do scientific research.

Islam regards one hour of reflection, meditation and reasoning on created beings superior to one year of supererogatory prayer!

The Quran refer people to the mind by saying, “Do you not understand?(al-Baqara 2/76).Will you not understand?(al-Baqara 2/44). It encourages people to think wisely. “None will grasp the Message except men of understanding.” (Aal-i Imran 3/7)

Allah also advises us to ask our knowledge to be increased:

O my Lord! Advance me in knowledge!(Ta-Ha 20/114)

Attention is attracted to the fact that people with knowledge are not same as people without having knowledge:

Are those equal, those who know and those who do not know?(az-Zumar 39/9)

We show the Signs plainly to you, that ye may learn wisdom.(al-Hadid 57/17)

We are asked to ask, research and learn something that we do not know:

If ye realize this not, ask of those who possess the Message.(an-Nahl 16/43)

All laboratory works are based on asking and investigating the unknown things. To refer to books means to ask the people who wrote them and learn about them.

Hadiths also encourage science:

The one who sets off to learn is in Allah’s way until he returns.(Tirmidhi Ilm 2, 2649; Ibn Majah, Muqaddima 17:227)

If a person wants to gain knowledge, it will be atonement for his sins in the past. (Tirmidhi Ilm 2, 2650)

‘Word of wisdom are the lost property of the believer. He has the right to take it wherever he finds it.’ (Tirmidhi Ilm 19, 2688)

The decrease of knowledge and increase of ignorance” is stated as the end of the world!’ (Bukhari, Kitabul-Ilm, 71-72)

In Islam the ink of a scholars is regarded to be superior to the blood of martyr.’

The ones who believe in a single creator and the religion of Islam encourage all kinds of scientific study and regard all beings in the universe as Allah’s works. What is known about the beings in the universe is not even ten percent compared to what is not known. Therefore, to ask creationists to find out the answer about the purpose of an organ or any object whose duty, structure and function are unknown  is completely an ideological attitude based on irreligiousness.

Creationists accept that the duty and nature of the beings in the universe can be exposed by scientific studies and the scientists to do it can be believers or those who do not believe in a creator; they regard the whole universe as a book of Allah and name it as “the book of universe” written by Allah!

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