Is the mud from which the first man was created DNA molecule?

The Answer

Dear Brother / Sister,

5.2- IS THE CLAY FROM WHICH FIRST MAN WAS CREATED A DNA MOLECULE?*

The Quran states in the verses below that man was basically created from clay: And certainly We created man of clay that gives forth sound, of black mud fashioned in shape” “al-Hijr, 26”Them have We created out of a sticky clay.” as-Saaffat, 11”, “He (Allah) created man from sounding clay like unto pottery” “ar-Rahman, 14 and “He (Allah) began the creation of man with (nothing more than) clay.” “as-Sajda, 7” 

Science has revealed that man is made up of  DNAs (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) because man consists of cells. Proteins form the basis of cell structure and its functions. The genetic information that provides protein synthesis is located in the DNA molecule. Therefore, human beings are mainly formed from DNA molecules.1,2,3,4,5

It is also possible for the clay mentioned in the verses regarding the creation of man from clay to be regarded and understood as a DNA molecule.

5.2.1-Black Mud DNA Molecule

Protein synthesis is carried out through the genetic information on DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid). This information, which is specific to each protein, exists in the DNA as encoded arrays of a certain sequence and length. These sequences are called genes. As a work of mercy, the synthesis of the necessary proteins in the required time and in the required cells is achieved by the activation and inactivation of those genes in appropriate cells and at appropriate times. This is achieved through a number of mechanisms called histone modification and DNA methylation. Of these, histone modifications result in the tightly packing and compression of the chromatin strands that make up the DNA molecule. The tightly packed and compressed DNA molecule is called heterochromatin. DNA molecule with heterochromatin structure is seen under the microscope as dark and black.6,7

This dark-colored molecule can be interpreted as the “black” mud mentioned in the following verse of the Quran: And certainly We created man… of black mud …”“al-Hijr 26” (Picture 1).

Picture 1: Heterochromatin DNA: Black DNA: Black Mud.

5.2.2-Stinking Mud DNA Molecule

One of the well-known mechanisms by which suitable genes are expressed in appropriate cells and at appropriate times is DNA methylation. DNA methylation is realized by the methylation of cytosine nucleotides, one of the four nucleotides that form it. A methylated compound is usually stinky.8

As a matter of fact, dimethyl sulfite and methyl sulfite, which are methylated compounds, cause bad breath and trimethylamine compound causes severe foul fishy smell in trimethylaminuria. The DNA molecule is also a methylated compound due to the methyl groups contained in the cytosine nucleotide. Therefore, the DNA molecule is also a malodorous compound chemically and probably physically.

In the verse stating that first man being was created from black mud, it is also stated that first man being was created from stinking mud:

And certainly We created man… of stinking mud ….“al-Hijr 26
The stinking mud meant herein can be interpreted  as a methylated malodourous DNA molecule.

5.2.3-Dry Mud DNA Molecule

Thymine, which is one of the four nucleotides that make up the DNA molecule, occurs as a result of methylation. The methyl group in this nucleotide makes the DNA molecule assume hydrophobic property, that is, its ability to escape from water. In addition, large and small groove-shaped structures consisting of hydrophobic pockets are placed wisely in the DNA.9,10,11

Hydrophobia is the property of a molecule to avoid water.12 That is, the hydrophobic molecules do not get wet at all or get wet very little. Therefore, such molecules are dry. DNA is a hydrophobic molecule due to the methyl group it has. In other words, DNA is a dry molecule that escapes from water and that does not get wet.

This dry property of the DNA molecule due to the hydrophobia is in compliance with the word “dry”  mentioned in the Quran: “And certainly We created man… of dry mud ….“al-Hijr 26(Picture 2)

Picture 2: Hydrophobic DNA: Dry DNA; Dry Mud.

5.2.4-Shaped Mud DNA Molecule

The chromatin strands that make up the DNA molecule are dispersed in the nucleus and they have a very homogeneous appearance under a microscope except during cell division. In the course of cell division, chromatin strands are organized to form structures that allow genetic information to be transferred and, due to some wisdom, the DNA molecules assume the shape of short and thick bars.13

This state of the DNA molecule is called a chromosome. Chromosomes are viewed as short thick bars under the microscope. This shape assuming quality of the DNA molecule due to being converted into the form of chromosome corresponds to the phrase “fashioned in shape” in the verse of the Quran: “And certainly We created man … of mud fashioned in shape.” “al-Hijr 26 (Figure 3)

5.2.5-Sticky Clay DNA Molecule

Carefully resolved natural DNA solutions have a high viscosity at room temperature: (25 °C) and pH 7.0.14

High viscosity means that a molecule is highly viscous. Therefore, DNA is a sticky molecule. On the other hand, DNA ends formed by the cutting off the DNA chain at certain points by some enzymes for various purposes, such as copying, duplicating or modifying genetic information have a high binding inclination to the ends of other DNA fragments to which they are to be joined. Because of those characteristics, those ends are called “Sticky Ends” in genetic terminology.15

This viscous property of the DNA molecule originating from its high viscosity and cut off ends can be said to be in compliance with the “sticky” property of the clay mentioned in the following verse of the Quran: “Them have We created out of a sticky clay. “as-Saaffat,11”

Protein synthesis is realized through genetic information on the DNA molecule. However, for synthesis, this information on DNA must first be copied to another molecule called RNA (ribonucleic acid) through some enzymes. Copying is carried out by some enzymes. Those enzymes are characterized by their ability to bind to the DNA molecule only when their chains are separated from one another. Therefore, for protein synthesis, the two chains that make up the DNA helix must be separated first.

Picture 3: Chromosome; Shaped DNA; Shaped Clay.

5.2.6-Clay Like Pottery DNA Molecule

Separation can be carried out in two different ways. The first one is the physical heating of the DNA molecule. Heating breaks off the hydrogen bonds holding the two chains together and separates the DNA chains from each other. This method has been used successfully in separating DNA chains in various tests carried out in the laboratory and in the tube.16

However, this method cannot be used inside the cell because heat can damage other cell structures. Therefore, instead of heat energy, another enzyme-mediated method using chemical energy is used to separate DNA chains within the cell. In this method, the hydrogen bonds that hold the DNA strands together are broken down by a command for several purposes and the double stranded DNA molecule is separated into single strands.17

The heat-mediated method corresponds to the “method of baking on fire” because in this method, the DNA molecule is heated, in other words, the DNA molecule is baked on fire. Therefore, the DNA molecule obtained at the end of this method corresponds to DNA baked on fire. For, the DNA obtained at the end of this method is obtained as a result of heating, that is, baking on fire.

As for the enzyme-mediated method, it corresponds to the “method of baking on fire” because in this method, the DNA molecule is not heated, that is, is not baked on fire, but at the end of this method, the DNA strands are separated from each other as if they were heated, i.e. baked on fire. Therefore, the DNA molecule obtained at the end of this method corresponds to “DNA as if baked on fire”.

As it is mentioned above, the heating, i.e., baking, method cannot be used inside the cell because heat can damage other cell structures. Man is created from the DNA molecule in the cell. Therefore, the enzyme-mediated method, not the heating method, that is the method of baking on fire, is used in the cell.

Therefore, the Quran does not say “He (Allah) created man from clay baked on fire” but it says “He (Allah) created man from sounding clay like unto pottery.“ar-Rahman, 14”

The property of DNA molecule chains to be separated from each other through enzymes as if they were heated corresponds to the property of the clay “like unto pottery” mentioned in the verse of the Quran: “He (Allah) created man from clay baked on fire.“ar-Rahman, 14”(Picture 4, 5).

5.2.7-Sounding Clay DNA Molecule

Information in some genes in DNA cannot be expressed, i.e., no product can be obtained from it. Such genes are called “silent genes” in genetic terminology.18,19

Some genes, on the other hand, can express themselves, that is, they are involved in the production of some products. Such genes are called “highly expressed genes”, in other words, loud genes, in genetic terminology.

We think the “sounding” quality of the clay from which man was created mentioned in the following verse of the Qurancorresponds to the ability of the DNA molecule to express itself, that is, to take part in the formation of some products, in other words, to produce sound in genetic terminology: “He (Allah) created man from sounding clay ...” “ar-Rahman, 14”

Picture 4: In the tube;             Picture 5: In the cell; DNA as if baked on fire;
baked DNA .                        Clay as if baked on fire.

5.2.8- Clay DNA Molecule in First Creation

The first stage of protein synthesis is the copying of the genetic information of the protein onto the RNA through the DNA molecule; the second stage is the reading of this information on the RNA, and the final stage is the addition of the amino acids that are in compliance with that information to one another. In other words, the molecule involved in the first step of protein synthesis is DNA. That is, protein synthesis starts from the DNA molecule.20

This means that man is made from proteins and hence creation of man begins with the DNA molecule. The fact that clay is the substance from which man’s creation starts as it is stated in the following verse of the Quran: He began the creation of man with (nothing more than) clay“as-Sajda, 7” can be said to correspond to the DNA molecule’s being the first substance to be used in  the protein synthesis, that is, the beginning of the creation of man. 

CONCLUSION

It is stated in the Quran that first man was created from clay. Various shapes and structures of the clay are mentioned in this creation. In the verses related to the issue, the following properties are mentioned: “dark, stinking, dry, shaped, sticky clay, dry clay as if baked on fire and sounding clay”.

Those properties of clay, which are mentioned in the Quran, are also seen in the structure of the DNA molecule. This DNA molecule forms the basis of the genetic structure in all living beings. Similarly, 46 chromosomes in every cell that make up the human genetic structure are created from DNA molecules

The DNA molecule’s “dark, black, stinking, dry, shaped, sticky and sounding as if bakedproperties correspond with the properties of clay mentioned in the Quran about the creation of man. Therefore, what is meant by the clay material from which first man was created as it is stated by the Quran must be DNA molecule.

The structure of the DNA molecule was understood in the 1955s, in the years when it was understood that man came into being from DNA molecule. However, the Quran mentioned this structure and that man was created from this structure 14 centuries ago.

This proves that the Quran is a miracle. Showing that what the Quran states is true related to such a scientific issue proves that it is Allah, who has infinite knowledge, will and power, who sent down the Quran, creates man and knows everything.

It is also understood by this fact that science and religion are intertwined and confirm each other from the perspective of science-religion relationship. When it is examined carefully, it will be clearly seen that both religion and science lead man to Allah.

 

* Article in print (Âdem Durmaz, Âdem Tatlı, Ercan Kaya, İdris Görmez,Nihat Yatkın, Orhan Erdoğan,  Ömer İrfan Küfrevioğlu, Veysel Güllüce. İslâmiyet’in DilindenYaratılış. Atatürk ÜniversitesiYayını, 2019, p.177-185).

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