What are the hypotheses of existence?

The Answer

Dear Brother / Sister,

7.5.4.Hypotheses of Existence

Hypothesis of Random Existence: The hypothesis of the autonomy of the universe, which says, “Everything happened by chance/coincidence.”. In this theory, nature produces everything. Nature produces rain. This hypothesis attributes divinity to nature.

The other is the hypothesis of the domination of rules

In this hypothesis, power is attributed to rules. That is, the rules are written texts like law. When we attribute power to the rules, we defend this hypothesis.

Design-Based Hypothesis of Existence

Apart from the hypotheses above, there is another hypothesis of existence called design-based hypothesis.

How can we analyze those hypotheses? The advocates of the random existence hypothesis state the following: There were polytheistic religions; then, man evolved and monotheistic religions emerged. This evolution continued and finally the following was stated: “Man does not need god anymore.” Moreover, Nietzsche said, “God is dead.” When Nietzsche died, Time Magazine wrote the following: “Nietzsche is dead, and God is dead too

Nietzsche’s theory is not valid since he could not find a cure for death. Dealing with God, including the 20th century, was thought as going out of the scientific field.

By organizing this congress in the scientific world, we will put forward the design-based creation as a separate hypothesis against the hypothesis of existence based on chance/coincidence, nature and rules; and we will gather evidence for the transformation of this hypothesis into theory. We will transform the arguments about how and by whom was design-based creation made into a theory.

Table 9
Hypotheses of

1-Hypotheses of Random Existence
2-Hypotheses of the Autonomy of the Universe
3-Hypotheses of the Domination of Rules
4-Hypotheses of Design-Based Existence  (God)

Table 10
Reductio Ad Absurdum Method

  • In this method, which is also called Proof by Contradiction,when the causality connections are determined and it is proved that three of the ways are impossible, it is understood that the fourth one is certain.
  • Some people have reached the mountain top before. It is stated thatthere are four ways to go there. If a mountaineer shows that three ways are closed and that it is impossible to reach the top from them, it is understood that it is possible to reach the top through the fourth way.

Likewise, the theories explaining the existence in the universe are refuted by reasoning methods, the fourth way, “the existence of an external arranger” is proved.

Random Existence is Impossible According to Calculus of Probabilities 
In the random existence hypothesis, calculation of probabilities is in question; the protein in the DNA knows when it will die and how long the lifespan of DNA is. When we look at the structure of DNA, we can see that only the one that knows the whole universe can do it (Table 11).

Table 11
Difference between Concrete- Abstract Reasoning (Thought)

A concrete thinker sees the seed in the apple. An abstract thinker sees the apple in the seed. When we look at the universe like this, we will see the invisible facts through the eye of the mind.

A concrete thinker sees the seed in the apple. An abstract thinker sees the apple in the seed. When we look at the universe like this, we will see the invisible facts through the eye of the mind.

Similarly, when you look at the light, you conclude that it comes from the sun. You look at the light and even if you do not see the sun, you conclude that it comes from the sun  or a similar source.

Figure. An apple and its seeds.1

Something is perfect, esthetic, cheap, quick and comes into being suddenly. If you go to a contractor and say, “Construct a building with the features mentioned above, that is, in the most beautiful and perfect way in all aspects; it should be the cheapest and built at once”, he will chase you away. However, the whole universe is perfect in all aspects and it was created at once. On the other hand, the autonomy of the universe, the entropy law, requires an external arranger.

You put some water in a glass. If you do not heat it, it gets cold. Or, if you do not mow your garden, it will be covered with grass. The more entropy rises, the more things disintegrate. It goes from perfection to disintegration. Therefore, we need constant control to keep the universe going. Control is necessary for the garden to be neat, similarly,  a creator is necessary in the universe.

As the existence of the table is certain, the existence of Allah is also certain by reasoning. The presence of a prophet is related to the law of abduction. The Prophet does not do anything wrong. He says, let them show if I am wrong. He says he will fight until he is destroyed (Table 12).

Table 12
Law of Abduction Foresees Invisible Reality

  • If the Law of Abduction and Kitab Mubin (visible reality) exist, Imam Mubin (knowledge, order), that is invisible reality also exists. 
  • The Claim of the Prophet
  • Find my mistakes (in the Quran) or I will fight you until I am destroyed. However, they preferred war and misery. They could not find any mistakes about me, if they had found a mistake, they would have been saved (They preferred running away to discussing).2
  • According to the Law of Abduction selective syllogism,
  • 1st Premise “The Prophet does not do wrong things.”
  • 2nd Premise The claim, “Show me if I have made something wrong”.
  • “I am ready to fight until I am destroyed.”

Table 13
Is the universe Substance-Based or Energy-Based?
The invention of theoretical physics. According to Quantum Dynamics, every substance has wave property. First project, then work; that is, first, abstract information; then, concrete information. Quantum refuted dialectic materialism.
According to Quantum Dynamics,

1- Man is a conscious observer.
2- Everything in the universe both exists and does not exist.
3- They exist when they are observed; they do not exist when they are not observed.
4- Everything can be converted to digital format.
5-An electrical signal starts in the brain before making a decision.

Table 14
Hypothesis of Random Existence
There were polytheistic religions.
They evolved into Monotheistic Religions.
Now there is no need for God.
Random Existence -Struggle for Life - Natural Selection- Survival of the Fittest.
Calculus of Probabilities regard existence on its own impossible due to the probability of 1050.

Table 15

  • Is Random Existence Possible?
  • According to Modal Logic and possible, probable and current calculations of the universe.
  • When we look at DNA, it is obvious that only the one who knows the whole universe can do it; for instance, when we look at the light, we understand that it comes from the sun.  (Determinism principle)
  • A conscious arranger is obligatory because according to the calculation of probabilities, it is impossible for something to happen by chance.
  • It is contrary to the law of deduction, that is, impossible, for something to be perfect, esthetic, quick and cheap as well as happening at once, like the light being evidence for the existence of the sun. 

Table 16
Is the Autonomy of the Universe Possible?

  • The law of entropy shows that an external arranger is obligatory.
  • There is no consciousness in inorganic substances such as carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen. The creation of a conscious being by living beings with no consciousness is as unreasonable as stones and soil becoming a palace on their own. It is against the law of induction.
  • Man employs about half the number of the soldiers of a battalion for the formation, gathering and management of a battalion.

The Imagination of the Real Creator Makes it Necessary for the Creator not to Have a Partner

  • The existence of two captains in a team and two headmen in a village shows that will, power and knowledge are not absolute and that they have limits. This state is not sustainable.
  • Contrary to the law of  Exclusion. It proves something to be proved by showing that its opposite is wrong.

The questions asked by the audience at the end of the article above and the answers given to them 

Questions and Answers about theories of mind
Question: Is there a gene region or lobe in the brain about reasoning based on logic that is different in man from other animals? Is there anything like that in monkeys? If we are to refute it, we need to have some data.
My second question is that I could not see any difference between theory of mind and theory of theory.
Answer: Let me start with the second question. In the theory of mind, you make a guess about what someone will do. For example, when he puts his hand in his pocket while walking toward the car,  you say, “He will take the key out of his pocket.” However,  in the theory of theory, when you talk to your addressee, you think about what he thinks. When you express your own opinion, you say what the other person thinks. One of them is related to your thought about the other person’s thought and the other is related to your thought about the other person’s behavior. Thinking about thought here is a different concept. In one of them, you think about the behavior and in the other you think about the thought (Table 5).
Question: Are the mind and consciousness the same. Do we know where they are in the brain?
Answer: Today, mind and consciousness are not the same. Previously, people used to say the mind and the body were separate. Now it has been understood that the mind and the body speak to each other. The mind is the function of the brain. The anterior region of the brain is the region of the brain related to logic. When this zone is removed, man becomes like a zombie. He controls his hands and feet; his body functions; he has animal qualities, but he has no human qualities. This occurs in people in whom the front region of the brain is removed. There are studies about consciousness now. There are theses claiming that consciousness is a holographic structure, that there is an upper brain in the quantum dynamics, that there is a quantum brain on brain, and that what establishes the connection with the spirit in man is the brain. There should be physicists in these congresses where these electromagnetic theses are discussed; quantum should also be discussed; there should be a congress where physicists, doctors  and biologists discuss (Table 13).

2.Nursi, B. S. Mektubat. p. 236.

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