Is it permissible to spy on behalf of a Muslim state in a non-Muslim country?

The Answer

Dear Brother / Sister,

If a non-Muslim country is hostile to an Islamic country, or if it oppresses and exploits the weak by using its power and means, and if it gains unfair advantage, the Islamic country needs Muslim or non-Muslim spies in order to obtain the information it needs to defend itself and to prevent oppression; that need is an imperative.

Information is necessary in order to know in time some of the secret actions and preparations that are against an Islamic country in non-Muslim countries that have made peace with the Islamic country and not to fall behind them in terms of precautions and preparations.

On the one hand those needs and on the other hand the command "to be stronger than the enemy" make it necessary to use spies.

Necessities invalidate some prohibitions. Lying, pretending to be different and deceiving are among them because there can be no espionage without them.

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