Hz. Musa (Moses) and Hz. Isa (Jesus) did not take part in any wars. Why did Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) shed blood?

Details of the Question

Hz. Musa (Moses) and Hz. Isa (Jesus) did not take part in any wars. Why did Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) shed blood?

The Answer

Dear Brother / Sister,

It is necessary to state the following first: Every prophet acts upon the permission and order of Allah. Besides, it is necessary to believe in all prophets without discriminating among them.

To make jihad is one of the main duties of all prophets. However, jihad is divided into two as spiritual and material jihad. All of the prophets including Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) made material jihad. It is their essential duty. As for material jihad, this jihad is made in the environments that Allah regards appropriate. The most important factor of this appropriateness necessitates having the power similar to the power of the enemy.

- Therefore, it was not regarded appropriate by divine wisdom to order Hz. Musa make jihad against the Pharaoh, the King of Egypt, who had a very powerful army and who made the Jews work like slaves.

However, it is known that Hz. Musa was given the duty of fighting the unbelievers in Quds (Jerusalem) afterwards and that the Jews did not obey his order due to their cowardice. This issue is stated clearly in the following verse: “O Moses! While they remain there, never shall we be able to enter, to the end of time. Go thou, and thy Lord, and fight ye two, while we sit here (and watch).” (al-Maida, 5/24)

- It is known that some prophets sent to the Sons of Israel after Hz. Musa made jihad. The following verse emphasizes this fact: “Hast thou not Turned thy vision to the Chiefs of the Children of Israel after (the time of) Moses? They said to a prophet (That was) among them: "Appoint for us a king, that we May fight in the cause of Allah." He said: "Is it not possible, if ye were commanded to fight, that that ye will not fight?" They said: "How could we refuse to fight in the cause of Allah, seeing that we were turned out of our homes and our families?" but when they were commanded to fight, they turned back, except a small band among them. But Allah Has full knowledge of those who do wrong.” (al-Baqara, 2/246)

- The position of Hz. Isa, who had only twelve followers, was not appropriate for material jihad at all.

- One of the wisdoms behind the fact that Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) was not ordered to make material jihad in the thirteen-year period in Makkah is definitely the insufficient material power.

- Material jihad is a defense in Islam. That almost all of the wars took place around Madinah is a clear sign of it. The oppressions like the one mentioned in the verse above as “The Jews being expelled from their homeland and being separated from their families” and more inflictions were in question also for Muslims.

- One of the most important wisdoms behind Islamic jihad is to neutralize the tyrants that prevent people from examining closely and understanding the message of Islam and to enable them to accept or refuse Islam with their free will.

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