Could you give information as regard to the Big Bang theory and the creation of the universe?

Details of the Question
Could you give information as regard to the Big Bang theory and the creation of the universe?
The Answer

Dear Brother / Sister,

People, in the every age and epoch have been always curious about the enormous universe in which we live.  How did it come into existence?  Where is it going?  How do the laws that provide the order and balance work?  For centuries, scientists and thinkers have carried out innumerable researches and produced a lot of theories.

The view that had prevailed till the beginning of the twentieth century was that the universe had infinite dimensions, that it had existed from pre-eternity and that it would exist forever.  According to this concept which is called “The Static Universe Model”, a beginning and an ending for the universe was not in question.    

This concept, which underlies the materialistic philosophy, considers the universe to be a static, stationery and unchangeable sum of substances.  It also negates the being of any Creator.   

While everything, even “the heavens and earths” which had not been created yet, was in one point, they were created with a big bang.  Then, everything was separated from one another, and they formed the current shape of the universe.  Materialism is a system of thought which regards matter as an absolute being, and does not accept the existence of anything except it.  Tracing back to the ancient Greeks, but, spreading especially in the nineteenth century, this system of thought became famous by the dialectical materialism of Karl Marx.    

As earlier noted, nineteenth century’s static universe model had provided ground for the materialistic philosophy.  Relying on this model of universe, the materialist philosopher Georges Politzer claimed in his book Principes Élémentaires de Philosophie, that the universe “had not been created” and said: "If it had been created, then, it would be  necessary that it should have been created by God at a particular time out of nothing."  

While Politzer claimed that the universe had not been created out of nothing, he relied on the nineteenth century’s static universe model and, therefore, thought that he put forward a scientific thesis.  However, the science and technology which developed in the twentieth century eradicated the primitive concepts such as static universe model which provided ground for materialists.  In the present period, the threshold of the twenty-first century, the thesis that the universe had a beginning and that had been created with a big bang out of nothing have been proved by the modern physics through a lot of experiments, observation and calculations. 

In addition to this, it has been demonstrated that the universe is not static or stationery; on the contrary, it is constantly in motion and change, continuously expanding.  Today, these realities have been recognized by all the scientific circles. 

Now, let us mention how these most important truths were discovered by the scientific world:   

In 1929, at California Mount Wilson Observatory, American astronomer Edwin Hubble, while researching the outer space by the means of the huge telescope, found out that the stars, depending on their distance, were spreading reddish beams of light.  This discovery caused a great sensation in the scientific circles because according the established and known physical rules, the spectrum of the beams of the light moving into the point of observation shifts to violet, and that of the beams of the light diverging from the point of observation shifts to red.  However, during the observations of Hubble a shift to red at the beams of stars was observed.  That is to say, the stars were moving away from us constantly.

Hubble, soon afterwards, discovered another important point: the stars and galaxies move away not only from one another but also from us.  In the presence of a universe in which everything moves away from one another, the only result that can be concluded was that the universe is “expanding” constantly.  In order to understand the point better, it is possible to consider the universe as a surface of inflated balloon.  The points on the surface of the balloon move away from each other as the balloon is inflated; similarly, the objects in the universe move away from one another as the universe expands.

“Do the disbelievers not see that the heavens and the earth were one mass, and We tore them apart? And We made from water every living thing. Will they not believe?"(the Prophets, 21/30)

In fact, this reality had been discovered earlier theoretically.  Albert Einstein, who is regarded as the greatest scientist of the century, concluded that the universe is not static after the calculations that he had made in the realm of theoretical physics.  However, in order not to contradict the prevailing static universe model of that period, he set aside his discovery.  Einstein, later, would call his own behavior as “the gravest mistake of his carrier”.  Afterwards, through the observations of the Hubble, the expansion of the universe was proved definitely.  What was the importance of the expansion of the universe as regard to existence of the universe? 

The universe has been and is expanding, accordingly, as we go retrospectively, it has been established that the universe began at a particular point.  The calculations carried out, have shown that “the single point” that included all of the matter of the universe had to have “zero volume” and “infinite density”.  The universe emerged by the explosion of this point which had zero volume.  This explosion marking the beginning of the universe was called “Big Bang” and the theory started to be called “the Big Bang Theory”.   

In fact, zero volume is a theoretical expression form of this issue.  Science can identify the concept of “non-existence” only with the expression of “the point at zero volume” which exceeds the borders of human intellect.  In fact, the point at zero volume connotes “non-existence”.  The universe emerged out of nothing.  In other words, it was created.

This profound fact, which modern physics discovered in the last years of this century, had been informed to us in the Holy Quran fourteen centuries ago as follows:   

"Originator of the heavens and the earth—how can He have a son when He never had a companion?"(the Livestock, 6/101)

As is known, the Big Bang theory has shown that at the beginning all objects in the universe were together and moved away from one another later.  This fact that has been put forward by the Big Bang theory, had been declared in the Holy Quran fourteen centuries ago, when people’s knowledge about the universe was very restricted:   

"Do the disbelievers not see that the heavens and the earth were one mass, and We tore them apart? And We made from water every living thing. Will they not believe?"(the Prophets, 21/30)

That is to say, while everything, even the “heavens and the earth” which had not created yet, was at one single point, they were created with a big bang and then moved away from one another, and their present shapes formed.  When we compare the expressions of the verse with the Big Bang theory, we can observe a full conformity.  However, putting forward of the Big Bang as a scientific theory could be achieved only in the twentieth century.

The expanding of the universe is one of the important proofs of the Big Bang Theory, namely, the creation of the universe out of nothing.  This fact, which has been existent since the creation of the universe was discovered by modern science only in this century.  However, this truth was declared by the Quran some fourteen centuries ago:   

"We constructed the universe with power, and We are expanding it."(the Spreaders, 51/47)

As it is seen clearly, the Big bang theory was proof that the universe was created out of nothing, that is, it was created by God.  With the victory of the Big Bang, the concept of “pre-eternal matter” which underlies the materialistic philosophy vanished, or became obsolete.  Well, what did exist before the Big Bang, and which power did extract the “non-existent” universe and changed it into “existence” with a big explosion, then?  Of course, this question shows the existence of one God.  The well-known atheist philosopher Anthony Flew writes the following regarding the issue:   

"It is said that admitting mistakes heals the human’s soul.  Thus, I will admit something:  The Big Bang model is very embarrassing from the point of view an atheist.  For, science has proved a claim that has been advocated by religious sources: the claim that the universe has a beginning.  We can only defend that the current situation of the universe is an absolute explanation as we assume that the universe does not have a beginning and ending.  I, still do believe in this explanation, yet, I should admit that advocating this view against the Big Bang is not an easy and comfortable stance. “ 

Many scientists who have not conditioned themselves blindly to be atheists accept that there is a Creator who has infinite power in the creation of the universe.  This creator should be a being who both created matter and time; that is to say, a being independent of both of them.  The well-known American astrophysicist Hugh Ross explains this truth as follows:   

"If the time and matter emerged with a bang, then the cause who generated the universe should be entirely independent of time and place in the universe.  This shows us that the Creator is beyond all dimensions in the universe.  This also proves that the Creator is not, as some claim, identical with the universe, that He encompasses, and that He is not only an ordinary power in the universe among others.

As the above-mentioned scientist said, matter and time was brought into existence by a Creator who has infinite power and is independent of all of these concepts.  This Creator is God, the Lord of the heavens and the earth.

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