Will you explain the universality of the Quran by giving examples?

Details of the Question
Will you explain the universality of the Quran by giving examples?
The Answer

Dear Brother / Sister,

The last divine book that Allah sent down in order to show humanity the true path and to make them reach the bliss in the world and in the hereafter is the Quran. The Quran is the pre-eternal speech of Allah. It has met all of the needs of humanity for fourteen centuries and it will meet the needs of the human beings that will come to the world until the Day of Judgment. However, man should accept it, believe in it, read and understand it as necessary, and apply it in his life.

Humanity will not deviate from the right path as long as they stick to the Quran, understand and interpret it correctly and practice it in their lives because the straightest and strongest way is the way of the Quran. It is the strong, unbreakable rope of Allah and His straight path.

What are the universal principles that the Quran has brought for us, human beings?


The universality of the Quran is a vast issue. Therefore, it is necessary to write a book about it. Here, we will mention a few points in short.

Our Prophet (pbuh) defined the Quran as follows: “The stories of those who lived before you, the news about those who will live after you, and the judgments about the things among you are present in the Quran , the Book of Allah. It is the book that discriminates the truth from what is wrong. It never speaks meaninglessly. It is the strong rope of Allah. It is the wise dhikr. It is the straight path. Bad desires can never deviate it from its target. Tongues cannot distort it. Scholars cannot have enough of it. Muttaqis (people who fear Allah) are never tired of it. It does not become old as it is read repeatedly. It is the book that the jinn said, “We have really heard a wonderful Recital! It gives guidance to the Right, and we have believed therein.” (al-Jinn 1-2) as soon as they heard it. He who speaks based on its criteria speaks the truth. He who acts in accordance with it gains rewards (thawabs). He who rules with it becomes just. He who calls people to it calls them to the true path. (Tirmidhi, Fadailu’l-Qur’an, 14; Fadailu’l-Qur’an, 1)

The Quran is a book that was sent down for loftiness and true targets. The Quran itself informs us why it was sent down clearly. The following verses are the most impressive examples regarding the issue: “Alif Lam Mim. This is the Book; in it is guidance sure, without doubt, to those who fear Allah.”(al-Baqara, 1-2) “(Here is) a Book which We have sent down unto thee, full of blessings, that they may meditate on its Signs, and that men of understanding may receive admonition.”(Sad, 29) That is, the Quran was sent as guidance for those who fear Allah and so that people would meditate on it and receive admonition. In other words, the Quran was sent down to ask us to do the following: to read it, to mediate on it, to understand it, to explain it sincerely, to receive admonition and practice it in our lives.

The Quran which was sent more than 1400 years ago is a book that have principles that can solve the problems of today and that can bind the people of this age against the change that has been existent since the creation of man and that has become dazzling in this age. 

When we examine those principles, we see that they are general principles and that they contain criteria that all people can carry out at all times. We will make short explanations about five of those universal principles that have the meaning of command among those universal principles that were brought by the Quran.

The five things among those principles that are ordered to be fulfilled are as follows: 1) to work, 2) to be just, 3) to be honest, 4) to keep your promise, 5) to protect the things entrusted to you.

To work is the pre-eternal law of Allah. Allah expresses the importance of working as follows in the Quran: “That man can have nothing but what he strives for; That (the fruit of) his striving will soon come in sight; Then will he be rewarded with a reward complete.” (an-Najm, 39-41) those verses state that man can advance only by striving and that the key to bliss in the world and the hereafter is to work legitimately.

The basic of Islam is justice. Justice is the combination of humane and social values like acting properly, not taking things belonging to others, not deviating from the straight path. The Quran orders an absolute justice. It does not differentiate between believers and unbelievers, those who are near and far, the rich and the poor regarding the issue. As a matter of fact, Allah states the following: “...speak justly, even if a near relative is concerned...” (al-An’am, 152) “O ye who believe! stand out firmly for justice, as witnesses to Allah, even as against yourselves, or your parents, or your kin, and whether it be (against) rich or poor: for Allah can best protect both. Follow not the lusts (of your hearts) lest ye swerve and if ye distort (justice) or decline to do justice, verily Allah is well-acquainted with all that ye do.” (an-Nisa, 135)

One of the principles that we are ordered in the Quran is honesty. As a matter of fact, the following is stated in the Quran regarding the issue: “O ye who believe! Fear Allah, and (always) say a word directed to the Right: That He may make your conduct whole and sound and forgive you your sins: he that obeys Allah and His Messenger, has already attained the highest Achievement..” (al-Ahzab 70-71) “Therefore stand firm (in the straight path) as thou art commanded― thou and those who with thee turn (unto Allah); and transgress not (from the Path): for He seeth well all that ye do.” (Hud, 112)

One of the principles that the Quran emphasizes repeatedly is keeping your promise and fulfilling your obligations. The word “ahd” means “to order something to be fulfilled, to give an instruction, to make a promise; command, instruction, undertaking, contract, liability and trustable word”. A person must keep his promise whether he makes it to Allah or to believers and fulfill its necessities because Allah states the following in the Quran, “O ye who believe! fulfil (all) obligations...” (al-Maida, (5): 1) “Nay―Those that keep their plighted faith and act aright―verily Allah loves those who act aright.” (Aal-i-Imran, 76) “...and fulfil (every) engagement, for (every) engagement will be enquired into (on the Day of Reckoning).” (al-Isra, 34)

The last universal Quranic principle that we will deal with is to be trustable. In general, trust is used to mean, ”something entrusted to someone for protection”. However, along with this meaning, it also covers the spiritual, bodily and financial facilities that man has and that are given to him temporarily. In Islamic law, trust is the name given to the whole duties assigned by Allah to man regarding both the rights of Allah and the rights of creatures. “Those who faithfully observe their Trusts and their covenants.” (al-Mu’minun, 8)

We have given some examples of universal commands of the Quran that man can apply everywhere and at all times. Each of those principles will bring happiness to a community when they are applied whether by Muslims or non-Muslims. In the world where those principles are not applied, human beings become unhappy and hopeless – as it is the case in the world today. We, as people who heartily believe in those principles, must have a lifestyle in accordance with those principles and serve as examples for the humanity, because it is our duty to convey goodness to the humanity. 

We have given universal examples of the Quran that man can apply under every condition and at all times. There are also some prohibitions brought by the Quran; we want to explain five of them in short. They are: 1- To associate partners with Allah; 2- To disobey one’s parents; 3- To kill a person unjustly; 4- To take bribes; 5- To gossip and backbite.

According to the Quran, the greatest sin is to associate partners with Allah; it means accepting other beings as partners of Allah, worshipping stones, trees, the sun, the moon, stars, angels, prophets, sheikhs or any being other than Allah. The Quran defines associating partners with Allah as shirk (polytheism), the greatest injustice and oppression. As a matter of fact, the following two verses give the most impressive examples regarding the issue: “Allah forgiveth not (the sin of) joining other gods with Him: but He forgiveth whom He pleaseth other sins than this: one who joins other gods with Allah, hath strayed far, far away (from the Right).” (an-Nisa, 116); “For false worship is indeed the highest wrong-doing.” (Luqman, (31): 13) Oppression means taking something from the place where it has to be and putting it somewhere else, deviating from the aim. Allah is the Lord that revives, kills, gives sustenance and bounties; it has no partners. When something is accepted as a partner of Allah, it is the greatest oppression. Therefore, it is stated in the Quran that those who associate partners with Allah will be punished severely and that it is impossible for them to enter Paradise: “Whoever joins other gods with Allah―Allah will forbid him the Garden and the Fire will be his abode. There will for the wrong-doers be no one to help.” (al-Maida, 72)

The Quran orders us to do favors for our parents and prohibits us from disobeying them by saying, “Thy Lord hath decreed that ye worship none but Him, and that ye be kind to parents. Whether one or both of them attain old age in thy life, say not to them a word of contempt, nor repel them, but address them in terms of honor. And, out of kindness, lower to them the wing of humility, and say: "My Lord! bestow on them Thy Mercy even as they cherished me in childhood.” (al-Isra, 23-24) In the verses above, Allah orders us to do favors for our parents after worshipping Him and He orders us not to say even “Ugh” to them, because it is Allah who creates man and the parents are the means of it. 

Man is an honorable being that Allah appreciates and renders superior to all beings in the world. It is forbidden to despise and to blame him, to carry tales about him no matter how, and to kill him unjustly. To kill a person unjustly is regarded the same as killing the whole people as it is stated in the following verse and when the characteristics of believers are listed, they are defined as “they do not kill anybody”: “If anyone slew a person―unless it be for murder or for spreading mischief in the land― it would be as if he slew the whole people.” (al-Maida, 32); “Those (believers) who invoke not, with Allah, any other god, nor slay such life as Allah has made sacred, except for just cause, not commit fornication― and any that does this (not only) meets punishment.” (al-Furqan, 68)

The last two universal principles consist of two humanly and social illnesses that gnaw away the community secretly and eliminate the feeling of trust: bribery and gossiping. They are prohibited in the Quran as follows: “O ye who believe! Eat not up your property among yourselves in vanities: but let there be amongst you traffic and trade by mutual good-will.” (an-Nisa, 29), “And do not eat up your property among yourselves for vanities, nor use it as bait for the judges, with intent that ye may eat up wrongfully and knowingly a little of (other) people's property.” (al-Baqara, 188) “and spy not on each other, nor speak ill of each other behind their backs. Would any of you like to eat the flesh of his dead brother? Nay, ye would abhor it...but fear Allah: for Allah is Oft-Returning, Most Merciful.” (al-Hujurat, 12) The Quran is a book that was sent down to make human beings happy; its principles are universal and they can be applied at all times and under any conditions. Everybody should contemplate thoroughly; which one of those principles is invalid in this age?

Note: We recommend you to read the following article about the issue: 

The Universality of the Quran

Since the beginning of the creation of the world, every idea that appeared had an opposite idea, and every thesis had an antithesis. In short, everything was created in the form of pairs: “And of everything We have created pairs: that ye may receive instruction.” (adh-Dhariyat/51:49) the earth-the sky, life-death, brightness-darkness, angel-devil, good-bad, male-female, etc; it is possible to give more examples. It is an accepted truth that every Adam has a devil against him and that every religion has irreligiousness against it. However, the opposition changes and appears in different forms in the course of time. The opposition will continue as the world exists.  

In this system of the world that was established, Allah sent human beings prophets among themselves in order to warn human beings, to teach them the reason why they were sent to the world, to protect them from the effects of the wrong paths, to inform them how to have high ethics and be virtuous, thus to become useful individuals both for themselves and for the humanity: “Verily We have sent thee in truth, as a bearer of glad tidings, and as a warner: and there never was a people, without a warner having lived among them (in the past).” (Fatir/35:24)

No matter how much the humankind advances in terms of science and technology, no matter how many scientific discoveries it makes, it is impossible for the humanity to reach the real happiness without revelation. In order to reach it, the most appropriate and natural way is to return to the religious belief that is inherent in the nature of man. The concrete name of this way is ISLAM, which all of the prophets emphasized and tried to explain to their nations and which Muhammad (pbuh), the last Prophet, was appointed to convey to human beings.

In fact, the essence of the religions is the same. The principles of belief brought by all the prophets are the same because the source of all of the religions is Allah, the Sublime Creator: “The same religion has He established for you as that which He enjoined on Noah--that which We have sent by inspiration to thee--and that which We enjoined on Abraham, Moses, and Jesus: namely, that ye should remain steadfast in Religion, and make no divisions therein” (ash-Shura/42:13) the prophets mentioned in the verse are the ulu’1-azm (the five greatest) prophets; the rest of the prophets should be examined in the same category , too. That is, the religions unite in the essence and principles. The differences are related to details. The following hadith of the Messenger of Allah clarifies the issue: “Prophets are like half brothers. Their father is the same; their mothers are different. Their religion is the same.”

The message of the Quran is the continuation of the revelation that started with Hazrat Adam, the first man and the first prophet. The essence of the religion before of Allah is the same and it is ISLAM: “The Religion before Allah is Islam.” (Aal-i-Imran/3:19) the prophets that emerged in different periods and places do not reject each other; Hazrat Muhammad (pbuh) does not reject any of them, either: “The Messenger believeth in what hath been revealed to him from his Lord, as do the men of faith. Each one (of them) believeth in Allah, His angels, His books, and His Messengers "We make no distinction (they say) between one and another of His Messengers." And they say: "We hear and we obey; (We seek) Thy forgiveness, Our Lord, and to Thee is the end of all journeys.” (al-Baqara/2:285) “Say: "We believe in Allah, and in what has been revealed to us and what was revealed to Abraham, Isma`il, Isaac, Jacob, and the Tribes, and in (the Books) given to Moses, Jesus, and the Prophets, from their Lord; we make no distinction between one and another among them, and to Allah do we bow our will (in Islam)".” (Aal-i-Imran/3:84) On the contrary, Hazrat  Muhammad (pbuh) is like the continuation of all of the previous prophets and he complements their prophethood. However, there is a small difference; it is impossible for any prophets to come after him; He is the last Prophet, hence, he is the one that takes the divine message to universal dimensions.

It is quite normal that religions that are the same in essence have some differences in details based on the time and place regarding some issues. The world changes, human beings change, needs change, in short, everything changes in the course of time. It is very well known that there are great differences between the things that the first men needed and that that the people who lived later. 

Allah, who created man, who knows him in detail, who meets his needs, sent the necessary message to people living in every age and had the last word with Hazrat Muhammad (pbuh). That is, there will be no prophets after him, no change in the revelation; human beings will continue their lives with this last revelation: “..This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed my favor upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion..” (al-Maida/5:3 “If anyone desires a religion other than Islam (submission to Allah) never will it be accepted of him; and in the Hereafter he will be in the ranks of those who have lost. (all spiritual good)” (Aal-i-Imran/3:85). “Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but (he is) the Messenger of Allah, and the Seal of the Prophets: and Allah has full knowledge of all things.” (al-Ahzab/33:40)

That is, Hazrat Muhammad (pbuh) is the prophet that ended the chain of the prophets; he is the last prophet; he is also the divine seal that approves and documents all of the prophets. If he had not come, the other prophets would have been forgotten; it would have been impossible to prove their existence in history and the veracity of their prophethood scientifically. With the prophethood of Hazrat Muhammad (pbuh), the humanity reached the final point of advancement in terms of religion. No prophets must be expected after him and the light of Muhammad must be followed.

Since there will be no religion after Islam and no prophet after Hazrat Muhammad (pbuh), it is necessary for the religion of Islam to meet the needs of people until the Day of Judgment and it is necessary for its fundamentals to be valid until then. To express it in short, it is obligatory for this religion to be universal. In this study, we will deal with that aspect of the Quran, which is the source of this religion, discuss the necessary conditions for the universality and will try to search whether they are present in the Quran. Universal, which means covering the world, comprehensive, concerning the mankind, worldwide, etc, can be defined as a thought, idea or belief that embraces all times and places and that addresses everybody.

CONDITIONS OF UNIVERSALITY


It is quite natural that every thought and ideology claim that they are universal because their continuality and acceptability depend on being universal. However, what is the degree of truth in their claims? Do they really have the conditions of universality as they claim? As for the universality of the Quran, which is our topic, we can list the basic qualities of the universality of the Quran as follows: 

1. Its Source is Divine

Allah created the universe, but he did not leave it on its own. The universe was not left on its own after being wound up like a clock as some people claim. There is always activity and vivacity in it. The Will of Allah is always dominant over it. That dominant Will did not leave people on their own and showed them the right path because the human mind cannot always comprehend the principles that are useful for him and is drifted into some wrong paths.

It is Allah who created man. He is the one that knows man best. Man’s needs, life, the difficulties he will face in life, the ways of overcoming those difficulties, etc were all determined by his Creator.  It is not logical if some people say, “man can be ruled by such and such principles in the best way.” It is not possible for the various currents of ideas and thoughts whose sources are not divine and that emerge for the happiness and peace of man to be universal. They become valid for a certain time and for a certain place, but they become invalid and out of fashion after a while, and nobody is interested in them any more. In this context, although their foundations are divine, Judaism and Christianity are limited to a certain time and certain nations; and since they could not preserve their original identities, they were replaced by Islam, with its perfect form, conveyed by Hazrat Muhammad (pbuh); therefore, they are not universal.   

It is not possible for any beings that were created to lead people to the truth. Although there are signs that show the existence of Allah subjectively and objectively, documents, angels, prophets and guidance through them for those who think, none of them can guide themselves or find the guidance unless they are guided by Allah, who is witness of all things (al-Hajj, 22/17; Saba, 34/47; Fussilat, 41/53; Mujadila, 58/6...). that truth is expressed clearly in the following verse: “..Is then He Who gives guidance to Truth more worthy to be followed or he who finds not guidance (Himself) unless he is guided?” (Yunus 10/35)

If a thought, idea or ideology is not based on a sound source of revelation, it is very difficult for that ideology to meet the needs of all kinds of people at all times. Some people whose sources are not divine and who try to direct people based on their own minds were not able to have a proper place in history; they  managed to be remembered by some words that made people laugh! For instance, it will be surprising for many people to hear the following sentences from Gandhi, one of the important leaders of the 20th century:

“When I see a cow, it is not an animal to eat; it is a poem of pity for me and I worship it and I shall defend its worship against the whole world. Mother cow is in many ways better than the mother who gave use birth. For instance, our mother gives milk for a little while and expects us to serve her when she grows old. Mother cow gives us milk and butter all along and expects from us nothing but grass and grain...”

The Quran that Hazrat Muhammad (pbuh) conveys to people originates from the divine source. It is not the word of someone else; it is sent by Allah himself to human beings. This book, the Quran, itself states that it is not the book of Hazrat Muhammad but “Verily this is the word of a most honorable Messenger, Endued with Power, with rank before the Lord of the Throne, With authority there, (and) faithful of his trust.” (at-Takwir/81:19-21) And that messenger is Jibril (Gabriel); he took it from the Lord of the Realms, the Knower of All, the Perfectly Wise, and brought it down to the heart of Hazrat Muhammad (pbuh) in clear Arabic. In many verses of the Quran, it is emphasized repeatedly that its source is nothing or no one but Allah and only Allah: “Ha Mim. A Revelation from (Allah) Most Gracious, Most Merciful― A Book, whereof the verses are explained in detail― a Qur'an in Arabic, for people who understand― Giving Good News and Admonition: yet most of them turn away, and so they hear not. They say: "Our hearts are under veils, (concealed) from that to which thou dost invite us, and in ours ears in a deafness, and between us and thee is a screen: so do thou (what thou wilt); for us, we shall do (what we will!)." Say thou: "I am but a man like you: it is revealed to me by inspiration, that your God is One God: so stand true to Him and ask for His forgiveness." And woe to those who join gods with Allah―...”(Fussilat, 41/1-6) “But the Misbelievers say: "Naught is this but a lie which he has forged, and others have helped him at it." In truth it is they who have put forward an iniquity and a falsehood. And they say: "Tales of the ancients, which he has caused to be written: and they are dictated before him morning and evening." Say: "The (Qur'an) was sent down by Him Who knows the Mystery (that is) in the heavens and the earth: verily He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.".” (al-Furqan. 25/4-6)

Today, only the Quran has the first and most important condition of universality: having a divine source. Besides, each of the religions like Judaism, Christianity and Buddhism are attributed to a person and named after that person, but, the principles that the Quran brought were not attributed to anyone; it was emphasized that the Quran was sent by Allah and its name became Islam not Muhammadanism. We all know very well where some -isms that emerged with the claim that they would give happiness to and enlighten the humanity took the humanity, and we know how much they were right in their claims. However, the civilization that the Quran established caught the attention of even the unbelievers (except some who are and were evil-minded), and it was approved to be right since it is based on revelation. 

2. Its Source is Sound

What we mean when we say its source is sound is that a system that claims to be based on revelation must be free of all kinds of intervention from its beginning up to now. That is, having a divine source when it emerges is not enough; it is necessary to preserve this property up to the end. The history of the mankind is full of messengers sent by Allah. Each of them fulfilled their duties thoroughly and worked hard for the happiness of the mankind. However, it is not possible to say that all of them reached their targets. Let alone the people living in the same country, their closest relatives did not approve their prophethood; some of the prophets were killed; some of them managed to convey their message to very small communities. Here, the mistake does not belong to the prophets but to the stubborn people that they addressed. However, we remind it in order to determine a truth. We do not want to say that some prophets are superior from this point of view.

There exists the institution of revelation that arranges the lives of people together with the prophets. Each prophet guided the people with the revelation that was sent down to him: “(We sent them) with Clear Signs and scriptures and We have sent down unto thee (also) the Message; that thou mayest explain clearly to men what is sent for them, and that they may give thought..” (an-Nahl 16/44), “We sent aforetime our messengers with Clear Signs and sent down with them the Book and the Balance (of Right and Wrong), that men may stand forth in justice...” (al-Hadid/57:25) However, when each prophet died, the revelation either got lost or was distorted, or was forgotten because it was abrogated by a prophet coming after him. Therefore, there is no book of a prophet that reached us without distortion except for the Quran. Although it is claimed that the Old Testament and the New Testament that are present today are the same as their original forms, it is only a claim because the Quran itself states it clearly: “Then woe to those who write the Book with their own hands, and then say: "This is from Allah" to traffic with it for a miserable price! Woe to them for what their hands do write and for the gain they make thereby!” (al-Baqara/2:79) “..they change the words from their (right) places...” (al-Maida/5:13) “..They change the words from their (right) times and places...” (al-Maida/5:41)

The Gospels that we have today have a special state. In the light of historical realities, each Gospel is “a biography of Jesus Christ” mentioning what he “said” and what he “did”, and reporting what the writer of that Gospel managed to learn from other sources.  Therefore, the New Testament (Gospels) does not resemble the Quran or the books of hadiths; they are like the biography books that narrate the life of Hazrat Muhammad (sirah); Some of those sirah books about the Messenger of Allah were written during the period of the Companions or after that period. It is very well-known that there were more than four gospels in the past and that the present four gospels were approved by the council that convened in Nicaea in 325 A.D.

When we have a look at the Quran in terms of the soundness of its source, we will see that the Quran has a state that is not valid for any heavenly book. Fist of all, it is under divine protection: “We have, without doubt sent down the Message; and We will assuredly guard it (from corruption).” (al-Hijr/15:9) “No falsehood can approach it from before or behind it: it is sent down by One Full of Wisdom, Worthy of all Praise.” (Fussilat/41:42) “Had it been from other than Allah, they would surely have found therein much discrepancy..”(an-Nisa/4:82) It is interesting enough that it is impossible to find similar verses, that is, statements that they will be protected, in the Torah or the Gospel. The fact that those books were not protected from changes and distortions, and that the Quran was protected absolutely shows that, apart from the efforts of the Messenger of Allah, his Companions, Islamic scholars, the Messenger of Allah is the last prophet, Islam is the last, perfect and universal form of the divine religion that leaves no need for the sending down of another book.

The transferring of the Quran to this age is based on the following two reasons that cannot be separated from each other: The fact that it was memorized and that it was recorded by writing. Whenever a part of the Quran was revealed, the Messenger of Allah summoned one of the Companions that could read and write and showed him where to write the new verse among the previously revealed verses and dictated the newly revealed verse(s). After the dictation finished, he asked the scribe to read what he wrote to him and corrected the mistakes if any.

Although there were some individuals who gathered the whole verses of the Quran during the period of the Messenger of Allah and although many Companions memorized the whole Quran, it was compiled and brought together officially during the period of Hazrat Abu Bakr and put in the form of one book. Then, it was duplicated and reached this age without any distortions. The Quran has received a lot of opposition and criticism since the day it started to be revealed; however, in all of the files that were sued against the Quran, the Quran was acquitted, and the struggles were ended by the victory of the Quran. That is, the principle of the soundness of the source, which is one of the most important conditions of universality is a property that the Quran absolutely has. And it is not possible to show a second book like it. 

3. The Conveyor must be Sincere in his Cause


For the universality of a thought or religion, first of all, the person who represents it must do what he preaches and show it to other people so that people will believe heartily that this lifestyle is livable and support it. Secondly, the person appointed to convey that thought or religion must be able to form a community based on those principles while he is alive. Thus, it will be understood that the thought or the religion is not only for individuals and that it has the capacity to form a community and to rule it.

When we have a look at the history of the mankind, we will see that practice and theory do not always go together. In many different times and places new leaders emerged and tried to gather people around some principles but the leaders themselves did not practice what they preached, or even if they practiced they could not form communities as they wanted hence their movements did not live long. 

To say something is very easy but to practice and do that thing is not so easy. Many people appearing as saviors emerged; they made very nice speeches and people deemed them as saviors. However, in a short time, it became clear that those people had nothing to do with what they talked about or they could not form communities as they wanted. Thus, both the person that deemed as a founder or savior and his ideas were left in the pages of history and forgotten.

A leader must practice what he says and must utter what can be practiced. In other words, he must practice the principles, virtues and responsibilities with his lifestyle and ethics. He must do the things that he preaches in his social, family and individual life in such a way that he must serve as an example for the people to come.   

When we examine the movements that emerged especially in the 19th and 20th centuries, we see that none of them had the characteristics mentioned above. They resemble the glowworms that glimmer at night, but it is soon understood that they are not stars. When their real identities become obvious, everybody leaves them and they are forgotten.

When we examine history from this point of view, we see that the person who had the conditions mentioned above perfectly was Hazrat Muhammad (pbuh). He practiced the universal decrees of the Quran that he preached in his own life first and then formed a perfect community based on those decrees. He did not only practice the principles that he preached in his own life but he also formed a state and community that those principles were practiced. It is possible to give a lot of examples regarding the issue but it will be sufficient to give a few examples.   

a. “Nay, but worship Allah, and be of those who give thanks!” (az-Zumar/39:66) This verse orders the Messenger of Allah and the whole ummah to worship only Allah stating that other things are not worthy of worshipping and orders them to thank Allah. We see the manifestations of this verse very clearly and in a very high level in the life of the Messenger of Allah. The following narration from Hazrat Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her) will be enough to enlighten the issue:  

“Our Prophet would pray at night until his feet were swollen. When I asked, ‘O, Messenger of Allah! Allah has forgiven your past and future sins. Why do you force yourself to worship so much in spite of this?' he answered, ‘Should I not be a grateful servant for this blessing of Allah?”

Yes, when he conveyed the message “Worship Allah” to his ummah, he himself showed it through his worshipping; actually, he worshipped so much that no other person could worship like him; thus, he himself did what he preached first.

b. “O ye who believe! stand out firmly for justice, as witnesses to Allah, even as against yourselves, or your parents, or your kin, and whether it be (against) rich or poor: for Allah can best protect both. Follow not the lusts (of your hearts) lest ye swerve and if ye distort (justice) or decline to do justice, verily Allah is well-acquainted with all that ye do.” (an-Nisa/4:135)

“Judge thou between them by what Allah hath revealed and follow not their vain desires, but beware of them lest they beguile thee from any of that (teaching) which Allah hath sent down to thee...” (al-Maida/5:49)

We are ordered to keep to the justice, truth and righteousness and not to deviate from what is right when we judge and decide about people and when we witness. The Messenger of Allah, who was appointed to convey it to people, practiced those commands in his own life and served as an example to people; he himself did the things fully what he asked others to do. For instance, they applied him regarding a case of theft. The person who stole belonged to a noble tribe and they asked him to forgive her. They sent some notable people as intercessors. However, the Messenger of Allah frowned his brows; his face became red due to that intercession and said:

“What destroyed the nations preceding you was that if a noble amongst them stole, they would forgive him, and if a poor person amongst them stole, they would inflict Allah's Legal punishment on him. By Allah, if Fatima, the daughter of Muhammad stole, I would cut off her hand.”

The following narration regarding the issue is also a nice example: “There was a person who made a lot of jokes from Ansar. When that Companion amused the congregation once, the Messenger of Allah poked him with the stick in his hand. He was a bit hurt. Then, he asked for retaliation. The Messenger of Allah let him for retaliation. Then, the man said, “You have clothing on you, but I did not have anything.” Thereupon, the Messenger of Allah folded up his clothing. Then, the man started to kiss the back of the Messenger of Allah especially the seal of the prophethood and said, “O Messenger of Allah! Actually that was what I wanted.” 

c. “..They ask thee how much they are to spend; say: "What is beyond your needs."” (al-Baqara/2:219) “Nor strain thine eyes in longing for the things We have given for enjoyment to parties of them the splendor of the life of this world, through which We test them: but the provision of thy Lord is better and more enduring.” (Taha/20:131)

In the verses above, the believers are advised to spend their money on the way of Allah and not to look at the unbelievers enviously. However, the Messenger of Allah himself applied what is ordered in the verse in a very high level; he spent his money on the way of Allah so much that sometimes he did not eat anything for days; he did not ever have barley bread; sometimes, there was no fire in his house for months to cook soup. Whenever someone wanted something from him, he would give it if he had it; if he did not have it, he would promise to give it. Sometimes, some people wanted the only clothing on him; and he would give it without any hesitation.

Once a Bedouin came and asked something from him. The Messenger of Allah gave it to him. Somebody else asked something and he gave to him, too. A third person came and asked something; the Messenger of Allah had nothing to give him so he promised to give him something as soon as he had it. That situation distressed Hazrat Umar; he was disturbed by the attitude of the people. He stood up and said, “O Messenger of Allah! They asked and you gave them. They asked again and you gave them again. They asked again and you promised to give them. Do not torment yourself so much.”

However, the Messenger of Allah did not like what Umar said. Meanwhile, Abdullah b. Huzafatu’s-Sahmi stood up and said, “O Messenger of Allah! Give. Do not think that Allah will make you poor and that he will deprive you of his bounties!” After keeping silent for a while, Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) said, “That is what I was ordered to do.”

It is possible to see many examples in the life of the Messenger of Allah regarding the issue. He applied what the Quran ordered delicately in his life and raised an ummah that acted like that. When we look at the lives of Muslims in the periods when the Quran was practiced truly, it will be seen that many things that the Prophet did were practiced by the ummah, too. We will give just one example here about someone who was very close to him.  

Hazrat Abu Bakr led a very plain and poor life. When he was the Caliph, he milked the sheep of other people to earn his living for a long time. However, a salary was allocated for him later but he deemed it too much. He accepted the poorest person of Madinah as a criterion for him. Therefore, he put the money remaining from his salary into a pitcher and collected them there for the 2,5 years that he served people as the Caliph. When he was about to die, he stated in his will that the pitcher be given to the Caliph after him. When Hazrat Umar was chosen as the Caliph, he broke the pitcher and saw some coins and a letter in it. Hazrat Abu Bakr addressed the new Caliph as follows in the letter: “The money is what is left from the salary allocated to me. I accepted the poorest person of Madinah as a criterion for me. I put the remaining money in this pitcher. Therefore, the money in it belongs to the Treasury and it must be put there.”

That incident and similar ones that amaze people were not rare. When the history of Islam is examined, we see numerous incidents like that; which are known. There are so many other incidents that are not known and that remained as a secret between the person and Allah; they all show the situation of Hazrat Muhammad (pbuh), who formed a community that practiced what they said word for word. 

4. All aspects of the Prophet (pbuh) were determined

One of the conditions for a religion or thought to be universal is that the biography of the person (prophet) that represented that religion must be known in detail and truly. The thoughts represented by people who are not known where, when, how and under what conditions they lived cannot be universal. It is not possible for people to learn principles regarding all aspects of their lives from those people. Even if people gather around some people whose lives are not completely known, that gathering will be short-lived because people are curious to learn about the lives of people whom they follow in detail. It may last for some time through diversion and delaying with some stories, but it will not last long and everything will be obvious soon. When we look at the history from this point of view, there is only one person with those characteristics: Hazrat Muhammad (pbuh).  

The other prophets do not have the same characteristic in terms of determining all aspects of their lives; it is not in question at all for some other personalities. No matter which historical personality we examine, we will observe that many aspects of them are unknown. For instance, Zoroaster is known as a great prophet by the majority of the people that follow him. However, his real personality in history is not known very well. Buddhism is one of the oldest religions, and it spread to many places. However, we do not have detailed information about Buddha, its founder. Each nation was sent a prophet in history. The Quran informs us about the names and life stories of some of them. We do not have the means to know the whole of their lives. There is some information in the Old and New Testament that contradict each other but they never express the truth because those books were written after the death of their prophets. 

One of the reasons why the life stories of other prophets are not known in detail may be this: Those prophets were sent for their own ages and to their own nations. Their nations took lessons and examples from their prophets when they were alive. However, there was no need for their lives to be known in detail in the periods to come because the prophethood of those prophets would end with the prophethood of Hazrat Muhammad (pbuh), whose prophethood is valid for all times and places. Therefore, he was the prophet whose life needed to be known in detail.

If we look at the life of the Messenger of Allah from this point of view, we will see that there exists a situation that is valid for nobody else. We see that all of his private life with its details, all of his life including his words, acts, attitudes against events, approvals and consents is recorded and transferred to the following generations. The recording and observance of his life by believers is ordered by the Quran. In many places in the Quran, when obedience to Allah is mentioned, obedience to the Prophet is ordered just after it and they are dealt with as if they are an inseparable entity. In these verses, the love of Allah was attributed to obeying the Prophet and turning back from him was regarded as a sign of unbelief. (1) Besides, it was stated clearly that those who obeyed Allah and His Messenger would be admitted to Gardens with rivers flowing beneath and to abide therein for ever and that those who disobeyed Allah and His Messenger would be admitted Hell to abide therein forever (an-Nisa, 4/13-14); and that those who obeyed Allah and the Messenger would be in the company of those on whom is the Grace of Allah― of the Prophets, the sincere lovers of Truth, the witnesses and the Righteous (who do good) (an-Nisa, 4/69); that the messenger was sent only to be obeyed (an-Nisa, 4/64–65); that obeying the messenger was a property of belief (at-Tawbah, 9/71), etc. All of those things mentioned above necessitated knowing all aspects of the life and personality of Hazrat Prophet (pbuh); and they are the results of knowing.   

Secondly, regarding some decrees and judgments given by the Prophet about the interpretation of the Quran and  about the things that were not clearly mentioned in the Quran, what the Messenger of Allah said, did and approved are regarded to be a part of the religion; therefore, they were determined, studied and transferred to the following generations perfectly. The act of transferring was supervised so closely and was carried out based on such principles that everything that did not belong to the Prophet and that had the possibility of being made up by others was sorted out. Moreover, the state of the people who transferred and reported them were examined and a perfect chain of transmission was set up. It is impossible, in history, to find a similar system to that system, that is, the science of hadith, which even the westerners admire and wonder. (2)

If we go back to the beginning of the issue, we can say this: The information about all of the founders of other religions is missing. For instance, we only know about the incidents in the last three years of the 33-year life of Jesus. We know about the religious renewers of Iran only through “Shahnameh” of Firdausi. The history of the religious guides in India is full of legends. The source of information about Moses was lost and the Torah was compiled centuries after the death of Moses, after the slavery in Babel. This situation can be interpreted through the fact that they are not universal because the teachings of those prophets, renewers and guides were not necessary for all times. Maybe, because of this, all of their history did not reach us; only the parts that were necessary to be known were preserved. If we ask the whole world, “Who, among the founders of religions, has the best personality?”, we will receive various answers. If we change our question a bit and ask, “Who is the only person whose book was recorded, determined and preserved so successfully unlike other holy books, whose incidents and events in his life, deeds, expeditions, clothing style, facial expressions, speaking style, walking, laughing, working were recorded in detail and transferred to the people that came after him?”, the answer we will receive is definitely this: “That person is no one but Hazrat Muhammad (pbuh).” (3)

His life was not only reported by people, it was also mentioned in the Quran in detail. His life, ethics, attitudes against incidents, relations between him and believers, unbelievers, his wives and other members of his families, his mission, other aspects of his personality, etc are all reported to us by the Quran. That is, that situation of Hazrat Muhammad (pbuh) was not experienced by anybody else.   

Hazrat Muhammad (pbuh), who spent 23 years of his 63-year life as a prophet, did not only convey the revelation that came to him to people during that period but he also showed them how to practice it. Therefore, there is no difference between the worshipping of any Muslim and the worshipping of the Prophet in terms of its nature. It is not possible to say the same thing for the members of the other religions. 

Although it is very difficult to find authentic information about the religious and private life of the previous prophets, thanks Allah, we even have the personal belongings of our Prophet (pbuh) today. I think the psychology behind the fact that some Jews and Christians sometimes attack Islam and the Prophet (pbuh) is the psychology of jealousy originating from this fact. (4)

5. It Addresses Everybody

In order to be universal, it is necessary for an idea, thought, or religion to embrace and call everybody, and to address people from all levels and not to be peculiar to a certain congregation, group, community, race or nation. Otherwise, such a thought or religion is not universal but national and local. From this point of view, it cannot be said that the religions, ideologies and –isms other than Islam are universal.

Is there a prophet other than Hazrat Muhammad (pbuh) who was sent with a general prophethood that comprises the humanity? Or, is there a divine religion sent by Allah other than Islam that embraces everybody? Sons of Israel allocated the world only to themselves and regarded the world to be limited with their own borders. They even thought that Allah, who is the Lord of the all realms, was the deity of their nation only. Therefore, when we look at the prophets of Sons of Israel and the Torah, we see that their call is limited with their own nation, not embracing other nations. (5) Even today, we can say that the Sharia of Moses and Judaism is peculiar to Sons of Israel only and does not address others. (6) According to them, Jesus herded only the sheep of Sons of Israel, (7) conveyed his prophethood only to the people in the villages and lands of Sons of Israel and tried not give his sons’ bread to dogs. (8)

The holy books of Hindus, the Vedas, are no different from the Torah. Hindus claim that they are holy books sent down from heaven to their prophets. They believe that the reading and the tune of the Vedas cannot be heard by people other than Aryans because, according to them, all of the people except Aryans are dirty and their ears are filthy. Therefore, they do not deserve hearing the tunes of the holy book. When they hear the verses of the Vedas, it is necessary to pour lead into their ears. (9)

The Quran, which God Almighty sent to Hazrat Muhammad (pbuh), His slave and messenger, was sent in order to show what is good to the whole mankind, to save them from wrong paths and to guide them to the right path, to enable them to reach the guidance, to enable them to abandon the evil and direct toward the good, to save them from worshipping idols, to enable them to have the belief of oneness, to save them from the oppression of people and tyrants, and to enable them to attain the justice of Islam. The Quran, which aims to ensure the happiness of the mankind, was not sent to a certain group or race, to a certain time and country, or to people speaking a certain language but to the whole mankind. (10) Therefore, our Prophet, who was appointed to convey the message of the Quran to people, is not the prophet of a certain time, place or group but all times, places and people. And he is a universal prophet. It is possible to see his universality in many verses in the Quran:

Say: "O men! I am sent unto you all, as the Messenger of Allah, to Whom belongeth the dominion of the heavens and the earth: there is no god but He: it is He that giveth both life and death. So believe in Allah and His Messenger, the unlettered Prophet, who believed in Allah and His words: follow him that (so) ye may be guided." (al-A’raf, 7/158)

We sent thee not, but as a mercy for all creatures. (al-Anbiya, 21/107)

We have not sent thee but as a (Messenger) to men, giving them Glad tidings, and warning them (against sin), but most men understand not. (Saba’, 34/28)

The words used in some other verses indicate that the Quran is universal and addresses everybody because words like nas: people (2/21; 4/79, 7/158; 10/1; 31/33; 35/5; 105, 170), insan : man(75/3–10; 80/17, 24; 89/15; 100/6–8; 103/1–3), abd and ibad: slave and slaves (2/186; 7/32; 15/49; 17/96; 39/7,10; 89/29), bashar: human (74/31, 36), bani Adam: sons of Adam (7/26, 27, 31, 35; 36/60), alamin: realms (21/107; 25/1; 32/2; 38/87; 45/36) express universality. As it is understood from those words used in order to express the prophethood of the Messenger of Allah and his conveying the revelation to people, his prophethood is not limited with time, place and a nation; it embraces everybody.

The Messenger of Allah said that he was not a prophet sent for one nation only but for the whole humanity. “I have been given five things which were not given to anyone else before me. Allah made me victorious by awe for a distance of one month's journey. The earth has been made for me (and for my followers) a place for praying and a thing to perform Tayammum, therefore anyone of my followers can pray wherever the time of a prayer is due. The booty has been made Halal (lawful) for me. Every Prophet used to be sent to his nation only but I have been sent to all mankind. And I have been given the right of intercession.” (11) “Once, Hazrat Umar came to the Messenger of Allah and said, “O Messenger of Allah! I asked someone from Bani Qurayza Jews and he wrote me some verses from the Torah. Shall I read them to you?” The color of the face of the Messenger of Allah changed. One of the people there said to Umar, “Do you not see the face of the Messenger of Allah?” Hazrat Umar said, “I am content with Allah as the Lord, Islam as the religion and Muhammad (pbuh) as the Prophet.” Thereupon, an expression of joy was seen on the face of the Prophet and he said, “I swear by Allah in whose hand is my soul that if Moses appeared among you and if you left me and followed him, you would deviate into the wrong path. You are my share among ummahs; and I am your share among prophets.” (12)
It is understood from those explanations that the Quran comprises all human beings and it will be valid until the Day of Judgment. No book will be sent after it and no religion will be valid in the presence of Allah except the religion that the Quran brought, because the principles brought by the Quran can be applied by everyone and it has a property that meets all needs. However, those who interpret it should understand it properly and find appropriate answers from it appropriate for the needs of people.  

6. It Meets All Needs of People

In order to be universal, it is necessary for a thought or religion to meet all of the needs, requests and desires of the human beings that it addresses. A thought or religion that cannot fulfill it cannot be universal. When we look at the other religions and thoughts from this point of view, we see that they are not interested in all aspects of human beings but some limited aspects and that they ignore some aspects of their lives. However, the Quran is completely free of any deficiencies. It has not left anything that man will need incomplete. It has dealt with everything from the most important one to the less important one and informed people about the best thing. In short, everything is present in the Quran for those who can think, understand and comprehend. The following verse indicates that property: “..there is not a grain in the darkness (or depths) of the earth nor anything fresh or dry (green or withered) but is (inscribed) in a Record Clear (to those who can read).” (al-An’am, 6/59)

For instance, things related to belief are things that man can never abandon. There are detailed principles in the Quran regarding the issue, and the names and attributes of the Creator are dealt with in detail (2/255; 6/102; 20/14; 21/22; 23/91; 42/11; 59/22–24; 67/1–2; 112/1–4);  in addition, it has been emphasized that only Allah deserves being worshipped (7/191–195; 16/17; 22/73–74; 46/4–6); people have been advised to believe in angels, prophets and books sent to them (2/136; 4/136); it has been stated that man will be resurrected after death and that he will be accounted for, and punished or rewarded accordingly. (21/104; 30/27; 32/10; 34/7; 36/78–79; 50/3, 15; 56/47–50; 64/7; 75/3–4).

Principles related to kinds of worshipping like salah, fasting, zakah and hajj have been determined, and rules that will be needed by man have been imposed. For instance, halal (licit) and haram (forbidden) things have been stated (2/188, 275; 3/130; 4/10; 6/152), principles regarding buying and selling have been mentioned (2/282; 4/6; 5/106), decrees about orphans and their custodians have been expressed (4/2–10), issues like marriage, divorce, alimony, iddah, breastfeeding have been stated. Punishments to be applied for some crimes have been stated; for instance, the punishment of retaliation for killing a person deliberately (2/178), punishment for killing by mistake (4/92), punishment for highwaymen (5/33), punishment for theft (5/38, 94; 24/2), punishment for fornication (24/2), punishment for slandering chaste women that they fornicated (24/4) have been stated. The way to be followed when people have quarrels among them has been stated (49/9–10), solutions to family problems have been presented (4/34–35), principles like the rules for the relations between Muslims and non-Muslims , relations during the time of peace (4/90; 8/61), during the time of war (2/190), always being ready for wars (8/60), not being afraid when facing the enemy, not withdrawing and not running away from them (4/104; 8/15–16), the state of the person who demands political asylum (9/6), how to treat prisoners of war (47/4), and the items of contracts (8/58; 9/4; 16/91) have been dealt with.

Another important issue that is emphasized is ethical principles. Many issues like how to treat relatives (4/36), getting rid of bad deeds through good deeds and pardoning as a good characteristic (3/133–134; 5/13; 42/40), encouraging people to be honest (9/119), respecting entrusted things (4/58,107; 8/27; 23/1–11), encouraging people to be just, (16/90), being modest, avoiding conceit and show-off (17/37; 25/63–75; 31/18–19), the unpleasantness of mocking people and giving them bad names (49/11), avoiding bad thoughts about people, backbiting and spying on people (49/12), showing respect to the privacy of other people’s homes, and the principles to be observed while entering other people’s homes (24/27–29, 58–59), importance necessary to be given to the chastisement of women (24/31; 33/32, 33, 59), rules about staying in other people’s homes (33/53) have been dealt with. In short, the Quran has a large variety of issues. And those issues that are dealt with are the issues that people will absolutely face in their lives. Therefore, people can easily find and pick up the issues that they will need from the Quran, which shows that it has a universal characteristic.   

7. The Principles it has Brought are Acceptable

Many ideas have emerged, many philosophical currents have been formed and many systems have been presented to human beings up to now. However, none of them was long-lived; even the ones that seemed indestructible disappeared in a very short time and only their names were left; even the names of some currents were forgotten. The most important reason that made them like that was that the principles they brought did not have a characteristic that would make everybody accept them. As for the Quran, the principles that it brought related to creed, ethics and applications have a characteristic that makes everybody accept it because the owner of those principles is Allah, who is the Creator of man and who knows how much burden a person can carry.  The acceptability depends on the practicability and reasonability of the principles that are put forward. God Almighty has not put people to difficulties; He has not laid anybody a burden that he cannot carry: “..Allah intends every facility for you He does not want to put you to difficulties...” (al-Baqara, 2/185) The verse above shows it clearly.

However, some people objected especially to some decrees stated in the Quran and claimed that they could be valid only in the age that the Quran was sent down and that they should be replaced by some new principles today. Those thoughts were mostly put forward by orientalists and many people were affected by them. For instance, they claimed that cutting off the hand of a person as a punishment for theft, polygamy, giving women fewer shares than men as inheritance, etc could not be valid today. We will not discuss them one by one in this article. However, when those decrees that are criticized are examined through an objective eye, a clean conscience and an unconditioned approach within the integrity of Islam not based on the criteria of the existing debauched civilization that made the majority of the mankind unhappy and that shed a lot of blood all over the world, it will be seen how perfect those decrees are; anyway, they have already been explained by expert people.

When a person examines a command or a prohibition, he will evaluate the issue differently if he imagines that he himself faces the same condition. Instead of acting like that, if a person approaches the issue under the influence of others and by taking refuge in some notions, he will develop wrong ideas. 

In this study, the primary conditions of universality have been discussed. As a result, we have seen very clearly that all of those conditions are present in the Quran. From now on, it is possible for us to say that the Quran is universal and that there is no doubt about it. This state will continue until the Day of Judgment because no books will be sent down after it and no prophet will be sent after Hazrat Muhammad (pbuh).

Ass. Prof. Muhittin AKGÜL

Footnotes:

1. “Say: "If ye do love Allah, follow me: Allah will love you and forgive you your sins; for Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful." Say: "Obey Allah and His Messenger"; but if they turn back, Allah loveth not those who reject Faith..” (Aal–i-Imran, 3/31–32)
2. Dr. Sprenger, a famous German scholar, states the following in the English introduction that he wrote for al-Isaba, the book of Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, printed in Calcutta between 1853–1864: “There is no nation among the previous nations – and there is no nation among the contemporary nations – that did what Muslims did about the science of biography, the life stories of people. They collected the biography of 500.000 people.” Nadwi, Sulayman, ar–Risalatu’l–Muhammadiyya Daru’s–Suudiyya. Jeddah 1984, p. 62 (footnote 1).
3. Shibli, Mawlana, Asr–ı Saadet (Trns: Ömer Rıza Doğrul), Eser Neşriyat ve Dağıtım, İst. 1977, 1/18–19.
4. Kaya, Mahmud, İslâm’ın Evrenselliği Üzerine Ebedî Risalet Sempozyumu l. Işık Yayınları, İzmir 1993, p. 306.
5. A person who reads all parts of the Torah cannot find anything stating that Moses or Sons of Israel are appointed to call others to their religion. What is written in every part confirms the idea that Judaism is a religion peculiar to itself and the Lord is only their God. Reporting from Darwaza, Muhammad Izzah, Tarikhu Bani Israel Min Asfarihim, Çelebi, Ahmet, Mukayeseli Dinler Açısından Yahudilik (Trnsl: Ahmet M. Büyükçınar, Ömer Faruk Harman), Kalem Yayınevi, İst. 1978. p. 186. See also: Faruqi, Ismail Raji, İbrahimî Dinlerin Diyaloğu: Trialogue of the Abrahamic Faiths (Trnsl: Mesut Karaşahan), Pınar Yayınları, İst. 1993, p. 35 ff.
6. The reason why Jews allocate their religion only to themselves and oppose others entering their religion is due to the feeling of egoism and regarding themselves distinguished and superior to others. It is such a feeling that they think as if the value of Jews becomes higher than others and they regard everybody except Jews as wild people or animals. Çelebi, Ahmet, ibid p. 187.
7. The expression: However, Jesus answered saying, “I was sent only to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.” (Matthew, 15/24) indicates it.
8. Nadwi, Sulayman, ar–Risalatu’l–Muhammadiyya 165–166. See also: Kahraman, Ahmet, Mukayeseli Dinler Tarihi p. 159–160.
9. Nadwi, Sulayman, ar–Risalatu’l–Muhammadiyya p. 166. see also: Kahraman, ibid p. 106.
10. Abdulhalim Mahmud, Ali, Alamiyyatu’d–Da’wati’l–Islamiyya Daru’l–Wafa, Cairo 1992, p. 161.
11. Bukhari, tayammum 1, salat 56; Muslim, masajid 3; Nasai, ghusl 26; Darimi, siyar 28, salat 111.
12. Darimi, muqaddima 39; Musnad 3/471, 4/276.

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