8. High Ethics and Good Manners of Hazrat Muhammad
- HIGH ETHICS
- 8.1. HAZRAT PROPHET GAVE IMPORTANCE TO CONSULTATION
- 8.2- INSTRUCTIONS GIVEN DURING BATTLES
- 8.3- HAZRAT MUHAMMAD (PBUH) WAS MODEST
- 8.4- HAZRAT MUHAMMAD (PBUH) ENCOURAGED PEOPLE TO WORK
- 8.5- HAZRAT MUHAMMAD (PBUH) HAD A BOUNDLESS COMPASSION
- 8.6- BEST OF MEN ARE THOSE WHO ARE MOST BENEFICIAL FOR MEN
- 8.7- HAZRAT MUHAMMAD WAS A PERSON WHO FACILITATED THINGS AND WHO GAVE GOOD TIDINGS
Hazrat Prophet asked for high ethics from Allah in a prayer: "O Allah, grant me high ethics, nobody but you can grant high ethics. O Allah, keep me away from bad qualities.(Muslim, Misafirun, 201. )
Hazrat Prophet encouraged his ummah a lot to have high ethics and good manners:
Hazrat Prophet reminded people that high ethics was one of the ways of making belief perfect by saying, "The most perfect believer in terms of belief is the one who has the highest ethics and who treats his family in the nicest way".(Abu Dawood, Sunnah, 14)
The hadith "There is nothing heavier than high ethics in the mizan (balance) of a believer in the Day of Judgment" indicates the weight and hence the worth of high ethics in the day when all of the deeds, whether big or small, will be weighed.(Tirmizi, Birr, 16, 62.)
Serving as an example is the best way of tabligh. Believers are warned regarding the issue by the following verse: "O you who believe! Why say you that which you do not? (Saff, 61/2).
Hazrat Prophet is a good example in everything, primarily in calling people to Islam, worshipping, prayers, family life and relations with people.
Allah Himself witnessed that the ethics of Hazrat Prophet is high for the first time.
In the Glorious Quran, Allah says for Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH): "And you (stand) on an exalted standard of character" (al-Qalam, 68/4) and praises his ethics. He who created man definitely knows best which characters of man are nice and good. The creator of the universe, Allah, informed all human beings that the ethics of Hazrat Muhammad is high.
In another verse, Allah reminds that Hazrat Prophet is an exemplary person that needs to be followed:
"You have indeed in the Messenger of Allah a beautiful pattern (of conduct) for anyone whose hope is in Allah and the Final Day, and who engages much in the praise of Allah." (al-Ahzab, 33/21)
In a hadith, Hazrat Prophet states the following regarding ethics:
I was sent only to complete the high ethics. With that hadith, Hazrat Prophet expressed that he was a teacher of high ethics and a complementary person to complete the high ethics taught by the previous prophets and a reminder of good manners and qualities that were forgotten.(Muwatta, Husnu'l-hulk, 8.)
One of the qualities of high ethics is to keep ones promise" and not to tell lies. Even the polytheists admitted that Hazrat Prophet was a person who always kept his promise and never told lies. Hazrat Prophet had written letters calling the rulers to Islam. When the ruler of Byzantium read the letter, he searched whether there was anyone of his tribe in his country because he wanted to find out about Hazrat Muhammad. They had found Abu Sufyan of Makkah, who had not embraced Islam yet at that time. Heraclius asked him some questions. One of the questions was how his ethics was. Byzantine ruler, Heraclius asked Abu Sufyan: "Did you accuse him of telling lies before he called you to the religion?"
Abu Sufyan said: "No"
Heracles: "has he ever broken his promise?"
Abu Sufyan said: "No"
Hazrat Prophet (PBUH) stated that it was Allah who granted him that high ethics through the following words:
"My Lord has educated me, that is why my ethics is so high."(Ajluni, Kashfu'l- khafa, I, 70.)
On the other hand, our mother Hazrat Aisha pointed out to that truth by answering the question of a sahaba O Mother of Believers! How was the ethics of our Prophet? as; Do you ever not read the Quran." His ethics was the ethics of the Quran.
Our mother Hazrat Aisha answered another sahaba as follows: He was not at all a rude person; he would not argue with people in the market; he would not answer evil with evil; he would forgive people and treat them tolerantly.(Tirmizi, Birr and Sila, 69.)
In the Glorious Quran, the reason why people gathered around Hazrat Prophet (PBUH) is explained as his not being harsh-hearted and severe. It is one of the signs of high ethics. "It is part of the Mercy of Allah that you do deal gently with them. Were you severe or harsh-hearted, they would have broken away from about you; so pass over (their faults), and ask for (Allah's) forgiveness for them; and consult them in affairs (of moment). Then when you have taken a decision, put your trust in Allah. For Allah loves those who put their trust (in Him)." (Aal-e-Imran, 3/159).
8.1. HAZRAT PROPHET GAVE IMPORTANCE TO CONSULTATION
Hazrat Prophet (PBUH) assumed consultation, that is, appreciating the opinions of people around him as a principle. He also advised his ummah to consult.
Hazrat Prophet (PBUH) consulted sahaba about the issues that he did not receive any revelation; he generally acted in accordance with that consultation. The verse: ... who (conduct) their affairs by mutual Consultation... (ash-Shura, 42/38) in the Glorious Quran is proof that consultation is a necessity of Islamic belief.
Hazrat Prophet (PBUH) acted in accordance with the opinion of the majority as a result of the consultation. He did not change it even if he had a different opinion. When Hazrat Ali told our Prophet that he wanted to marry his daughter Fatima, he asked his daughter and other members of his family and decided accordingly.
During the Battle of Badr, Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH) showed a place regarding the selection of the battlefield. Then, one of the sahabas asked him: Is this a place that Allah ordered you? Or is it your own opinion and military tactics?
Hazrat Muhammad said it was his personal opinion. Then the sahaba said that place was not suitable and added that they should proceed to the water source nearest the enemy and camp there. He proposed that they should start fighting after taking hold of the water sources. Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH) said it was a nice plan and started to carry out the plan.
After the battle, he decided what to do with the prisoners of war after consulting the sahabas. He also consulted the sahabas about adhan (call to prayer), Uhud and Khandaq Battles and the Treaty of Hudaybiya.
When Hazrat Muhammad heard that Makkans would attack Madinah, he summoned his sahabas and had a meeting. He consulted them about the defence of Madinah.
During the meeting Salman Farisi, an Iranian, described a strategy of defence carried out in defending a city in Iran. In accordance with that strategy, deep and broad ditches would be dug around Madinah and the city would be defended like that. Hazrat Muhammad liked it; they defended Madinah in accordance with that strategy and became successful.
Now, let us hear what Anas b. Malik, who served the Prophet for a long time, says. His mother gave Anas to Hazrat Prophet as a present. Anas said: "I served Hazrat Prophet for ten years. He did not say pish even once. He did not reprimand me for something that I did saying why did you do it?. He was the most perfect man in terms of ethics. expressing how high was the ethic of the Messenger of Allah.(Tirmizi, Sunan, IV, 368)
8.2- INSTRUCTIONS GIVEN DURING BATTLES
Hazrat Prophet said the following to the commanders of the troops sent against Byzantium: "While taking the revenge of the crimes committed against us, do not touch those sitting in their homes and those who do not act hostilely. Show respect to the weakness of women. Do not touch the babies in the bosoms of mothers and the ill people. Do not destroy the means of living of people. Do not touch the trees of fruit and dates."
8.3- HAZRAT MUHAMMAD (PBUH) WAS MODEST
Hazrat Prophet (PBUH) visited ill people, accompanied funerals when the met them and accepted the invitations for meals of the slaves. He milked his own goats and did his own work. He did not leave his hands before the hand of the person shaking hands with him, and he did not turn his face and leave before the person who left him turned his face. He was very generous. He was very brave. He always told the truth. He was the most loyal protector for the people he protected. When he spoke, he uttered the sweetest and nicest words.
People who saw him were filled with respect towards him. Those who had contacted him definitely liked him. People who described them said: We did not see anyone like him before him and after him. He spoke with definite and clear words; people did not forget what he had said. Chastity, kindness, patience, self-sacrifice and appreciation dominated his actions.
He consoled those who survived a disaster and those who were grievous and sorrowful. Even at the time of scarcity, he invited other people to his meals. He was interested in the personal welfare of the people around him. He stood on the way and listened to the complaints of even the poorest person. He went to the homes of the poor people to conciliate the heartbroken ones, to express condolence to the mournful ones. Sometimes a very poor slave came, took the Prophet to his master, and told him about the bad treatment he suffered and wanted to be apologized to him for the insult or to be freed.
Hazrat Prophet never ate before saying bismillah (in the name of Allah) and never left the dining table without praising Allah. He used his time very carefully and never wasted time. During the day, when he was not busy with worshipping, he accepted visitors and took care of the administration affairs. During the night, he slept very little and spent his time worshipping. He liked the poor and showed mercy to them.
He entertained the homeless in a part of the mosque that was near his house. He always invited someone to dinner to his modest dinner table. The method he used for his terrible enemies was to forgive them and show tolerance to them.
Allahs Messenger (PBUH) led a plain life. His clothes and possessions were plain. Hazrat Abu Hurayra narrated that the Prophet was starved many times. What the Prophet usually ate was a few dates. Sometimes there was no light in his house for months. Islamic historians say, Allah gave him the keys to all of the treasures in the world but he did not want them.
8.4- HAZRAT MUHAMMAD (PBUH) ENCOURAGED PEOPLE TO WORK
That great Prophet (PBUH) always appreciated the ideas directed towards progress and encouraged them. Allahs Messenger (PBUH) stated that working was necessary and added that man could not have anything except the outcome of his work using the language of the Quran: That man can have nothing but what he strives for; That (the fruit of) his striving will soon come in sight. (an-Najm, 53/39-40). The Prophet also stated the following: "It is for us to work and for Allah to give success."
8.5- HAZRAT MUHAMMAD (PBUH) HAD A BOUNDLESS COMPASSION
The love of our Prophet was universal. When Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH) said, He who goes to bed full and knows that his neighbor is hungry is not one of us., he meant all people, whether Muslim or not. When he said; None of you believes truly till one likes for his brother that which he loves for himself about Muslims he meant that a Muslim is someone who takes care of others.
8.6- BEST OF MEN ARE THOSE WHO ARE MOST BENEFICIAL FOR MEN
The concept of social life of our Prophet is not destructive but corrective and protective. It is he who expresses the sacredness of family life the best. According to him, the loftiest service is service to humanity. He stated the following: Best of men are those who are most beneficial for men.
He called believers to work in order to gain virtue and reward. According to him, children are the trusts of Allah to us to be nurtured with love and affection. Parents will be loved by their children and they will be shown affection. Relatives, neighbors and the poor are included in that context.
8.7- HAZRAT MUHAMMAD WAS A PERSON WHO FACILITATED THINGS AND WHO GAVE GOOD TIDINGS
When Hazrat Prophet (PBUH) sent a sahaba somewhere to do something, he always said: "Facilitate things to people, do not make it hard for them; give them good tidings and do not make them run away ".(Bukhari, Ilm,11)
Hazrat Prophet (PBUH) assumed a forgiving attitude towards the crimes committed against him. The following hadith reported by Hazrat Aisha is important because it expresses the attitude of Hazrat Prophet regarding the issue.
When Hazrat Prophet was left free to choose between two things, he always preferred to choose the easier one if there was no sin or drawback in choosing it. If there was a sin, he avoided it more than anybody else did. The Messenger of Allah never tried to take revenge for himself; however, when something that Allah prohibited was committed, he did what was necessary."
It is the ethics of the Prophet. He forgave the crimes committed against him. However, he settled the ones regarding the divine law.
Abu Masud Ansari said: Somebody came to the Messenger of Allah and said, 'So-and-so lengthens the prayer when he leads the prayers so that I refrain from going to the mosque for the morning prayer' I had never seen Allahs Messenger (PBUH) so angry before. He said, 'O people! When any of you leads the prayer, keep it short. There may be the old, the weak and those who have important things to do among the congregation' "(Muslim, Hadith no:71.)
- Why did the Prophet (pbuh) marry Hz. Khadijah, who was much older than him? When the Prophet (pbuh) married, he was twenty-five and H. Khadijah was forty. He could have found a younger wife if he had wanted. What factors were important in his choice?
- Could you please give information on the Battle of Badr,Uhud and Khandaq?
- Was Hazrat Yusuf (Joseph) (pbuh) more beautiful than Muhammad (pbuh)? Which one was more beautiful?
- How should we understand the concept ethics and the hadith stating “I was sent to complete the high ethics”?
- Will you summarize the life of the four caliphs?
- When and why did the Prophet (pbuh) take Hz. Ali to his house to live with him?
- 9. Sunnah (Way) of Hazrat Prophet
- It is said that no wali (saint) can reach the degree of sahabas (companions of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)). Can you explain it? Some saints had a conversation with Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) after his death. Can they reach the level of sahaba?