Will you explain the verses that tell about the human and prophetic aspects of the Prophet?

Details of the Question
Will you explain the verses that tell about the human and prophetic aspects of the Prophet?
The Answer

Dear Brother / Sister,

Hazrat Prophet has two personalities that are different from one another:
1-His human aspect
2-His prophetic aspect
Hazrat Prophet is a human being like us in terms of his human aspect. He eats and drinks; he is affected by cold. He does not know what will happen tomorrow or in the future.
In terms of his prophetic aspect, he receives revelation. He is the recipient of the messages sent by Allah. 
That the Prophet is a human being is not a deficiency for him; on the contrary, it is perfection. If he had been an angel and not a human being, he could not have become a leader and he could not have guided people.
The companions could differentiate between his human and prophetic aspects. For instance, when the Prophet deployed the army somewhere before the Battle of Badr, Hubab B.Mundhir, one of the Companions said, "O Messenger of Allah! If the deployment here was not ordered by revelation, it would be better for us to surround the water and be more advantageous." Hazrat Prophet approved his view. They acted in accordance with the view of Hubab.
The Messenger of Allah is informed about some secrets related to ghaib (the unknown, unseen). The greatest evidence of it is the Quran. We see many examples of it in the Quran.
When the Prophet disclosed a matter in confidence to one of his consorts, and she then divulged it (to another) and Allah made it known to him, he confirmed part thereof and repudiated a part. Then when he told her thereof, she said "Who told thee this?" He said, "He told me who knows and is well-acquainted (with all things)." (at-Tahrim, 3)
“We sent thee not, but as a mercy for all creatures.” In that verse, it is stated that Hazrat Muhammad was sent only as a mercy for all creatures and worlds. Mercy means feeling pity for. The meaning of the verse is as follows: Allah sent Hazrat Muhammad in order to save human beings from superstitions, bad habits and to guide them to the true path because he felt pity for them.
The Quran deals with both Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) and his sunnah in many ways. According to a research, there are 115 verses in the Quran that are related to the issue.
Let us list the verses that mention Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) and his sunnah under main headings by giving examples.
1- Verses stating that Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) is a great blessing of Allah for believers.
“Allah did confer a great favor on the Believers when He sent among them an Messenger from among themselves, rehearsing unto them the Signs of Allah, sanctifying them, and instructing them in Scripture and Wisdom, while, before that, they had been in manifest error.”
“Now hath come unto you a messenger from amongst yourselves: it grieves him that ye should perish: ardently anxious is he over you: to the Believers is he most kind and merciful. But if they turn away, Say : "Allah sufficeth me: There is not god but He: On Him is my trust - He the Lord of the Throne (of Glory) Supreme!.”
2- Verses stating that it is fard (obligatory) to believe in him.
“Believe in Allah and His Messenger.”
“And if any believe not in Allah and His Messenger, We have prepared, for those who reject Allah, a Blazing Fire.”
3- Verses showing Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) as a model man.
“Ye have indeed in the Messenger of Allah a beautiful pattern (of conduct) for anyone whose hope is in Allah and the Final Day, and who engages much in the praise of Allah.”
“Nun. By the Pen and by the (Record) which (men) write― Thou art not, by the grace of thy Lord, mad or possessed. Nay, verily for thee is a Reward unfailing:  And thou (standest) on an exalted standard of character.”
4- Verses indicating that Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) received revelation other than the Quran,too.
“For Allah hath sent down to thee the Book and wisdom and taught thee what thou knewest not (before); and great is the Grace of Allah unto thee.”
“Nor does he say (aught) of (his own) Desire. It is no less than inspiration sent down to him.”
“But when Our Clear Signs are rehearsed unto them those who rest not their hope on their meeting with Us, say: "Bring us a Reading other than this or change this." Say: "It is not for me, of my own accord to change it: I follow naught but what is revealed unto me: if I were to disobey my Lord, I should myself fear the Penalty of a Great Day (to come)."
“Say: "I am no bringer of new-fangled doctrine among the messengers, nor do I know what will be done with me or with you. I follow but that which is revealed to me by inspiration: I am but a Warner open and clear."
5- Verses showing that Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) was given the duty and authority to explain the Quran.
“We sent not a messenger except (to teach) in the language of his (own) people, in order to make (things) clear to them.”
“And We sent down the Book to thee for the express purpose that thou shouldst make clear to them those things in which they differ, and that it should be a guide and a mercy to those who believe.”
 “We have sent among you a Messenger of your own rehearsing to you Our signs, and purifying you, and instructing you in Scripture and wisdom, and in new Knowledge.”
“We have sent down to thee the Book in truth, that thou mightest judge between men, as guided by Allah: so be not (used) as an advocate by those who betray their trust.”
“O Messenger! proclaim the (Message) which hath been sent to thee from thy Lord. If thou didst not thou wouldst not have fulfilled and proclaimed His Mission: and Allah will defend thee from men (who mean mischief). For Allah guideth not those who reject Faith.”
6- Verses mentioning the arbitration of Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) and the approval of the judgments given by him.
“But no, by thy Lord, they can have no (real) Faith, until they make thee judge in all disputes between them, and find in their souls no resistance against thy decisions, but accept them with the fullest conviction.”
“If ye differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger if ye do believe in Allah and the Last Day: that is best, and most suitable for final determination.”
“It is not fitting for a Believer, man or woman, when a matter has been decided by Allah and His Messenger, to have any option about their decision: if anyone disobeys Allah and His Messenger he is indeed on a clearly wrong Path.”
“The answer of the Believers when summoned to Allah and His Messenger in order that He may judge between them, is no other than this: they say "We hear and we obey": it is such as these that will attain felicity.”
7- Verses giving Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) the authority to render something as haram (forbidden) or halal (legitimate).
“Fight those who believe not in Allah nor the Last Day, nor hold that forbidden which hath been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger nor, acknowledge the Religion of Truth from among the People of the Book, until they pay the Jizyah with willing submission and feel themselves subdued..”
“"Those who follow the Messenger, the unlettered prophet, whom they find mentioned in their own (Scriptures);― in the Law and the Gospel;― for he commands them what is just and forbids them what is evil: he allows them as lawful what is good (and pure) and prohibits them from what is bad (and impure); He releases them from their heavy burdens and from the yokes that are upon them....”
8- Verses ordering obedience to Hazrat Prophet (pbuh).
“He who obeys the Messenger, obeys Allah.”
“So take what the Messenger assigns to you, and deny yourselves that which he withholds from you.”
“Say: "If ye do love Allah, follow me: Allah will love you and forgive you your sins; for Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful." Say: "Obey Allah and His Messenger"; but if they turn back, Allah loveth not those who reject Faith..”
“We sent not an Messenger but to be obeyed, in accordance with the Will of Allah...”
9- Verses forbidding disobedience to Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) and inflicting all kinds of pain and harm on him.
“Those are limits set by Allah: those who obey Allah and His Messenger will be admitted to Gardens with rivers flowing beneath, to abide therein (for ever)...”
“If anyone contends with the Messenger even after guidance has been plainly conveyed to him, and follows a path other than that becoming to men to Faith, We shall leave him in the path he has chosen, and land him in Hell.”
“Those who annoy Allah and His Messenger― Allah has cursed them in this world and in the Hereafter, and has prepared for them a humiliating Punishment.”
“This because they contended against Allah and His Messenger: if any contend against Allah and His Messenger Allah is strict in punishment.”
“On that day those who reject Faith and disobey the Messenger will wish that the earth were made one with them!..”
“He who obeys the Messenger, obeys Allah: but if any turn away, We have not sent thee to watch over their (evil deeds). They have "Obedience" on their lips; but when they leave thee, a section of them meditate all night on things very different from what thou tellest them, but Allah records their nightly (plots)
“That is because they resisted Allah and His Messenger: and if anyone resists Allah, verily Allah is severe in Punishment..”
“Know they not that for those who oppose Allah and His Messenger is the Fire of Hell?― wherein they shall dwell. That is the supreme disgrace.”
10- Verses ordering respect and love for Hazrat Prophet (pbuh).
“The Prophet is closer to the Believers than their own selves, and his wives are their mothers.”
“Allah and His angels, send blessings on the Prophet: O ye that believe! send ye blessings on him and salute him, with all respect.”
“O ye who believe! put not yourselves forward before Allah and His Messenger: but fear Allah: for Allah is He who hears and knows all things. O ye who believe! Raise not your voices above the voice of the Prophet, nor speak aloud to him in talk, as ye may speak aloud to one another lest your deeds become vain and ye perceive not.”
11- Verses stating that Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) guide people to the right path.
“...If ye obey him, ye shall be on right guidance...”
“...And verily thou dost guide (men) to the Straight Way― The Way of Allah to whom belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on earth.”
“But verily thou callest them to the Straight Way.”
Along with the verses given under the headings above, some other important evaluations that we have reached In the light of more than a hundred verses are summarized as follows:
Allah chose someone among human beings as a model for them and appointed him as a prophet. It is indeed one of the greatest blessings for the humanity.
Human beings must believe in the messenger sent to them as a divine blessing and approve his prophethood and the religion he conveyed. However, the belief and approval must be in accordance with the criteria stated in the Quran not with the criteria of the people. 
Allah Himself educated and trained the last Prophet and He stated in His book that he has high ethics and that he has to be accepted as a model. 
The knowledge and information given to Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) as a messenger does not consist of only the Quran; he was given a lot of knowledge and information other than the Quran. Besides, he was given the authority to explain the verses of the Quran by Allah directly; thus, it was emphasized that his sunnah bound believers.
Obedience to Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) was mentioned together with obedience to Allah and it was emphasized clearly that obedience to the messenger means obedience to Allah. It clearly shows the value given to the sunnah of Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) by the Quran. 
Hz Prophet (pbuh) was given the authority to give judgments, to render things as haram and halal directly by God Almighty. Therefore, the sunnah of Hz Prophet (pbuh) is an Islamic source regarding the issues that are not present in the Quran.  
“Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but (he is) the Messenger of Allah, and the Seal of the Prophets: and Allah has full knowledge of all things.” This last verse is one of the verses that approve the prophethood of our Prophet.

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