Will you give information about the Quranic verses that criticize the Prophet (pbuh)?

The Details of the Question

- Will you mention the verses in the Quran that criticize the mistakes of the Prophet called zallah and that impose restrictions on him?

The Answer

Dear Brother / Sister,

Other prophets, who were chosen by Allah among their nations and were given the duty of prophethood, made some mistakes since they were human beings and they were warned by Allah; similarly, the Prophet Muhammad, who was sent as mercy to all humanity and realms, also made some minor mistakes.

The deeds that necessitate warning are not the deeds that are sins but are examples of ijtihad that are different from the better and more virtuous ones.

Allah sent prophets in order to show people the true path and to make them attain happiness in the world and the hereafter. He wanted to educate first the prophets and then their ummahs through those prophets with His name “ar Rabb”. As it is understood from the hadith of the Prophet, “My Lord educated me” (Suyuti, Jamius Saghir, 1/12), there is a relationship of teaching and training between Allah and prophets.

The warnings that Allah gives His prophets can be considered as part of the education and training. It is possible for the prophets to make mistakes since they are equal to people in terms of being humans. The verses of the Quran that include warnings to the prophets in general and the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) in particular are called verses of itab (scolding).  

What is Zallah?

The Arabic word zallah, which is derived from “z-l-l”, means slipping of the foot, slip of the tongue, mistake, slipping of a person who steps on slippery ground by mistake. (Raghib, al-Mufradat, p. 214)

When zallah is used for prophets, it is expressed as “abandoning the most virtuous one and doing the virtuous one”. (Nasafi, Madarik, 4/365)

It is necessary to consider three principles related to the Prophet’s being warned by Allah:

1. The zallah of the Messenger of Allah necessitating a warning is not due to acting contrarily to a clear divine command or committing an evil deed, which are committed by sinful people. The zallah he makes is related to the issues about which there are no clear verses. He made ijtihad in some issues, that is, he thought thoroughly and made efforts, but what he did was not the best one.

2. Allah never wanted His Messenger to continue with that zallah because Allah orders us to obey and follow the Messenger of Allah about all what he says and does. If Allah had wanted His Messenger to continue with a zallah, it would have meant indirectly that the right and the wrong were equal. It would eventually have caused a chaos for people. Allah explained His Messenger what was right. However, when He explained it, He warned him in order to guide and perfect him, not to punish him.

3. The Messenger of Allah received the divine revelation that included the warning from his Lord without having an inferiority complex; he did not conceal that warning.

The divine warnings given to the Prophet (pbuh):

1. The Incident of Abdullah b. Umm Maktum

Once, the Prophet (pbuh) was busy with inviting some notables of Quraysh to Islam; the Companion called Abdullah Ibn Umm Maktum entered into the presence of the Messenger of Allah. Abdullah was blind; he was unaware that those notables of Quraysh, whom the Messenger of Allah wanted to become Muslims, were in his presence and that the Prophet was busy with them. The aim of the Prophet was to make those notables of Quraysh accept Islam and ensure that many Arabs would become Muslims thanks to them. The Messenger of Allah was sitting together with the notables of Quraysh and explaining Islam to them. He wanted them to become Muslims very much. Just then, Abdullah Ibn Umm Maktum, who was blind, arrived and asked the Prophet some questions. The Messenger of Allah was busy with the notables of Quraysh. He did not want his talk to be interrupted; therefore, he did not answer Abdullah, who was already a Muslim, and turned his face away from him.   

This attitude of the Prophet (pbuh) did not aim to slander Umm Maktum and to dislike what he did. On the contrary, his attitude originated from his desire to see the notables of Quraysh accept Islam. For, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) founf a suitable medium to invite them to Islam. Therefore, he did not want to miss that opportunity. Meanwhile, the following verses were sent down:

“(The Prophet) frowned and turned away. Because there came to him the blind man (interrupting). But what could tell thee but that perchance he might grow (in spiritual understanding)?- Or that he might receive admonition, and the teaching might profit him? As to one who regards Himself as self-sufficient, To him dost thou attend; Though it is no blame to thee if he grow not (in spiritual understanding). But as to him who came to thee striving earnestly, And with fear (in his heart), Of him wast thou unmindful. By no means (should it be so)! For it is indeed a Message of instruction: Therefore, let whoso will, keep it in remembrance.” (Abasa, 80/1-12)

When those verses were sent down about him. The Prophet (pbuh) took care of him, talked to him and asked him, “Do you need anything? Do you want anything?” When he left, he asked again, “Do you need anything?” Whenever the Prophet saw Abdullah after that, he would compliment on him saying, “Hello! The person because of whom my Lord scolded me!” In addition to similar compliments, it is narrated that when the Prophet went on an expedition, he appointed Abdullah as the imam to lead the prayers in Madinah twice. (see Razi, the interpretation of the verses in question Tirmidhi, Tafsir, 73)

According to the tafsir scholar Razi, this attitude of the Messenger of Allah was not wrong. There are manners and rules of every assembly. Therefore, a person cannot stand in the presence of Allah as if he is in the presence of any being. Similarly, certain rules of being in the presence of the Messenger of Allah are determined by the Quran: When to enter into his presence, how long to stay with him (al-Ahzab, 33/53), the manner of speaking in his presence (al-Hujurat, 49/2-4), etc.

It is clear that some rules were not observed in the deed in that incident. It is not normal to want the Prophet to deal with a minor issue when he is busy with an important issue. He naturally dealt with the more important one by abandoning the minor one. (Razi, ibid)

2. Treatment of the captives of Badr

The Muslims became victorious in the Battle of Badr, which took place between the polytheists and the Muslims, and captivated some polytheists. The Muslims experienced something like that for the first time. There was no revelation regarding the issue and it was not certain what to do about it. Before Islam, there was no definite way of treatment of prisoners of war in the Arabian Peninsula. They were sometimes killed, sometimes used as slaves (especially women and children), sometimes freed in return for ransom and sometimes exchanged with the captives of the enemy.  

Therefore, the Prophet consulted the Companions to decide about what to do. First, he asked Hz. Abu Bakr about his opinion. He received the following answer from him:

“O Messenger of Allah! They are your people, your tribe and your nation. Indeed, they inflicted a lot of harm on you and the Muslims but if you prefer forgiveness and forgive them, do not kill them and release them, you will win their hearts and cause them to become Muslims. My view is that they should be forgiven.”

Then, he asked Hz. Umar for his opinion. He said:

“O Messenger of Allah! The captives we currently have are the notables of Makkah. If they are killed, the unbelievers will not be able to gather strength and attack us again. Therefore, they should be killed. In fact, give each Muslim one of his relatives so that they will kill them themselves. He said, "Let Ali kill Aqil; let Abu Bakr kill Abdurrahman, his son and let me kill my relative such and such."

When they expressed their opinions, the Prophet said,

“O Abu Bakr! You are just like my ancestor Ibrahim (Abraham). His nation inflicted a lot of harm on him; they even threw him into fire. However, he raised his hands and prayed to his Lord as follows:

“O my Lord! He then who follows my (ways) is of me, and he that disobeys me,- but Thou art indeed Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.” (Ibrahim, 14/36)

You are also like Isa (Christ). His nation inflicted a lot of harm on him. However, he prayed as follows:

“If Thou dost punish them, they are Thy servant: If Thou dost forgive them, Thou art the Exalted in power, the Wise.” (al-Maida, 5/118)

“O Umar! You are like Nuh (Noah). He said,

“O my Lord! Leave not of the Unbelievers, a single one on earth.” (Nuh, 71/26)

And You are like Musa (Moses). He said,

Our Lord! Deface the features of their (Pharaoh and his followers) wealth, and send hardness to their hearts, so they will not believe until they see the grievous penalty.” (Yunus, 10/88)

Eventually, the Prophet preferred forgiveness and decided in compliance with the view of Hz. Abu Bakr. The reasons for this decision were as follows:

1. He hoped that those prisoners would become Muslims.

2. He wanted the Muslims to benefit in the individual and general affairs from the ransom they would get for the captives.

However, after that decision the following verses were sent down:

It is not fitting for a prophet that he should have prisoners of war until he hath thoroughly subdued the land. Ye look for the temporal goods of this world; but Allah looketh to the Hereafter: And Allah is Exalted in might, Wise. Had it not been for a previous ordainment from Allah, a severe penalty would have reached you for the (ransom) that ye took. But (now) enjoy what ye took in war, lawful and good: but fear Allah: for Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.” (al-Anfal, 8/67-69; see Muslim, Jihad 58; Musnad, 1/31-32)

In the verses above, the Muslims were criticized to captivate the enemy soldiers by thinking of the material goods of the world instead of defeating them thoroughly and subduing them but the decision of releasing the captives in return for ransom was not abolished.  

Another possibility for the revelation of the verses above can be as follows:

“Therefore, when ye meet the Unbelievers (in fight), smite at their necks; At length, when ye have thoroughly subdued them, bind a bond firmly (on them): thereafter (is the time for) either generosity or ransom.” (Muhammad, 47/4)

Due to this verse, captives and booty should not have been taken when the war continued.

The verse above was sent down because some Companions did not obey this order and started to take captives while the war was going on, and probably the Prophet approved of their attitude. For, the expressions in the verse explain a situation during the war. There is no mention of the state of the captives after the war in the verse. Therefore, it is not possible to say that the Prophet did something wrong related to the captives.

The captives taken after the war were treated in an exemplary way; although a war had just occurred between them, the Muslims were kind to those captives. The Prophet (pbuh) divided the captives among his own soldiers in order to keep those prisoners under custody in the safest manner and told his soldiers to treat them well. This order was fulfilled. The captives who did not have clothes were provided with clothes. The Muslims were given equal amounts of food. Some Muslims gave them their bread and ate plain dates. Their purpose was to fulfill the order given to them.

The following can be deduced from the warnings in the verses above:

1. With this warning, it was emphasized that the Prophet was a human being and at the same time a slave, and that being a prophet would never elevate one to an infallible position; thus, the believers were advised not to fall into extremism about their prophet like Christians who made a mistake about their prophet.

2. With this warning, the reliability of the Messenger of Allah in conveying the revelation and his characteristic that he never concealed the things that were revealed from Allah were brought to the foreground. For, if he had concealed something, he would have concealed these verses that warned him.

3. In addition, the ummah of the Prophet is encouraged to make ijtihad, to express their opinions and to exchange views about the issues that they encounter and about which there is no definite evidence.

3. The Prophet’s giving permission to munafiqs in the Expedition of Tabuk

After basing the foundation of the Islamic state on sound principles and divine system, the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) made Islam dominant in an important part of the Arabian Peninsula; then, he managed to make the sound of Islam heard outside the peninsula too. The conquest of Makkah, the War of Hunayn and the siege of Taif proved that there was no power to resist Islam in the peninsula. Many tribes paid zakah to the state while some tribes agreed to pay kharaj tax by not becoming Muslims. Thus, an economic power formed gradually and the treasure of the state was established.

Meanwhile, the Byzantines, who had several relations with Arab countries and used the peninsula as their market, started to feel the need to take serious measures against the newly-founded Islamic state. They planned to eliminate or at least to weaken Islam, which was spreading. When the Nabati merchants coming from Syria to Madinah told the Prophet that Heraclius was making preparations to attack Madinah, that some Christian Arab tribes joined the Byzantines and that their vanguards arrived at Balqa, near the border of the Arabian Desert, the Prophet (pbuh) started to get ready for the Expedition of Tabuk. (Waqidi, Maghazi, 1/990; Ibn Sad, Tabaqat, 2/165

The Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), who found out about the situation soon, wanted to encounter the enemy in their land or at the border and to show that Islam was an invincible power and an unsurpassable barrier. When, Allah’s command was sent down, he started preparations for war.

According to what is understood from the narrations, some munafiqs took part in this war but others did not take part by making excuses. The same thing was valid for other Bedouin Arabs. As for the sincere believers, everybody except three people, who did not make any excuses, took part in the war.  

According to some narrations, the number of the munafiqs, the people with ill hearts who made up excuses and did not take part in the war by taking permission from the Messenger of Allah was about 80. When the Messenger of Allah gave them permission, the following verses were sent down:

“Allah give thee grace! Why didst thou grant them until those who told the truth were seen by thee in a clear light, and thou hadst proved the liars? Those who believe in Allah and the Last Day ask thee for no exemption from fighting with their goods and persons. And Allah knoweth well those who do their duty. Only those ask thee for exemption who believe not in Allah and the Last Day, and whose hearts are in doubt, so that they are tossed in their doubts to and fro. If they had intended to come out, they would certainly have made some preparation therefor; but Allah was averse to their being sent forth; so He made them lag behind, and they were told, ‘Sit ye among those who sit (inactive).’ If they had come out with you, they would not have added to your (strength) but only (made for) disorder, hurrying to and fro in your midst and sowing sedition among you, and there would have been some among you who would have listened to them. But Allah knoweth well those who do wrong. Indeed they had plotted sedition before, and upset matters for thee, until,- the Truth arrived, and the Decree of Allah became manifest much to their disgust.” (at-Tawba, 9/43-48)

In the verses above, Allah reproaches the Messenger of Allah with a soft style. However, before reproaching him due to not doing the better deed in this incident, Allah states that He has forgiven the Messenger of Allah, which is a grace for the Messenger of Allah. (Tabari, the interpretation of the verses in question)

Fakhruddin Razi regards it more appropriate for the verse “Allah give thee grace …” to be interpreted as follows:

“This indicates that Allah honors and elevates the Prophet more. It is like somebody addressing a person whom he appreciates as follows: ‘Allah give thee grace! How did you do it? May Allah be pleased with you! What is your response for my statement? May Allah give you health! You have not appreciated me.’ Therefore, the purpose of that person by saying so is to elevate him.

Finally, Razi states that Allah’s expression “Why didst thou grant them?” can be interpreted as not doing the better one. (Razi, the interpretation of the verses in question)

It is something known that the Prophet cannot know what is unknown unless Allah informs him; therefore, it was natural for him to believe in what they said since he could not know what was in their hearts. However, Allah, who knows the unknown perfectly, removed the veil over their lies since He knew the color of the issue. Thus, the Prophet (pbuh) was warned by divine revelation and he was informed that he was forgiven by Allah.

4. The issue of his marriage with Hz. Zaynab

Zayd b. Haritha was a slave that Hz. Khadija, the first wife of the Prophet, had given him as a gift. The Prophet freed him and married him off, making him a free individual in society. A problem occurred about his marriage and this incident is mentioned in the Quran. Allah narrates this incident in the Quran and states that He abolished some wrong practices that existed among Arabs of Jahiliyya like the prohibition of a slave’s marrying a free person and the prohibition of a man’s marrying a woman divorced by his adopted son.

The Prophet wanted Zayd to marry Zaynab and this marriage took place. Once, Zayd came to the Prophet due to the incompatibility of temperament between him and Zaynab; he said that Zaynab came from a noble family and that he himself was a freed slave, that Zaynab did not regard him as equal to her and that he would divorce his wife due to the incompatibility of temperament. Thereupon, the Prophet said to him, “Fear Allah! Retain your wife.” Then, verse 37 of the chapter of al-Ahzab was sent down.

Afterwards, Zayd divorced Zaynab and the Prophet married Zaynab after her iddah (waiting period) ended.

The verses are as follows:

“Behold! Thou didst say to one who had received the grace of Allah and thy favour: ‘Retain thou (in wedlock) thy wife, and fear Allah.’ But thou didst hide in thy heart that which Allah was about to make manifest: thou didst fear the people, but it is more fitting that thou shouldst fear Allah. Then when Zaid had dissolved (his marriage) with her, with the necessary (formality), We joined her in marriage to thee: in order that (in future) there may be no difficulty to the Believers in (the matter of) marriage with the wives of their adopted sons, when the latter have dissolved with the necessary (formality) (their marriage) with them. And Allah´s command must be fulfilled. There can be no difficulty to the Prophet in what Allah has indicated to him as a duty. It was the practice (approved) of Allah amongst those of old that have passed away. And the command of Allah is a decree determined.” (al-Ahzab, 33/37-38)

There are reasonable explanations for the words "hide" and "fear" mentioned in the verse. The knowledge that Zaynab would be divorced in the future and she would be a wife of the Prophet was a secret given to him by Allah and it would be revealed when the time was due. There were some drawbacks of its being revealed beforehand. Therefore, the sentence "But thou didst hide in thy heart that which Allah was about to make manifest" is not a reproach but expression of a fact.

The sentence "Thou didst fear the people, but it is more fitting that thou shouldst fear Allah" can have two meanings:

1. "You fear people more than you fear Allah."

2. "It is Allah whom you need to fear. Since Allah orders you to marry, there is no need for you to fear people no matter what they say."

The first meaning cannot be in question for the Prophet because he proved with what he did that he feared only Allah and that obeyed only Him. Nobody, whether they are Muslims or not, can say that the Prophet acted contrarily to the command of Allah in order to please people. Then, the second meaning remains as reasonable. Besides, both the Prophet and the believers were warned against and made ready for the rumors and tricks of munafiqs at the beginning of the chapter. The sentence a above is a warning and even a consolation in the same sense. (Kur'an Yolu, Diyanet, the interpretation of the verses in question)

It was so difficult for the Messenger of Allah to explain this situation that the following statement of Hz. Aisha is reported in hadith resources:

“If the Messenger of Allah had concealed something from the revelation he received, he would have concealed this verse about the marriage.” (Bukhari, Tawhid 22; Muslim, Iman 288)

It is seen in those verses that social pressure is dominant and the Prophet is educated first regarding the issue. Fearing Allah must precede fearing people. One should consider what Allah will say before what people will say.

For more information, please click on the links given below;

- Will you give information about Hz. Zaynab, the daughter of the Prophet?

- Will you explain freedom of thought in Islam and the issue of Hz. Zaynab's marriage with Zayd?

5. The Incident of Tahrim

“O Prophet! Why holdest thou to be forbidden that which Allah has made lawful to thee? Thou seekest to please thy consorts. But Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. Allah has already ordained for you, (O men), the dissolution of your oaths (in some cases): and Allah is your Protector, and He is Full of Knowledge and Wisdom. When the Prophet disclosed a matter in confidence to one of his consorts, and she then divulged it (to another), and Allah made it known to him, he confirmed part thereof and repudiated a part. Then when he told her thereof, she said, ‘Who told thee this?’ He said, ‘He told me Who knows and is well-acquainted (with all things).’” (at-Tahrim, 66/1-3)

For more information, please click on the links given below;

- About whom and why were the first five verses of the chapter of at-Tahrim sent down?

- Will you mention the Prophet’s oath about Mariya?

6. The Prophet’s leading the janazah prayer of the munafiq Abdullah b. Ubayy

The Prophet (pbuh) took care of the janazah of the munafiq Abdullah b. Ubayy; he gave his shirt to cover Abdullah b. Ubayy’s dead body and led his janazah prayer. Thereupon, the following verse was sent down:   

“Nor do thou ever pray for any of them that dies, nor stand at his grave; for they rejected Allah and His Messenger, and died in a state of perverse rebellion.” (at-Tawba, 9/84)

There was no news about the practice of treating a munafiq when he died before that verse was sent down. The Prophet (pbuh) evaluated the munafiqs based on their deeds and outward appearance; he treated them as if they were Muslims.

In fact, there were several reasons why the Prophet acted like that. The Prophet decreed based on outward appearance. Abdullah b. Ubayy was a person who performed prayers and was a Muslim in appearance.

One of the reasons why the Prophet took care of the janazah of Abdullah b. Ubayy was his honoring Ubayy’s son Abdullah. Abdullah was one of the notables of the Companions and a sincere Muslim. He took part in the Battle of Badr and all of the battles and wars after that with the Prophet. He never left the Prophet.

According to a narration, when the Messenger of Allah was asked why he gave his shirt for Abdullah b. Ubayy, he gave the following answer:

“My shirt will not save him from the penalty to come from Allah. However, I hope that some people from his tribe will become Muslims thanks to it and will be saved from hypocrisy.” As a matter of fact, thanks to this deed of the Prophet, one thousand people from Khazraj were saved from hypocrisy. (see Zamakhshari, Razi, the interpretation of the verse in question)

For more information please click:

How did Abdullah bin Ubayy bin Salul, the leader of the munafiqs, die and how did the Prophet (pbuh) lead his janazah prayer?

7. The Prophet’s asking for forgiveness for his close relatives that died as polytheists

According to a narration, when Abu Talib was in his deathbed, the Messenger of Allah went to see him. Abu Jahl and Abdullah b. Abi Umayya from the notables of Quraysh were also there. The Messenger of Allah said to Abu Talib, “O uncle! Say, ‘La ilaha illallah’. I will defend you in the presence of Allah with it. Abu Jahl and Abdullah b. Abi Umayya said, “O Abu Talib! Are you going to abandon Abdulmuttalib’s religion?” They always repeated the same thing. Finally, Abu Talib told them that he followed Abdulmuttalib’s religion. Thereupon, the Messenger of Allah said, “I will definitely ask forgiveness for you unless I am prohibited from it.”

Thereupon, the following verses were sent down:

“It is not fitting, for the Prophet and those who believe, that they should pray for forgiveness for Pagans, even though they be of kin, after it is clear to them that they are companions of the Fire. And Abraham prayed for his father´s forgiveness only because of a promise he had made to him...” (at-Tawba, 9/113-114; see Bukhari, Tafsir, 4675)

8. Other verses of warning:

- The Prophet’s hurrying while reading the Quran:

Whenever Jibril revealed something from the Quran, the Prophet (pbuh) would try very hard to memorize it and fear that Jibril would leave before he memorized. Thereupon, Allah sent down the following verse:

“High above all is Allah, the King, the Truth! Be not in haste with the Qur´an before its revelation to thee is completed, but say, ‘O my Lord! Advance me in knowledge.’” (Taha, 20/114)

- The Prophet’s not saying Inshallah:

When Qurayshi polytheists asked, with the suggestion of Jews, the Prophet (pbuh) about spirit, Ashab al-Kahf and Dhul-Qarnayn, he said, “I will answer your questions tomorrow” without saying “Inshallah”. However, revelation ceased for a while and the Prophet had great difficulty. The following verses were sent down upon that incident:     

“Nor say of anything, ‘I shall be sure to do so and so tomorrow.’ Without adding, ‘So please Allah!’ and call thy Lord to mind when thou forgettest, and say, ‘I hope that my Lord will guide me ever closer (even) than this to the right road.’” (al-Kahf, 18/23-24)

- The probability of moving away from revelation:

Umayya Ibn Khalaf, Abu Jahl Ibn Hisham and some other Qurayshis went to the Messenger of Allah and said, “O Muhammad! Come and pat our idols once so that we will accept your religion.” The Prophet (pbuh) wanted his tribe to become Muslims very much. Thereupon, Allah sent down the following verses:  

“And their purpose was to tempt thee away from that which We had revealed unto thee, to substitute in our name something quite different; (in that case), behold! They would certainly have made thee (their) friend! And had We not given thee strength, thou wouldst nearly have inclined to them a little. In that case We should have made thee taste an equal portion (of punishment) in this life, and an equal portion in death: and moreover thou wouldst have found none to help thee against Us.” (al-Isra, 17/73-75)

- It is Allah who guides people (to the true path):

Once, Asma, the daughter of Abu Bakr, was visited by her mother and grandmother; they asked her to help them by giving them something. They were polytheists. Therefore, Asma did not give them anything. She said, “I will not give you anything before asking the Messenger of Allah because you do not accept my religion. She asked the Prophet if she could give them anything. Thereupon, Allah sent down the following verse:

“It is not required of thee (O Messenger), to set them on the right path, but Allah sets on the right path whom He pleaseth. Whatever of good ye give benefits your own souls, and ye shall only do so seeking the "Face" of Allah. Whatever good ye give, shall be rendered back to you, and ye shall not Be dealt with unjustly.” (al-Baqara, 2/272)

- The Prophet’s feeling sorry for the denial of the unbelievers:

The opposition of the Prophet’s tribe and their denial of his advice was very hard for the Messenger of Allah and distressed him a lot. Thereupon, Allah sent down the following verse:

“Thou wouldst only, perchance, fret thyself to death, following after them, in grief, if they believe not in this Message.” (al-Kahf, 18/6)

In fact, the divine addressing above and similar ones show the sensitivity of the Messenger of Allah in the face of the general attitudes and states of both believers and unbelievers, his desire of the salvation of humanity and his determination to make everybody find the true path.

For detailed information and evaluations, see the following:
1. Sancaklı, Saffet, “Hz. Peygamber’in Bazı Nitelikleri Açısından Kur’ân-ı Kerîm’de Kendisini Uyaran Ayetlerin Analizi”, İslâmî Araştırmalar, Volume: XV, Issue: 3, 2002, ss. 435-448.
2. Ahmet Öz, Kur'an'da Hz. Muhammed'e Yapılan İkazlar, Marife, Winter 2011 pp. 55-76.
3. Serikjan Kendebay, Kur’an’da itab âyetleri çerçevesinde Hz. Peygamber (s.a.s.)’e yapılan uyarılar. Türkiye Din Eğitimi Araştırmaları Dergisi. 3, 31-49.

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