Why did the Quran not state clearly that Hz. Isa (Jesus) would come at the end of time?
Why did the Quran not state clearly that Hz. Isa (Jesus) would come at the end of time?
Submitted by on Thu, 08/02/2018 - 11:41
Dear Brother / Sister,
It is clearly stated in many verses in the Quran that Hz. Isa will be sent down to the earth again before Doomsday.
Evidences from the Quran
"... I will make those who follow thee superior to those who reject faith, to the Day of Resurrection..."
The first verse containing signs that Hz. Isa will come down to the earth again is verse 55 of the chapter of Aal-i Imran:
"Behold! Allah said: "O Jesus! I will take thee and raise thee to Myself and clear thee (of the falsehoods) of those who blaspheme; I will make those who follow thee superior to those who reject faith, to the Day of Resurrection: Then shall ye all return unto me, and I will judge between you of the matters wherein ye dispute." (Aal-i Imran, 3/55)
Allah mentions the existence of a group that will be superior to deniers up to the Day of Resurrection and that really follows Hz. Isa. When Hz. Isa was alive, the number of his followers were very few. After he was raised to the presence of Allah, a quick degeneration started in the religion. Those who believed in Hz. Isa underwent severe oppression for two centuries after his death. Besides, they did not have any political power. Therefore, we cannot say that the Christians that lived in the past were superior to deniers and that this verse is related to them.
We see that Christianity moved away from its essence today and that it was transformed into a religion different from the true religion that Hz. Isa conveyed. Most of the Christians adopted the wrong belief that Hz. Isa was Allah's son and accepted the doctrine of trinity (Father, Son, Holy Spirit). In that case, we cannot accept today’s Christians, who moved away from the origin of the religion very much, as those who follow Hz. Isa because Allah states in many verses in the Quran that those who believe in "trinity" are in denial:
"They do blaspheme who say: Allah is one of three in a Trinity: for there is no god except One Allah..." (al-Maida, 5/73)
In that case, the statement "I will make those who follow thee superior to those who reject faith, to the Day of Resurrection" has a clear sign. There must be a group that follows Hz. Isa and that will live to the Day of Resurrection. Such a group will definitely emerge when Hz. Isa comes down to the earth. Those who follow this blessed person when he comes to the world again will be superior to deniers up to the Day of Resurrection.
Besides, the statement "...Then shall ye all return unto me..." at the end of the verse is also remarkable. After stating that He will make those who follow superior to deniers up to the Day of Resurrection, Allah states that all of them including Hz. Isa will return to Him. "Their returning to Allah" is understood as their death. It can be a sign that Hz. Isa will die after he comes down to the earth before Doomsday.
"... There is none but must believe in him before his death..."
Allah states the following in verse 159 of the chapter of an-Nisa coming after verses 156-158.
"And there is none of the People of the Book but must believe in him before his death; and on the Day of Judgment he will be a witness against them." (an-Nisa, 4/159)
The statement "And there is none but must believe in him before his death" in the verse above is quite remarkable. The Arabic original of the statement is as follows: "... Wa in min ahlil kitabi illa layu'minanne bihi qable mawtihi"
Some tafsir scholars think the pronoun "hu (hi)" in the verse refers to the Quran instead of Hz. Isa and interpret it as the People of the Book will believe in the Quran before their death. However, in the two verses before this verse, the pronoun "hu" is definitely used for Hz. Isa:
An-Nisa, verse 157:
"That they said (in boast), "We killed Christ Jesus the son of Mary, the Messenger of Allah";- but they killed him not, nor crucified him, but so it was made to appear to them, and those who differ therein are full of doubts, with no (certain) knowledge, but only conjecture to follow, for of a surety they killed him not:-."
An-Nisa, verse 158:
"Nay, Allah raised him up unto Himself; and Allah is Exalted in Power, Wise."
There is no evidence showing that the pronoun "hu" used in the verse that comes immediately after them refers to a being other than Hz. Isa.
An-Nisa, verse 159:
"And there is none of the People of the Book but must believe in him before his death; and on the Day of Judgment he will be a witness against them."
On the other hand, the statement "and on the Day of Judgment he will be a witness against them" is also quite important. It is stated in the Quran that on the Day of Judgment, the tongue, hands and feet of man (an-Nur, 24, Yasin, 65), his sense of hearing and seeing, and his skin, (Fussilat, 20-23) will be witnesses against him. There is no verse about the witnessing of the Quran. If it is accepted that the first sentence – though there is no evidence in terms of the sentence structure and the verses coming one after another – indicates the Quran, it will be claimed that the pronoun "hu" used in the second sentence refers to the Quran. However, Allah does not give us any information regarding the issue in the Quran. (Allah knows best.)
When we look at the verses of the Quran, we see that when the same pronoun refers to the Quran (at-Tariq Suresi, 13; at-Takwir, 19; an-Naml, 77 and ash-Shuara, 192-196), we see that the Quran is definitely mentioned before or after the verse. It can be wrong to say that this verse describes the Quran if the Quran is not mentioned in the verse, before the verse or after the verse. The verse clearly mentions belief in Hz. Isa and the witnessing of those who believe in him.
The second point we will mention about the meaning of the verse is related to the interpretation of the phrase “before his death”. Some scholars think this phrase means belief by "the People of the Book before their death". According to this interpretation, everybody from the People of the Book will believe in Hz. Isa before their death. The Jews, who are included in the definition of the People of the Book, did not believe in him during his lifetime; in addition, they set a trap to kill him. Then, they thought they killed him and continued their denial. The same thing is valid for the Jews today because they do not accept Hz. Isa as a prophet; millions of Jews, who are from the People of the Book, lived and died without believing in Hz. Isa. Therefore, what is indicated in the verse is the death of Hz. Isa, the People of the Book. In conclusion, the truth that the verses show us is as follows: "All of the People of the Book will believe in Hz. Isa before his death."
When the verse is considered in its real sense, we see clear facts: Firstly, it is clear that the future is meant by the verse because the death of Hz. Isa is in question. However, he did not die and was raised to the presence of Allah. Hz. Isa will come to the world again, and live and die like everybody. Secondly, all of the People of the Book are to believe in Hz. Isa. It is something that is stated to take place definitely. Therefore, the person indicated by the phrase "before his death" is Hz. Isa. The People of the Book will see and know him, obey him as Muslims and Hz. Isa will witness about their state in the hereafter. (Allah knows best.)
"And (Jesus) shall be a Sign (for the coming of) the Hour (of Judgment)..."
Another verse about Hz. Isa's returning to the earth is verse 61 of the chapter of az-Zukhruf. Hz. Isa is mentioned beginning from verse 57 of this chapter:
"When (Jesus) the son of Mary is held up as an example, behold, thy people raise a clamour thereat (in ridicule)! And they say, "Are our gods best, or he?" This they set forth to thee, only by way of disputation: yea, they are a contentious people. He was no more than a servant: We granted Our favour to him, and We made him an example to the Children of Israel. And if it were Our Will, We could make angels from amongst you, succeeding each other on the earth." (az-Zukhruf, 43/57-60)
Verse 61, which comes immediately after those verses, states that Hz. Isa a sign (knowledge) for the Hour (Doomsday):
"And (Jesus) shall be a Sign (for the coming of) the Hour (of Judgment): therefore have no doubt about the (Hour), but follow ye Me: this is a Straight Way." (az-Zukhruf, 43/61)
We can say that this verse has a clear sign of Hz. Isa’s return to the earth because Hz. Isa lived about six centuries before the Quran was sent down. Therefore, we cannot understand this first life as a “Sign (for the coming of) the Hour (of Judgment)”. The meaning the verse indicates that Hz. Isa will return to the earth at the end of time, that is, the last time period before Doomsday and the it will be a sign of Doomsday. (Allah knows best.)
The original Arabic form of the phrase "And (Jesus) shall be a Sign (for the coming of) the Hour (of Judgment)" in the verse is as follows: "Innahu la ilmun lissaati."
Some scholars say the pronoun "hu" in the verse indicate the Quran. However, as it is mentioned above, when the pronoun "hu", that is, "it", is used for the Quran, there are definitely other statements mentioning the Quran before, after or in the verse. The Quran is not indicated with the pronoun "hu" while mentioning something else. Besides, when the verse before it is viewed, it will be seen clearly that the pronoun hu is used for Hz. Isa:
"He was no more than a servant: We granted Our favour to him, and We made him an example to the Children of Israel." (az-Zukhruf, 43/59)
Those who say this pronoun refers to the Quran show the phrase "therefore have no doubt about the (Hour), but follow ye Me" that follows in the verse as evidence. However, the verses before this statement mention Hz. Isa. Therefore, it is more appropriate for the pronoun "hu" to refer to the previous verses. As a matter of fact, great Islamic scholars explain this pronoun as Hz. Isa based on verses and sound hadiths. The issue is explained as follows in the tafsir of Elmalılı Hamdi Yazır:
"It is definite that he is a sign for the hour – an evidence and sign stating that the hour will come and that the dead will revive and stand. For, Hz. Isa is an evidence for Doomsday in terms of his emergence, his miracle of reviving the dead and informing about the revival of the dead; and he is a sign of Doomsday as it is mentioned in hadiths." 2
"...And Allah will teach him the Book and Wisdom, the Law and the Gospel..."
Other verses indicating the second coming of Hz. Isa are as follows:
"Behold! the angels said: "O Mary! Allah giveth thee glad tidings of a Word from Him: his name will be Christ Jesus, the son of Mary, held in honour in this world and the Hereafter and of (the company of) those nearest to Allah; "He shall speak to the people in childhood and in maturity. And he shall be (of the company) of the righteous." She said: "O my Lord! How shall I have a son when no man hath touched me?" He said: "Even so: Allah createth what He willeth: When He hath decreed a plan, He but saith to it, ´Be,´ and it is! "And Allah will teach him the Book and Wisdom, the Law and the Gospel." (Aal-i Imran, 3/45-48)
It is stated in the verse that Allah will teach Hz. Isa the Book and Wisdom, the Law and the Gospel. It is definitely important what is meant by the Book. The same expression exists in verse 110 of the chapter of al-Maida too:
"Then will Allah say: "O Jesus the son of Mary! Recount My favour to thee and to thy mother. Behold! I strengthened thee with the holy spirit, so that thou didst speak to the people in childhood and in maturity. Behold! I taught thee the Book and Wisdom, the Law and the Gospel and behold..." (al-Maida, 5/110)
When we analyze the phrase "the Book" mentioned in both verses, we will see that it indicates the Quran. It is stated in the verses that the last true book sent down other than the Torah and the Gospel is the Quran. (The Psalms sent down to Hz. Dawud are included in the Old Testament.) In addition, the phrase "the Book" is used in order to indicate the Quran along with the words the Gospel and the Torah in other verses of the Quran:
"Allah! There is no god but He,-the Living, the Self-Subsisting, Eternal. It is He Who sent down to thee (step by step), in truth, the Book, confirming what went before it; and He sent down the Law (of Moses) and the Gospel (of Jesus) before this..." (Aal-i Imran, 3/2-3)
The other verses in which the word the Book indicates the Quran are as follows:
"And when there comes to them a Book from Allah, confirming what is with them,- although from of old they had prayed for victory against those without Faith,- when there comes to them that which they (should) have recognized, they refuse to believe in it but the curse of Allah is on those without Faith." (al-Baqara, 2/89)
"A similar (favour have ye already received) in that We have sent among you a Messenger of your own, rehearsing to you Our Signs, and sanctifying you, and instructing you in Scripture and Wisdom, and in new knowledge." (al-Baqara, 2/151)
In that case, we can think that the third “Book” to be taught to Hz. Isa is the Quran and it can be possible only when Hz. Isa returns to the world at the end of time. For, Hz. Isa lived 600 years before the Quran was sent down. As we will see in detail soon, it is stated in the hadiths of the Prophet (pbuh) that when Hz. Isa comes to the world second time, he will decree by the Quran, not the Gospel. This complies with the meaning in the verse. (Allah definitely knows best.)
" The similitude of Jesus before Allah is as that of Adam..."
"The similitude of Jesus before Allah is as that of Adam..." (Aal-i Imran, 3/59)
The verse above might indicate the return of Hz. Isa. Tafsir scholars generally attract attention to the fact that this verse indicates the characteristic that both prophets were fatherless, that Hz. Adam was created upon Allah's order "Be" from soil and that Hz. Isa was born without a father with His order "Be". However, the verse might also indicate something else. Hz. Isa will be sent down to the earth from the presence of Allah at the end of time as Hz. Adam was sent down to the earth from Paradise. (Allah knows best.)
"... So peace is on me the day I was born, the day that I die..."
Another verse expressing the death of Hz. Isa is included in the chapter of Maryam:
"So peace is on me the day I was born, the day that I die, and the day that I shall be raised up to life (again)" (Maryam, 19/33)
When this verse is analyzed together with verse 55 of the chapter of Aal-i Imran, it will be seen that it indicates a very important fact. It is stated in the verse in the chapter of Aal-i Imran that Hz. Isa was raised to the presence of Allah. No information is given in this verse about dying or being killed. This second death can only be possible after Hz. Isa’s coming to the world for the second time and dying after living for a while. (Allah knows best.)
"... thou didst speak to the people in childhood and in maturity..."
Another evidence about Hz. Isa’s coming to the world again is the word "kahlan (in maturity)" mentioned in verse 110 of the chapter of al-Maida and verse 46 of the chapter of Aal-i Imran. The verses are as follows:
"Then will Allah say: ‘O Jesus the son of Mary! Recount My favor to thee and to thy mother. Behold! I strengthened thee with the holy spirit, so that thou didst speak to the people in childhood and in maturity.’" (al-Maida, 5/110)
"He shall speak to the people in childhood and in maturity. And he shall be (of the company) of the righteous." (Aal-i Imran, 3/46)
This word is used only in two places in the Quran and only for Hz. Isa. The meaning of the word "kahlan" used in order to describe the maturity of Hz. Isa means "between the ages of thirty and fifty, having finished the period of youth and about to enter old-age; a person who has reached maturity" This word is unanimously translated as "after the age of 35 " by Islamic scholars.
Acting upon the hadith narrated from Ibn Abbas stating that Hz. Isa was raised to the sky at a young age, at the beginning of thirties and that he will stay on the earth for forty years after he is sent down to the earth again, Islamic scholars say Hz. Isa’s period of maturity will be after his second coming and hence this word is an evidence about Hz. Isa's coming down to the earth. 3 (Allah knows best.)
When the verses mentioned above are analyzed carefully, it is easily understood that this interpretation of the Islamic scholars is appropriate. When the verses of the Quran are viewed, it will be seen that this expression is used only for Hz. Isa. All prophets talked to people and called them to the religion. They all fulfilled the duty of conveying the message at a mature age. However, this expression is not used for any other prophet in the Quran. This expression is used only for Hz. Isa in order to expresses his miraculous state. For, the phrases "fil mahdi (in the cradle)" and "kahlan (in maturity)" following each other in the verses attract attention to two miraculous times.
As a matter of fact, Imam Tabari explains the expressions mentioned in those verses as follows:
"Those expressions (al-Maida, 110) indicate that Hz. Isa will come down from the sky in order to complete his life and talk to people in the period of his maturity. For, he was raised to the sky at a young age. In this verse (Aal-i Imran, 46), there is evidence that Hz. Isa is alive and Ahl as-Sunnah holds this view. For, it is stated in the verse that he will talk to people when he gets old. He will get old only when he comes down to the earth from the sky." 7
The explanations of the word "kahlan" indicates Hz. Isa’s coming to the world again like the other information in the Quran does. (Allah knows best.)
All of those explanations show that Hz. Isa will come down to the earth again at the end of time and lead people to Islam, the true religion. This is definitely a great glad tiding, mercy and boon of Allah to believers. The responsibility of believers is to defend and support Hz. Isa and to practice the ethics of the Quran, to which he calls people, in the best way.
Evidences from Hadiths
The Prophet (pbuh) gave very important information about Hz. Isa’s return to the earth and the incidents that will take place before and after he returns in hadiths. The information the Prophet (pbuh) gave about the future is news of "ghayb (the unseen/unknown)". Allah states in the verses that He will give news about ghayb to His messengers that He wishes:
"He (alone) knows the Unseen, nor does He make any one acquainted with His Mysteries,- "Except a messenger whom He has chosen: and then He makes a band of watchers march before him and behind him." (Jinn, 72/26-27)
Our Lord states in the chapter of al-Fath that He gave Hz. Muhammad information through his dreams:
"Truly did Allah fulfil the vision for His Messenger: ye shall enter the Sacred Mosque, if Allah wills, with minds secure, heads shaved, hair cut short, and without fear. For He knew what ye knew not, and He granted, besides this, a speedy victory." (al-Fath, 48/27)
As it is seen in the verse, our Lord gave the Prophet (pbuh) various news about ghayb. This news is a great support and help of Allah to the Prophet (pbuh) and the righteous believers with him.
The Prophet (pbuh) gave a lot of news about the signs of Doomsday acting upon what Allah informed him. Hz. Isa’s coming to the world for the second time at the end of time has an important place in the news about the future given by the Prophet (pbuh). Narrations about the end of time are included in the most reliable hadith resources like all of Kutub as-Sitta books, which are resources of sound hadiths, Imam Malik's Muwatta, Ibn Huzayma and Ibn Hibban's Sahihs, and Ibn Hanbal and Tayalisi's Musnads. According to what we learn from these resources, the Prophet (pbuh) made special explanations about Hz. Isa. The issue of Hz. Isa’s second coming is included in the science of hadith as an issue in the level of "tawatur" (strong news).
The Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) states in his hadiths that the ethics of the religion will be dominant over the whole world and that peace, justice and welfare will prevail all over the world at the end of time. The Prophet (pbuh) gives us the glad tiding that this domination will be realized by Hz. Isa, who will unite the Christian world and the Islamic world. Today, the state of the communities caused by the practices of anti-religious philosophy is obvious. Many problems like immorality, drugs, terror and famine make it necessary for the Christian world and the Islamic world to unite. The current social structure of the world makes it obligatory to establish an Islamic-Christian alliance. If the effect of the Christianity on the developed countries of the world at the level of leaders is considered, the effectiveness of an Islamic-Christian alliance to be formed in near future will be seen clearly.
The hadiths reported about the advent of Hz. Isa (Jesus) are at the level of tawatur
The hadiths reported about the advent of Jesus are at the level of tawatur. Many researchers report that our scholars hold this view. The definition of tawatur in the dictionary is as follows:
Tawatur: Strong news: strong news which has no possibility of containing lies and which is reported by a group.5
Islamic scholar Sayyid Sharif Jurjani explains the concept of tawatur hadith as follows:
Khabar mutawatir is news that is reported by so many people that it is impossible for all of them to agree on a wrong piece of news. If both the words and the meaning of the news are the same, it is called "mutawatir lafzi" (words). if the meaning is the same but there are some differences among the words, it is called "mutawatir manawi" (meaning).6
Writing a special book called at Tasrih bi-ma Tawatara fi Nuzuli'l Masih regarding hadiths stating the advent of Jesus in the form of tawatur, Sheikh Muhammad Anwar al Kashmiri, the great hadith scholar, included seventy-five hadiths and twenty-five works of the Companions and those who saw the Companions.
One of the most important scholars mentioning that Jesus will come is Abu Hanifa. Abu Hanifa, writes the following at the end of his book called al-Fiqh al-Akbar:
"The emergence of Dajjal (Anti-Christ), Yajuj (Gog) , Majuj (Magog) , the descent of Jesus and other signs of Doomsday are true as they are mentioned in sound hadiths and they will take place."7
The issue of Jesus descending on the earth is one of the ten major signs of Doomsday; many Islamic scholars dealt with the issue in detail in their books. When the explanations regarding the issue are evaluated in detail, it will clearly be seen that there is unanimity among Islamic scholars about the second advent of Jesus. For instance, as-Saffarini states in his book called Lawami that Islamic scholars unanimously agree on the issue as follows:
"The whole ummah agrees that Jesus, son of Mary, will descend. No people of sharia disagree about it."8
Sayyid Alusi, the great Islamic scholar, gives examples from the views of the other Islamic scholars and states that they unanimously agree that the news about the descent of Jesus is at the level of tawatur manawi in his tafsir called Ruhu'l Maani and that it is wajib to believe in the descent of Jesus.9
Imam Kawthari states his views on the descent of Jesus as follows:
"The tawatur regarding the descent of Jesus in hadiths is "tawatur manawi." Each one of the sahih (sound) and hasan (nice) hadiths indicate different meanings but all of them unanimously agree that Jesus will descend on the earth; it is a reality that cannot be denied by anyone who is interested in the science of hadith. That the hadiths regarding the emergence of Dajjal and the descent of Jesus are at the level of tawatur is not something that is doubted by the people of the science of hadith. Some scholars of kalam (belief) accept that it is wajib to believe in the hadiths related to the signs of Doomsday but they have some doubts whether some of those hadiths are mutawatir or not; this originates from having insufficient knowledge related to the science of hadith."10
After interpreting the relevant verses and explaining the hadiths, the scholar Ibn Kathir expresses his thought as follows:
"They were reported from the Messenger of Allah as mutawatir; it is explained in those hadiths how and where Jesus will descend. The sound and mutawatir hadiths regarding the descent of Jesus with his body are not suitable for interpreting differently. Therefore, anyone who has a little belief and conscience needs to believe that Jesus will descend on the earth. Only those who are opposite the sharia, the book of Allah, the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah and the consensus of Ahl as-Sunnah can deny it."11
Another explanation that those hadiths are mutawatir is as follows:
Shawkani says the number of hadiths stating that Jesus will descend amounts to twenty nine and he reports all of them one by one Then, he says,
"As it is seen, the hadiths we have reported have reached the level of tawatur. With this statement, it can be concluded that the hadiths related to the expected Mahdi, Dajjal and the descent of Jesus are mutawatir."12
Tirmidhi, Abu Dawud, Bazzaz, Ibn Majah, Hakim, Tabarani and Abu Ya'la Musuli report hadiths from various Companions regarding the issue; they attributed them to Ali, Ibn Abbas, Ibn Umar, Talha, Ibn Mas'ud Abu Hurayara, Anas, Abu Sa'id Khudri, Umm Habiba, Umm Salama, Thawban, Qurra bin Iyas, Ali Hilali and Abdullah bin Harith bin Juza through some chains.13 Along with them, Ibn Hajar Haythami writes in his book called as-Sawaiq-ul Muhriqa, Shablanji in his book Nur-ul Absar, Ibn Sabbagh in al-Fusul-ul Muhimma, Muhammad as-Sabban in Is'af-ur Raghibin, Ghanji ash-Shafii in al-Bayan, Sheikh Mansur Ali in Ghayat-ul Ma'mul, Suwaydi in Sabaiq-udh Dhahab that the hadiths regarding the advent of Jesus are mutawatir.
Hadith scholars of Ahl as-Sunnah wrote those hadiths in their books. For instance, Abu Dawud, Ahmad, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah, Hakim, Nasai, Tabarani, Rawyani, Abu Nuaym Isfahani, Daylami, Bayhaqi, Tha'labi, Hamawayni, Manawi, Ibn Maghazili, Ibn Jawzi, Muhammad-us Sabban, Mawardi, Ghanji ash-Shafii, Sam'ani, Kharazmi, Sha'rani, Daraqutni, Ibni Sabbagh Maliki, Shablanji, Muhibbuddin Tabari, Ibn Hajar Haythami, Sheikh Mansur Ali Nasif, Muhammad b. Talha, Jalaladdin Suyuti, Sheikh Sulayman Hanafi, Qurtubi, Baghawi and other scholars included this issue in their books.
Sheikh Abdulfattah Abu Ghudda, states that hadiths mentioning that Jesus will descend and kill Dajjal are mutawatir.14 In his book called Nazmu'l-Mutanasır 15, hadith scholar Kattani writes, "The descent of Jesus is definite by the Book, Sunnah and the consensus of the ummah; the hadiths about Dajjal and Mahdi are mutawatir." In his tafsir book called al Bahru'l Muhit, tafsir scholar Ibn Atiyya al Ghirnadi al Andulusi writes, "The ummah has consensus that Jesus is alive and that he will descend on the earth at the end of time; the hadiths regarding the issue are mutawatir."
It is understood from the narrations of the writers who have books regarding the issue that hadith resources are very rich. Besides, the hadiths stating that the descent of Jesus is one of the signs of Doomsday that will appear at the end of time are present in major hadith resources like Bukhari and Muslim. Some of them are as follows:
"Doomsday will not strike unless you see ten signs. One of them is the descent of Jesus..." (Muslim, Kitabu-l Fitan: 39)
"By Allah, Maryam's (Mary's) son (Jesus) will descend in order to perform hajj or umrah or both of them." (Muslim, Hajj: 216, 1252)
"Doomsday will not strike unless ten signs are seen: Smoke, Dajjal, Dabbatu'l Ard, the sun rising in the west; Jesus descending on earth ..." (Rudani, Büyük Hadis Külliyatı, Volume 5 p. 362)
"I swear by Allah in whose hand is my soul that Jesus, son of Mary, will descend as the owner of justice soon..." [Bukhari, Kitabu'l-Buyu': 102, Mazalim: 31, Anbiya 49; Muslim, İman: 242 (155); Abu Dawud, Malahim: 14 (4324); Tirmidhi, Fitan: 54 (2234)]
"Jesus will descend; their leader will say to him, 'Come and lead the prayer.' He will say, 'Some of you are leaders for some of you. This is Allah's grace and generosity for this ummah. " (Rudani, Büyük Hadis Külliyatı, Volume 5 p. 380)
"By Allah, Maryam's (Mary's) son (Jesus) will descend as a fair judge and sultan..." (Sahih Muslim bi Sharhin-Nawawi, Wolume 2, p.192; Kanzul Ummal, Kitabul-Iman, Bab Nuzulu Isa Ibn Maryam, 14/332)
"When Maryam's son will descend on you while you have a leader among you, what will you be like?" (Bukhari, Anbiya 50, 3265, 3/1272; Muslim, Iman: 71, 155, 1/136; Bayhaqi, Asma wa Sifat: 3265, 2/166)
Islamic scholars regard the issue of the descent of Jesus as an issue of creed.
In almost of Ahl as-Sunnah books that explain belief issues, it is stated that Jesus will descend on the earth before Doomsday, that he will struggle against Dajjal and kill him and that he will make religious ethics dominant in the world. Evaluating the evidence in the Quran and the news in the hadiths together, Islamic scholars regarded belief in the second advent of Jesus as an important principle of belief. They explain the issue as follows:
1. Allah states the following in verse 157 of the chapter of an-Nisa: "... but they killed him not, nor crucified him, but so it was made to appear to them..." Along with this verse, in several other verses of the Quran, it is stated that Jesus is alive in the presence of Allah and it is indicated that he will come to the world for the second time. Islamic scholars unanimously say that it is not possible to claim the opposite. For instance, while interpreting this verse, Ibn Khazm says, "A person who says Jesus was killed will be regarded as a person who has exited the religion of Islam or who has become an unbeliever. " 16
2. It is very important evidence for Muslims that the hadiths related to the second advent of Jesus are at the level of tawatur and that they are very clear without giving rise to any doubts. Besides, there is not even one hadith that can be used against the hadiths regarding the issue, that is, stating that Jesus will not come for the second time.
3. The following hadith reported by Jabir Ibn Abdullah is other evidence used by Islamic scholars: "A person who denies the advent of Mahdi definitely denies what has been sent down to Muhammad (pbuh). A person who denies the descent of Jesus, son of Mary, definitely becomes an unbeliever. A person who does not accept that Dajjal will emerge is definitely an unbeliever." This hadith is included in famous Islamic resource books like Faslul Khitab by Sheikh Hajah Muhammad Parisa, Maanil Ahbar by Sheikh Abu Bakr al Kalabazi', ar-Rawdul Unuf by Imam Suhayli and al-Arful Wardi fi Akhbaril Mahdi by Imam Suyuti. Besides, Sheikh Abu Bakr mentions the chain of this hadith: "It was reported to us by Muhammad Ibn Hasan, to him by Abu Abdillah al-Husayn Ibn Muhammad, to him by Ismail Ibn Uways, to him by Malik Ibn Anas, to him by Muhammad Ibn Munkadir and to him by Jabir Ibn Abdillah."
4. Islamic scholars attract attention to the multitude and reliability of the narrators of those hadiths. Some of the narrators are as follows: Abu'l Ashas as-Sanani, Abu Rafi, Abul Aliya, Abu Umama al-Bahili, Abud Darda, Abu Hurayra, Abu Malik al-Khudri, Jabir Ibn Abdillah, Huzayfa Ibn Adis, Safina, Qatada, Uthman Ibnul As, Nafi Ibn Kaysani, Walid Ibn Muslim, Ammar Ibn Yasir, Abdullah Ibn Abbas...
In conclusion, Islamic scholars regard belief in the descent of Jesus and that he will make the real religious ethics dominant in the world as one of the important principles of belief.
1. Osmanlıca-Türkçe Ansiklopedik Büyük Lügat, Türdav, İstanbul, 2000, 3003
2. Mukhtasar Sayyid Sharif, p. 46
3. al-Fiqh al-Akbar, Abu Hanifa, Nu'man b. Thabit (150/767), Trnsl by: H. Basri Çantay, Ankara, 1982
4. Lawamiu'l Anwaril Bahiyya, as-Saffarini, 2/94-95; Nüzul-i Mesih Risalesi, Ahmet Mahmut Ünlü, Ekmel Yayıncılık, İstanbul, 1998, p.169
5. Ruhu'l Maani, Sayyid Alusi, 7/60; Nüzul-i Mesih Risalesi, Ahmet Mahmut Ünlü, Ekmel Yayıncılık, İstanbul, 1998, p. 168
6. Imam Kawthari, Nazratun Abira, p.44-49; Nüzul-i Mesih Risalesi, Ahmet Mahmut Ünlü, Ekmel Yayıncılık, İstanbul, 1998, p. 167-168
7. Ibn Kathir, 1/578-582; Awnu'l Mabud, 11/457-464
8. Sunan Ibn Majah, 10/338
9. Muqaddima, Ibn Khaldun, MEB Şark Islam Klasikleri, Volume 2 p. 137-139
10. Said Hawwa, 9: 445
11. Nazmu'l-mutanasir fi'l-hadithi'l-mutawatir, al-Kattani Abu'l-Fayd Muhammad b. Ja'far al-Hasani, Aleppo, p.147; İslam İnancı Açısından Nüzul-i İsa Meselesi, Dr. Zeki Sarıtoprak, Çağlayan Yayınları, İzmir, 1997, p.108
12. Ilmu'l-Kalam, Ibn Khazm, p. 56-57; İslam İnancı Açısından Nüzul-i İsa Meselesi, Dr. Zeki Sarıtoprak, Çağlayan Yayınları, İzmir, 1997, p.53
13. Muqaddima, Ibn Khaldun, MEB Şark Islam Klasikleri, Volume 2, p. 137-139
14. Said Hawwa, 9: 445
15. Nazmu'l-mutanasir fi'l-hadithi'l-mutawatir, al-Kattani Abu'l-Fayd Muhammad b. Ja'far al-Hasani, Aleppo, p.147; İslam İnancı Açısından Nüzul-i İsa Meselesi, Dr. Zeki Sarıtoprak, Çağlayan Yayınları, İzmir, 1997, p.108
16. Ilmu'l-Kalam, Ibn Khazm, p. 56-57; İslam İnancı Açısından Nüzul-i İsa Meselesi, Dr. Zeki Sarıtoprak, Çağlayan Yayınları, İzmir, 1997, p.53
Questions on Islam
- Are the explanations about the pronoun "hu (he/it)" mentioned in verse 61 of the chapter of az-Zukhruf debatable? What/Whom does that pronoun indicate?
- Will you explain the hadith "Son of Mary (Jesus) will shortly descend amongst you as a just ruler, will break the Cross, kill the pig and abolish jizyah; wealth will become so abundant that no one will accept it"?
- Christians interpret Ruhul-Quds as Allah's spirit. Is Hz. Isa (Jesus) Allah's spirit?
- Is Hz. Khidr alive? According to the following verse, it is impossible for Hz. Khidr to be alive: "We granted not to any man before thee permanent life (here)" (al-Anbiya, 21/34)
- Prophet Isa [Jesus] (Peace be upon him)
- How was the Gospel revealed/sent down to Hz. Isa (Jesus)?
- The Proofs of the Prophethood of Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH) in the Distorted Bible.
- What is the race of the prophet that Jews expected?
- Is tawassul permissible according to verses and hadiths?
- Are angels Allah's daughters?