Why is committing suicide a sin in Islam?

The Details of the Question
Why is committing suicide a sin in Islam?
The Answer

Dear Brother / Sister,

Committing suicide is a grave sin which is forbidden by Islam. A Muslim’s killing himself/herself is a bigger murder and sin than killing another person. Thus, Islamic scholars have disputed whether the funeral prayer of a person who has committed suicide is performed or not. This discussion is not made for a murderer who killed someone. A murderer’s funeral prayer is performed.

A person who has a slightest degree of Iman (belief) in his/her heart does not accept to perform such a grave sin and want a bad end. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) stated in his hadiths that committing suicide is a grave sin. In one of the hadiths is the following is stated:

The Prophet said,

He who commits suicide by throttling shall keep on throttling himself in the Hell Fire (forever) and he who commits suicide by stabbing himself shall keep on stabbing himself in the Hell-Fire. (Bukhari, Janaiz 84)

It is clear that a Muslim should not attempt to perform such a grave sin when he/she comes across with a difficult worldly event that he/she cannot bear. It is because even the biggest and worst event of world is not considered important and terrifying for a believer when compared with an event of the hereafter. This world is transitory and mortal.

Events that force man to commit suicide at the moment may turn out to be among the things that are not worthy of becoming sad some time in the future. They will be forgotten and new issues will come into existence instead of them.

That is why, patience should be shown at the very start when a trouble comes.
Believing people are not overwhelmed by such transitory and permanent things by considering them as things which are troubles and sorrows that do not stop. They show patience by saying This too shall passand try to get the thawab (reward) of patience. By doing this, they let that trouble turn to an opportunity of mercy by Allah (SWT).

The janazah prayer of a person who commits suicide is performed because exiting belief is not in question. Being unable to bear the pressure of the events due to the weakness of belief is in question. Therefore, the janazah prayer of a person who commits suicide is performed. However, that person can be liable to enter Paradise after he is punished for the sin of committing suicide. 

One of the reasons why committing suicide is a grave sin is the fact that man is not authorized to kill himself. The body of man is a structure of Allah. The one who built it can demolish it. Man cannot own his body and soul.

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