How does Islam view committing suicide? Does a Muslim become an infidel by committing suicide?

Details of the Question
How does Islam view committing suicide? Does a Muslim become an infidel by committing suicide? Is his/her funeral prayer performed?
The Answer

Dear Brother / Sister,

A person’s killing himself, that’s, committing suicide for this or that reason is neither accepted lawful reasonably nor religiously, and it is not permissible. This is because a person, who attempts to do such thing, indeed violates the boon of life entrusted to him by Allah and takes on the consequences of such a great sin. Moreover, such person is not considered decent by Muslims, and people do not have a high opinion of him anymore. And as he committed such an important sin, he deserves the punishment of Hell in the hereafter. (Muslim, Faith: 175).

The Prophet (pbuh) stated in many of his hadiths that one who committed suicide is considered to have committed a major sin and will be subject to the punishment of Hell. As a matter of fact, people who do such things are the ones who are weak in religious and unworldly matters as far as we see in the society.

Even though committing suicide is a major sin, one who has committed suicide does not become an infidel; because it is only the denial of one of the essentials of faith which makes a person infidel. For this reason, his/her funeral prayer is performed like any other Muslim. The majority of Islamic scholars, including Imam Azam and Imam Muhammad, have adopted this view. Regardless of the reason why he committed suicide, whether accidentally or deliberately, his funeral prayer is performed.

On the other hand, Imam Abu Yusuf says: “Funeral prayer of someone who has committed suicide cannot be performed, unless he did so accidentally or because of a severe agony.” However, the consensus of the majority of the scholars is that the funeral prayer of someone who has committed suicide can be performed. (al-Fatawa’l-Hindiyya, 1:163; Mehmed Paksu, Aileye Özel Fetvalar).

According to the fatwa of Imam Yusuf, if people suffering from depression commit suicide, this disease can be considered extenuation. We cannot know for sure whether their mental balance was right or not at the moment of suicide. Only Allah can know this. It is stated that people whose mental balance is not right will not be held responsible for their sins according to our religion. One can be held responsible for his sins on condition that his mental balance is right. However, if the reason why one succumbed to depression is nothing permissible religiously, he is held responsible. This is like a drunken person’s killing someone. However, if he succumbed to depression not because of a sin, he can be excused.

What matters here primarily is whether one has lost his mental balance or not. If those whose mental balance is right commit suicide, they are considered to have committed a major sin.

Please click on the link given below;

Why is committing suicide a sin in Islam?

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