What are the mustahab times for performing five daily prayers? For instance, the morning prayer (fajr) can be performed up to the time of sunrise. What about the other prayers?

Details of the Question
I will be glad if you help me about the times of performing prayers. For, we do not seem to be aware of the importance of performing prayers “in time” more than performing prayers. What I want from you is to draw limits for each prayer with concrete time periods. For instance, the morning prayer (fajr) can be performed up to the time of sunrise. What about the other prayers? It is necessary to perform the evening prayer as soon as possible; what are the limits for this short period? Is it necessary to perform the night prayer (isha) before imsak time or immediately after the night adhan is called?
The Answer

Dear Brother / Sister,

The time limits of prayer times are written in calendars. Therefore, the prayers performed within those limits are valid. However, it is more virtuous to perform a prayer as soon as its time period starts. It is more virtuous to perform the morning prayer (fajr) later.

It is necessary to perform each prayer within the time period determined for it. The time for morning prayer is the time from the second fajr, that is, dawn, to sunrise.

The time period for the noon prayer (zuhr) is from zawal, that is, the time whenthe shadow of an object is the smallest and starts to lengthen to the time when the shadow of everything becomes twofold except the shadow of zawal (its shadow when the sun is at its peak). According to all imams except Abu Hanifa, it is up to the time when the shadow of everything becomes as long as the thing itself.  

The time period for the afternoon (asr) prayer is from the end of the time period from the noon prayer to sunset.

The time period for the evening (maghrib) prayer is from sunset to the period when the redness in the west and the whiteness that appears after that disappear.

The time period for the night (isha) prayer and witr prayer starts at the end of the period for the evening prayer and ends at the second fajr, that is, dawn. However, witr prayer cannot be performed before the night prayer. Those times are calculated based on the sun; since the movements of the sun can be known by the science of astronomy, it is easier to determine them according to the calendar. ;

Mustahab Times:

It is mustahab to delay some prayers or to perform some prayers as soon as their time period starts:

1. To delay the morning prayer up to the time that will make it possible to make wudu and to perform a prayer by reading forty verses along with al-Fatiha after the salutation of the fard prayer.

2. To delay the noon prayer a bit to a cooler time in summer.

3. To perform the afternoon prayer early, before the sun starts to turn yellow. 

4. To delay the night prayer to the last one-third of the night.

5. To delay the witr prayer after sleeping, toward the end of night if a person is sure that he can wake up easily.

Should a person who performs prayers at home alone perform them at mustahab times?

It is not appropriate. Mustahab times are for the prayers performed in congregation in the mosque. One should try to perform each prayer as soon as its time starts when he is alone. For, the thawab taken from a prayer decreases as it is delayed.

It is mustahab to perform the morning prayer in congregation when it starts to get bright a bit.A person who performs a prayer alone at home or somewhere else should perform it as soon as its time period starts. The following is stated in a hadith: "The most valuable deed of worship is the prayer that is performed assoon as its time period starts." (Tirmidhi) The same thing is valid for the night prayer.

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