If the next adhan is called while performing a prayer, will that prayer be valid?

The Details of the Question

If a person starts to perform a prayer at almost the end of the time period for a prayer and the next adhan is called while he is performing the prayer, for instance, adhan for the night prayer (isha) is called while performing the evening prayer (maghrib), will the evening prayer be valid, or is it regarded to have been missed?

The Answer

Dear Brother / Sister,

If the time period for a prayer starts, the prayers of the previous time periods are missed. The prayer that is performed is performed as a missed (qada) prayer. That is, when the time period for a prayer ends, prayer time also ends.

One of the fards of the prayer is the time period for that prayer to start. For instance, we cannot perform the noon prayer before its time period starts. The time for a prayer starts with the beginning of that time period and ends with the end of that time period. We can perform prayers between those two points.

Suppose that you delayed the noon prayer (zuhr). The afternoon prayer (asr) is very close. You started the prayer but the time for the afternoon prayer started while you were performing the first rak’ah. What should you do? You should continue and complete the prayer. For, the following is stated in a hadith: 

“He who catches up with one rak’ah of a prayer is regarded to have caught up with the whole prayer.”

According to Hanafi and Hanbali madhhabs, if a person catches up with the starting takbir of a prayer in its determined time, he is regarded to have performed the whole prayer in time. (Wahba Zuhayli, İslam Fıkhı Ansiklopedisi, I /400)

However, it is necessary to perform the morning prayer (fajr) and the afternoon prayer more carefully. It is not permissible to perform prayers when the sun rises in the morning and when it sets in the evening so as not to resemble those who worship the sun. Therefore, it is necessary to finish the morning prayer one or two minutes before the sun rises and the afternoon prayer before the sun sets.

It is also necessary to be careful so as not to delay the afternoon prayer to a time close to sunset. It is makruh to perform the afternoon prayer at a time close to sunset. It is makruh but the prayer is accepted.   

The time period for the morning prayer starts with imsak and ends with sunrise. However, it is more virtuous to perform it near sunrise according to Hanafis but a little while after imsak according to Shafiis.

If the sun rises while performing the morning prayer and before it finishes, the prayer is invalidated according to Hanafis. It is necessary to perform it again after the time for karahah ends.

To perform a prayer in the last ten minutes of the time period and then to perform the next prayer when its time period starts is possible for the noon prayer and the evening prayer. Performing those prayers like that when a person is in a difficult situation is valid. In a journey, the Prophet performed the noon prayer late and he performed the afternoon prayer when its time period started.

However, it is more virtuous to perform a prayer when its time period starts. It is necessary to perform the prayer even if it is close to the end of the time period without missing it.

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