What are the conditions during which fasting is not allowed?

Details of the Question
What are the conditions during which fasting is not allowed?
The Answer

Dear Brother / Sister,

- It is makruh tahrimi (strictly abominable;close to haram) to perform fasting on five days. They are the first day of eid al-fitr and all four days of eid al-adha. 

The fasting performed on these days are still regarded as fasting but it is not necessary to perform them again if one breaks it. For, it is not reasonable for something that is makruh to be regarded as debt (obligation).  

- It is makruh tanzihi (slightly abominable) to perform fasting only on Friday or only on Saturday. For, Friday is eid day. It is necessary not perform fasting to join the eid day of the believers. Saturday is the special day of Jews. It is not appropriate to perform fasting only on that day so as not to resemble Jews. 

"It is not abominable for you to perform regular fasting when it corresponds to a Friday or Saturday." (Naylu'l-Awtar, IV/249)

It is understood from the hadith above that those who habitually perform fasting on the days of holy nights can perform fasting only on Friday if that holy day corresponds to a Friday. It is also valid for those who perform fasting like the Prophet Dawud (David), who performed fasting every other day. 

- It is similarly makruh tanzihi to perform fasting only on the tenth day of the month of Muharram, that is, on the day of ashura. Fasting performed only on that day is abominable but it is not abominable if one performs fasting on the tenth day together with the ninth or eleventh day. 

- It is also makruh to perform fasting only on the day of "Nawruz" (the first day of spring) deliberately. If a person’s regular fasting corresponds to the day of Nawruz, it is not abominable to perform fasting only on that day.

Yawm ash-shakk (doubtful day) is the day that cannot be known whether it is the first day of the month of Ramadan or the last day of the month of Shaban. It is makruh to perform fasting on such a doubtful day since the intention is not certain. If there is no doubt in the intention, if it is known that it is the last day of the month of Shaban and if one intends to perform a supererogatory (nafilah) fasting, it is not makruh. If it is known later that it was the first day of the Ramadan, this supererogatory fasting replaces the fard fasting.  

However, fasting cannot be performed with an ambiguous intention like the following: “I intend to perform fard fasting if it is Ramadan or supererogatory fasting if it is not Ramadan." It is necessary to be careful about it.

It is not makruh to perform fasting only on Sunday if it is not performed with the intention of respect.

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