I have heard that the fards of daily prayers consisted of two rak'ahs and that it is sunnah to perform them as four rak'ahs. Will you give information regarding the issue?
Submitted by on Sat, 15/12/2018 - 10:10
Dear Brother / Sister,
Hz. Aisha narrates:
"Allah enjoined the prayer as two rak`ahs only. Then, He increased it to four for residents. Prayers for travelers remained the same as two rak’ahs." [Bukhari, Salah 1, Taqsirus-Salah 5, Manaqibul-Ansar 47; Muslim, Salatul-Musafirin 2, (685); Muwatta, Qasrus-Salah 8, (1, 146); Abu Dawud, Salah 270, (1198); Nasai, Salah 3, (1, 225).]
1. When prayer was rendered fard, all daily prayers were rendered fard as two rak'ahs. The evening prayer is stated to be an exception as three rak'ahs in a narration by Ahmad Ibn Hanbal.
In another narration included in Bukhari, it is stated that prayers were increased to four rak'ahs after the Migration. Hz. Aisha clarifies the issue as follows in a narration by Ibn Huzayma, Bayhaqi and Ibn Hibban:
"Prayers were rendered fard as two rak'ahs for both residents and travelers in Miraj (Ascension). When the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) settled in Madinah, two more rak’ahs were added to the prayers for residents. Only the morning prayer was left as two rak'ahs since qira’ah in it is long. The evening prayer was left as three rak'ahs as it was because it is the witr of daytime."
After the fard prayers were increased to four rak’ahs, the following verse was sent down:
"When ye travel through the earth, there is no blame on you if ye shorten your prayers, for fear the Unbelievers May attack you..." (an-Nisa, 4/101)
According to what Ibnul-Athir writes in Sharhul-Musnad, prayers were shortened for travelers in the fourth year of the Migration. However, it is also stated that the verse in question was sent down in the second year of the Migration.
2. Acting upon the hadith reported by Hz. Aisha above, Hanafis regard shortening prayers while travelling as azimah (strict rule), not rukhsah (permission). Those who oppose it and Shafiis regard shortening prayer (as two rak'ahs) as rukhsah for travelers acting upon the verse above.
(Prof. Dr. İbrahim Canan, Kütüb-i Sitte)
Questions on Islam
- How should a person who forgets what rak'ah he is performing in witr prayer or any other prayer complete his prayer?
- It is said that there is no qada (missed) prayer in the Quran and hence there is no prayer called qada prayer. Is it true? Will you explain it with fiqh evidences?
- How old was Aisha (R.A) when she got married to the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)?
- What is the wisdom behind reading al-Fatiha in every rak'ah of five daily prayers?
- How are lunar eclipse (khusuf) and solar eclipse (kusuf) prayers performed?
- What is necessary to do if the chapter of al-Fatiha is not read in the 3rd and 4th rak'ahs of fard prayers?
- What should a person who forgets the number of rak’ahs he has performed or who makes a mistake about rak’ahs do?
- In what order should we read chapters of the Quran in prayer? Is it makruh to read them without an order? Will you give information about the lengths of chapters and the order of reading them in prayer?
- Hadiths about Prayer
- Will you give information about the duas (supplications) and tasbihat (glorifications) read in prayer (salah) and thawabs given for them?