How can we understand that the attributes of Allah (SWT) cover everything?
All attributes of Allah (SWT) are absolute, infinite, and all-surrounding. Absolute means that it is unthinkable that those attributes be hindered by any other attributes, for example, the action of His power cannot be prevented by any other power. As for infinite, it means that those attributes being in effect does not mean that their power lessens. No matter how many objects He may create, His power is infinite.
As for All-Surrounding, it expresses that the divine attributes surround, cover, comprise all beings. Certainly the infinite power surrounds all beings for it functions in all of them and since all these activities are carried out with knowledge, the attribute of knowledge surrounds those beings by exerting its rule over them. Again since all these activities could only happen with Allahs will, the attribute of will surrounds all beings.
All attributes of Allah (SWT) surround every object. In other words, they cover and comprise all of them and exert their rule over them. Lets go on to make our explanation by considering the attribute of knowledge, which is one of the attributes of Allah (SWT). Knowledge is one of the seven attributes (which constitute the ultimate perfection of the Absolute Being of Allah) of Allah (SWT). While counting these sacred attributes, we mention knowledge just after life. Wisdom, benevolence, mercy, which manifest themselves in the world of existence, are heralds of the Divine knowledge.
Allah, Who is pre- and post-Eternal, knows anything that happened and will ever happen in a complete detail. Allah (SWT) knows how to make the sun and moon. He knows how to make angels and jinns. He knows how to make soil and water. He knows how to make humans and animals. Besides, He knows how to make so many countless things that we cannot know. In His creation of a creature; eternal knowledge, infinite power, universal will and the other divine attributes all work together.
The sacred attributes of Allah do not resemble those of His servants. It is Him Who makes both the essence and attributes of any beings. Just as human spirit is a creature, so his knowledge, which is an attribute of it, is also a creature. With limited knowledge, which is a creature, of course, it is impossible to understand literally the eternal and infinite knowledge of the One Who is the Creator of knowledge. Our knowledge rests on learning, beholding, testing and experiencing. All of them are acquired in the course of time. None of them is the case for the Eternal knowledge.
Mankind has always thought hard in order to read this book of the universe which bears manifestations of knowledge and wisdom which are as large as not to be reached and as deep as not to be available. He has seen with amazement that all fields of existence are full of knowledge, and he has submitted so many theses and has written countless works so as to be cognizant of the subtle mystery of this book.
Like letters and words of a book, beings in this book of the universe also continue their duties unaware of the manifestations of infinite knowledge in themselves.
Hairs do not know whose head they are on; trees do not recognize mountains. Stars are ignorant of the space and fish also do not know the sea. Thus, everything acts with the knowledge of the One Who is All-Knowing, and their every need is met with the knowledge and wisdom of All-Knowing Allah.
The Holy Quran shows this truth as follows: Should He not know that He created? And He is the Subtile, the Aware (He is the One that understands the finest mystries and is well-acquainted with them). (Mulk Surah, 67:14) Everything that is going on in the stream of time continues their journeys with His knowledge and power. The Milky Way belongs to Him, so do the stars. The rivers belong to Him, so do the fish. The army of blood in the veins belong to Him, so do the red and white cells. These two armies of the bodily heart inform us about the inspirations and apprehensions in our spiritual heart. Even the memories can be red or white. And none is secret to Him.