Will you explain the basic values that Islam orders to be protected?

The Details of the Question
Will you explain the basic values that Islam orders to be protected?
The Answer

Dear Brother / Sister,

There are many rights that Islam gives to people. The ones that are regarded as basic rights can be listed as follows: Life, religion, mind, property and lineage.

1. Right to Live:

The religion of Islam regards man as the best creature and includes protection of human life among basic principles. It is stated in the Quran that killing a person unjustly is a severe crime as if killing all people and that saving a person’s life is a lofty and valuable act like saving all people.

The Prophet (pbuh) addressed all Muslims as follows: in the Farewell Hajj:

"Just as this day, this month and this city is sacred, so too are your lives, property and honor sacred." (Bukhari, Ilm, 37, Hajj, 132; Muslim, Hajj, 147)

Thus, he stated that man’s right to live was untouchable. He stated the following in another hadith:

"Avoid seven destructive things. One of them is to kill a person that Allah renders haram except for justified cases." (Bukhari, Wasaya, 23; Tibb, 48; Hudud, 44; Muslim, Iman, 144; Abu Dawud, Wasaya, 10)

Even during the state of war, the killing of those who do not actually participate in the war like women, children, clerics and elderly men is forbidden.It is forbidden for a person both to kill another person and to commit suicide; they are regarded among major sins. 

2. Right of Religion:

Everybody has the right to prefer a religion.

“Let there be no compulsion in religion.” (al-Baqara, 2/256),

“To you be your Way, and to me mine...” (al-Kafirun, 109/6)

This issue is emphasized in the verses above. Non-Muslims are given the right to practice their religion under the domination of the Islamic state.

3. Mind:

Mind is the most superior property of man. For, the things entrusted by Allah are accepted thanks to the mind and man can attain Allah's consent thanks to it. The source and root of knowledge (ilm) is mind. Knowledge is to the mind like fruit is to the tree, light is to the sun and sight is to the eye. What distinguishes man from the other living and non-living beings in the universe and what makes him superior is the mind.

The warnings that lead people to reason and to think in the Quran like “Think!”, “Do you ever not think?”, “Do they ever not think?”, “Look!”, “Do they not look?”, “O those who are sane! Take lessons!” show the importance given to mind.

Badiuzzaman said Nursi defines mind as the summary of consciousness distilled from consciousness and feelings, the most valuable possession of man, a luminous essence, a key that explains the secrets of the universe, a tool that examines Allah’s names and attributes that are manifest on the realm, a discoverer that decodes the secrets in nature, a divine guide that prepares man for the happiness in the eternal life, a wise gift to man that proceeds based on evidence and that shows man lofty purposes and eternal fruits, that is isolated from matter in terms of its essence but related to matter in terms of its deeds.  

In order to protect such an important essence, the religion of Islam renders intoxicating alcoholic drinks haram and imposes penalties for those who do not act in accordance with this prohibition. In Islamic law, along with alcoholic drinks, all of the other substances that numb man and eliminate his ability to think and reason are regarded as haram and are strictly forbidden.

4. Property (Wealth):

The religion of Islam guarantees the right to own things.Islam wants man, who is the vicegerent on earth, to lead a life that fits the honor of humanity. Islam is not against being rich. It does not want wealth to be something that is circulated among the members of a certain group; it wants wealth to circulate among all people. 

Our religion regards killing people a major sin; similarly, it regards grabbing and stealing things as a major sin; furthermore, it imposes a severe sanction on the crime of theft like amputating the hand. 

5. Lineage: 

The institution of marriage is necessary for the continuationand development of lineage. The continuation of human species and the preservation of lineage can be possible only through the establishment of the family institution, which is the building block of the community, with marriage. The institution of marriage based on a contract forms the essence of the Islamic community.  

Our religion, which gives importance to a strong Islamic community, adopts having children and increasing the lineage and encourages it. As a matter of fact, the Prophet (pbuh) said,

"Marry the one who is loving and fertile, for I will feel proud of your large numbers before the other prophets on the Day of Resurrection." (Ahmed b. Hanbal, I/412).

Hz. Zakariyya prayed to Allah for the continuation of his lineage as follows:  

"Now I fear (what) my relatives (and colleagues) (will do) after me: but my wife is barren: so give me an heir as from Thyself - (One that) will (truly) represent me, and represent the posterity of Jacob; and make him, O my Lord, one with whom Thou art well-pleased!" (Maryam, 19/5-6)

In Islam, having children and ensuring the continuation of lineage is regarded as worshipping.Due to this importance, harming man in any way, through deliberate miscarriage, abortion, etc. is regarded as killing a living child. It is haram to kill a baby whose organs have formed in the uterus. For, when the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) accepted the allegiance of women, he laid it as a condition "not to kill their children in any way". This condition is very important. The child is under the protection of the mother before he is born. However, after he is born, the father becomes responsible. In that case, the condition "not to kill their children in any way" is the condition of not killing the children (fetuses) in the uterus.

"O Prophet! When believing women come to thee to take the oath of fealty to thee, that they will not associate in worship any other thing whatever with Allah, that they will not steal, that they will not commit adultery (or fornication), that they will not kill their children, that they will not utter slander, intentionally forging falsehood, and that they will not disobey thee in any just matter,- then do thou receive their fealty, and pray to Allah for the forgiveness (of their sins)..." (al-Mumtahina, 60/12)

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