What are the basic values that the religion of Islam orders to be protected?

There are many rights that Islam gives people. We can list the values that are regarded as basic rights as follows: Life, religion, mind, property and generation.

1- Right of Life:

The religion of Islam regards man as the most superior creature and deems the protection of human life among the basic principles. It is stated in the Quran that to kill a person unjustly is a serious crime like killing all people and that protecting the life of a person is a lofty and valuable act like protecting all people.

Hz Prophet (pbuh) addressed all Muslims as follows in the Farewell Hajj: " Just as you regard this month, this day, this city as Sacred, so regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust" (Bukhari, "Ilm", 37, "Hajj", 132, Muslim, "Hajj, 147), stating that the right of life of a human is untouchable. In another hadith, the following is stated: "Avoid seven destructive things. One of them is to kill a person, which is forbidden by Allah except justifiable causes." (Bukhari, "Wasaya", 23; "Tib", 48; "Hudud", 44; Muslim, "Iman", 144; Abu Dawud, "Wasaya", 10).

Killing people like women, children, old people and clergymen were prohibited even in the time of war. Killing a person as well as killing oneself (committing suicide) is prohibited and is regarded among major sins.

2- Right of religion:

Everybody has the freedom to choose a religion. “Let there be no compulsion in religion.” (al-Baqara, 2/256), “To you be your Way, and to me mine...” (al-Kafirun, 10976) This issue is emphasized in the verses above. Non-Muslims living under the sovereignty of the Islamic state were given the right to practice their own religions.

3- Mind:

Mind is the most superior quality of man because the trusts of Allah are accepted thanks to the mind and man can attain the consent and content of Allah thanks to it. The source and root of knowledge is the mind. The relationship between knowledge and mind is like the relationship between fruit and tree, light and the sun, sight and the eye. What distinguishes man from the other living and non-living beings in the universe and what makes him superior is the mind.

The warnings in the Quran that lead people to think like “Think!”, “Do you still not think?”, “Do they ever think”, “Look!”, “Do they not look?”, “Take warning then, O you with eyes!” show the importance given to the mind.

Badiuzzaman Said Nursi defines the mind as a summary of the consciousness filtered from feelings, the most valuable instrument of man, a luminous essence, a key to unlock the treasures of the universe, a tool that examines Allah’s names and attributes that become manifest in the world, an explorer that solves the mysteries in nature, a divine guide that prepares man for the happiness of the eternal life, a valuable present that acts on evidence and shows man high purposes and permanent fruits, and an essence that is isolated from matter with its being and that is related with matter with its action.

The religion of Islam prohibited alcoholic drinks, which intoxicate people, in order to protect such an important essence and imposed penalties on those who violate this prohibition. In the Islamic law, all of the substances that stupefy man and eliminate his ability to think and reason are regarded as forbidden along with alcoholic drinks.

4- Property:

The religion of Islam guarantees the right to obtain property. Islam wants man to lead a life that fits human honor. Islam is not against wealth. Islam does not want wealth to be a power belonging to a certain part of the society; it wants wealth to spread among individuals.

Our religion regards killing among major sins; similarly it regards stealing and grabbing as a major sin and imposes a very severe penalty like amputating the thief’s hand in case of theft.

5- Generation:

The institution of marriage is necessary for the continuation and development of human generation. The continuation and maintenance of human generation can only be possible through the establishment of family, which forms the society and which is the keystone of the society. The institution of marriage based on marriage contract forms the basis of the Islamic community.

Giving importance to the strengthening of the Islamic society, the religion of Islam adopted and encouraged having children and increasing the population. As a matter of fact, Hz. Prophet (pbuh) said, "Marry loveable and fertile women because I will be proud of your multitude in the presence of the other ummahs on the Day of Judgment." (Ahmad b. Hanbal, I, 412).

Hz. Zakariyya (pbuh) prayed Allah as follows for the continuation of his generation: ""Now I fear (what) my relatives (and colleagues) (will do) after me: but my wife is barren: so give me an heir as from Thyself―(One that) will (truly) represent me, and represent the posterity of Jacob; and make him, O my Lord! one with whom Thou art well-pleased! " (Maryam 19/5-6)

In Islam, having children and continuation of the generation is regarded as worship. Due to its importance, harming the child in the uterus, miscarriage and abortion are regarded as murder. It is forbidden to abort the fetus whose organs have become apparent. When the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) accepted allegiance from women, he laid down “not killing their children in any way” as a condition. This condition is very important. The child is under the control of its mother before it is born. However, after the birth, the father, not the mother, is responsible. Then, the condition “not killing their children in any way” is related to the fetus in the uterus.

"O Prophet! When believing women come to thee to take the oath of fealty to thee that they will not associate in worship any other thing whatever with Allah, that they will not steal, that they will not commit adultery (or fornication), that they will not kill their children, that they will not utter slander, intentionally forging falsehood and that they will not disobey thee in any just matter then do thou receive their fealty and pray to Allah for the forgiveness (of their sins)..." (al-Mumtahina, 60/12).

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