What is Islam? Will you give detailed information about Islam?

WHAT IS ISLAM?

Literal Meaning of the Word Islam

Literally, Islam means to surrender, to submit and to obey. This religion is called Islam because it is a religion based on surrendering to the commands of Allah and obeying them. 

Terminological Meaning

It is a way of life, a system based on creed and deeds to make people attain bliss both in the world and in the hereafter, sent by Allah and conveyed to people through prophets. Islam is a divine law that lead people who have minds to good things based on their own choices. 

The Content of Islam

The meaning of Islam is to surrender: to surrender to the commands and prohibition of Allah. Islam is not in question without surrendering to the decrees of Allah. (see al-An'am, 162 and an-Nisa, 65) Man is a slave that Allah created.

Since Allah encompasses everything with His knowledge and since He has wisdom, the necessity of slavery is to surrender to Him. The laws of life make it necessary for man to surrender to Allah because it is Allah who knows these laws and man best.

The universe and everything in it obey the laws of that Creator. Therefore, the religion of the whole universe is Islam. The sun, the moon and the stars are all Muslims. Since Islam means to obey Allah and to surrender to Him, we see that all those beings obey Allah without rebelling. That is, we witness that they surrender and that they are Muslims.

“Do they seek for other than the Religion of Allah?―While all creatures in the heavens and on earth have willing, or unwilling, bowed to His Will (accepted Islam), and to Him shall they all be brought back." (Aal-i Imran, 3/83)

In the verse above, the surrendering of the beings in the sky and on earth is given as an example and man is addressed as follows: "O man! You should surrender like them." As Hz. Ali (ra) puts it, "Islam is submission and surrendering." A person who does not surrender to Allah is not regarded as a Muslim. Man is regarded to be the slave of the being to whom he surrenders. Islam is a manifestation and reflection of belief. Can surrendering without belief, that is, Islam without belief be possible? Even if it is possible, it is not something that is acceptable. Munafiqs (hypocrites) are people that surrender without belief. Today, the people who introduce themselves as Muslims though they have not believed as it is necessary, they have not accepted the decrees of Allah heartily and they adopt other ideologies (religions) are included in this group. For a valid Islam (surrendering), it is necessary to surrender to the Sharia'ah of Allah willingly, fully and without any conditions.

If man surrenders to Allah with his own free will and choice, and lives like a Muslim by choosing Islam, he will live in peace and in harmony with the universe since he has surrendered to the same being as the universe has surrendered. Thus, such a person becomes the vicegerent and representative of Allah on earth.

WHAT IS ISLAM?

It is not possible to define the religion of Islam briefly but comprehensively. Its comprehensive definition can be made only by the definition of the Quran and the Sunnah because the content and the boundaries of Islam are determined by the Quran and the Sunnah. Islam can be learned from the Quran and the Sunnah. Allah has made this religion perfect and comprehensive in all aspects. There is no unexplained issue in Islam. It has been made clear whether something is permissible, haram (forbidden), maruh (abominable), sunnah, fard (obligatory) or wajib (necessary); the decree about any deed or belief has been made clear. There is definitely a decree about belief, worshipping, politics, social issues, economy, war, peace, law or any issue related to man in Islam; or, mujtahids make a judgment about it basing their decision on the Quran and the Sunnah. Allah explains this property of the Quran as follows:

"We have sent down to thee the Book explaining all things." (an-Nahl, 16/89 and also see Yusuf, 111)

Mujtahid scholars make judgments about the issues whose decrees are not stated clearly in the Quran and the Sunnah basing their decisions on the Quran and the Sunnah.

The Prophet (pbuh) defined Islam in various ways. One of those definitions is as follows:

"Islamis based on five principles: To testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that Muhammad (pbuh) is His Messenger, to perform prayers, to pay zakah (alms), to perform Hajj and to observe fast during the month of Ramadan." (Bukhari, Iman 1; Muslim, Iman 22; Nasai, Iman 13; Tirmidhi Iman 3)

The hadith above states that Islam is based on those five principles. What we need to pay attention to is the fact that those five principles are fundamentals of Islam but they do not form the whole Islam. We cannot say that a house consists of its foundations only; similarly, it is wrong to say that Islam consists of those five principles only. A person who reads the Quran will see that ethics, economy, social issues, peace, war, goodness, evil etc. are mentioned along with those five principles in the Quran. Islam consists of a foundation and a building. The foundation consists of those five principles. The building consists of other decrees of Islam related to human life. The duty of a Muslim is to know Islam as a whole and to practice it as a whole.  

Under the light of the famous hadith above, we can divide the foundations of Islam into two: belief, which is summarized with the words of testimony and righteous deeds, which are mentioned as four deeds due to their importance. Islam is the belief that originates from kalima ash-shahada (words of testimony) and the principles of belief. Islam is worship that appears with prayer, zakah, fasting and hajj. They are called the principles or foundations of Islam. The remaining parts of Islam are the building that is established on these foundations. The elements that form this building are Islam's systems of life: political system, economic system, military system, social system, education system, etc. Islam also has sanctions to ensure its sovereignty. (Sanction means the force ensuring that laws and ethical commands are fulfilled; it means a rule related to enforcement) These sanctions are jihad, enjoining what is good and prohibiting what is bad, natural penalties and the divine penalties given by Allah both in the world and in the hereafter. Thus, Islam is belief, worship, life systems and sanctions. 

WHAT IS ISLAM?

Islam means surrendering of man to Allah with his inner and outer self, with his heart and body, mind and conscience, desire and hatred, feelings and sensitivities. Islam means to save one's heart, mind, body, inner and outer self from all kinds of influences except Allah. Islam is a general system, a program of human acts that imposes commands through laws and revelation related to all aspects of life and   that is declared and conveyed by the Prophet.  Those who obey this program are rewarded and those who do not are punished. Islam is the whole of decrees sent down by Allah, creed, worship, ethics, muamalat (transactions) and all of the news in the Quran and the Sunnah.

The opposite of Islam is Jahiliyya (ignorance). (Jahiliyya is the common name of all kinds of unbelief outside Islam as a belief and lifestyle. It means unbelief. ) Ignorance is definitely against every part of Islam.  As Hz.  Umar puts it, "When those who do not know Islam and Ignorance appear, the knots of Islam are untied one by one." Islam is against Ignorance in all details because every part of Islam is a work of Allah's knowledge that surrounds everything.  Every view and movement that is against Him is definitely Ignorance because it is the work of man's limited knowledge.  Besides, man's fancies and desires can overcome him and can show the good as bad and the bad as good.

"Do they then seek after a judgment of (the Days of) Ignorance? But who, for a people whose faith is assured, can give better judgment than Allah?” (al-Maida, 5/50)

When some people see the beauty and maturity in the acts, lifestyle or some systems of some of the people who follow the path of Ignorance, they feel doubtful. It is because something related to Islam can sometimes exist in Ignorance, too. That Islamic thing seems nice there, too. An ignorant person adopts that system because he does not know the truth of Islam. If that person knew the truth, he would understand that the partial good deeds that he saw in Ignorance belonged to Islam and would turn toward the source and the origin.    

There exists Islam and Ignorance in beliefs. There exist Islam and Ignorance in ethics, politics, teaching, war, peace and social issues. There exist Islam and Ignorance in all of the issues related to man, in all of the laws and rules. Ignorance in belief and worship is the most dangerous ignorance. Therefore, Allah forgets the people who do some deeds of ignorance but who have strong belief but He does not forgive the people whose belief and worship are those of Ignorance even if they have full Islamic ethics.

"Allah forgiveth not that partners should be set up with him; but He forgiveth anything, else to whom He pleaseth." (an-Nisa, 4/48)

Allah sent Islam as a whole. A person who takes it as a whole is a Muslim. A person who takes some of it and does not take the other part mixes Islam and Ignorance.

"Then is it only a part of the Book that ye believe in, and do ye reject the rest? But what is the reward for those among you who behave like this but disgrace in this life? -and on the Day of Judgment they shall be consigned to the most grievous penalty For Allah is not unmindful of what ye do." (al-Baqara, 2/85)

It is necessary for every Muslim to be purified of all of the customs and rules of Ignorance and take Islam as a whole. 

The Aim of the Religion of Islam

The decrees that Islam introduced aim the happiness of people. Those who act in accordance with these decrees will attain bliss both in the world and in the hereafter. Islam makes man attain happiness by improving his heart, mental thoughts and deeds. Since the happiness of the community depends on the happiness of the individual, the happiness of an individual means the happiness of the community. Islam introduced some decrees in order to realize this aim. They are called Shari'ah decrees  

Decrees of the Religion of Islam

The decrees of the religion of Islam are divided into four.

a) Belief (Decrees related to creed): They are the decrees that are related to the issues that man needs to accept and refuse in the religion of Islam. These decrees teach man what he needs to accept and refuse. By believing in the principles of belief, man takes his spiritual food, purifies his heart of wrong beliefs and gains his real value. 

b) Deeds: Deeds are the actions that man performs. They are the actions that need to be done or not to be done. The decrees that explain what deeds should be done under what conditions and how deeds become valid are called practical deeds; for instance, to pray, to pay zakah (alms), to make jihad, to learn knowledge.

c) Ethics: They are decrees that explain states and actions, attitudes and Islamic and human relations. They are decrees that are related to beautifying ethics and educating conscience; for instance, not cursing or telling lies, wanting things that one wants for himself also for others.

d) Law [Muamalat (Transactions), Uqubat (Penalties)]: They are the decrees that are outside the issues like belief, ethics and private deeds and that are related to governing the state, ruling the community, economic issues, marriage, divorce, inheritance, commercial and political affairs; in short, they are all of the decrees that determine the laws and rules of the Islamic state. 

Islam is not an indispensible part of human life but the whole of it with all aspects. Islam encompasses and determines man's twenty-four hours and all of the issues from birth to death.  Islam is the whole of man's life. It is a whole with its belief, worship and law. It cannot be divided or synthesized with something else. It does not accept removal and addition, and superstitions.  It is a perfect system completed by Allah.

General characteristics of Islam

1) Divinity: (Belonging to Lord; being divine) Islam is the true and divine religion. It is based on revelation. Its aim and purpose is divine. The pleasure (consent) of Allah is an indispensible aim for a Muslim. The source and method of Islam is divine, too.

2) Humanness: (Harmony with human nature) The Quran was sent to human beings, and prophets were chosen among human beings. Islam gives man and human mind great importance; and it has imposed decrees.  According to Islam, man was created on earth in the best way and as the vicegerent; he was made a distinguished being with the spiritual element; and the universe was put at his disposal.  Islam does not neglect any power and energy groups. It leads all of them to improvement, work and development.  By undertaking the burdens that he can carry, man continues on his way in peace, security and tranquility.  These responsibilities are harmonious with man's nature.  They become integrated with the sound of man's heart and conscience. It aims to improve his nature.  All of the decrees of Islam are oriented toward happiness in the world and in the hereafter. 

3) Comprehensiveness and universality: Islam is so long as to cover eternity, so wide as to encompass the whole mankind and so deep as to contain worldly and otherworldly affairs. Its message and decrees are related to the whole world and mankind.  It arranges all of the stages of human life, from the cradle to the grave and all fields of life. The teachings of Islam are also comprehensive. This comprehensiveness becomes manifest in belief, worship, imagination, ethics and virtues, and arrangements and laws. 

4) Moderation and balance:  Islam is a religion that has basic dynamics like balance, mildness, justice and moderation. It is away from excessiveness and deficiency.  It has no extremism. It does not let man go astray and be oppressed. The power of man is not sufficient to establish such a balanced system.  We can easily see the elements of moderation (justice and balance) in belief, worship, ethics and legislation. There is a balance between the world and the hereafter, matter and spirit, the rich and the poor.  It balances man's inside and outside, spirit and body, the individual and the community, women and men, the family and the nation. It determines their rights and duties towards one another in a balanced and harmonious way.

5) Clarity: The belief principles and religious concepts of Islam are plain and clear. They are easy to understand, explain and accept.  It is not refused by the mind and reason.   

6) Pure religion: It is a religion that cannot be distorted since it does not allow analysis and synthesis, removal and addition and since its source is sound and unchangeable. Its doors are closed to superstitions. It is the only true religion completed and accepted by Allah. 

7) Oneness (Tawhid): Islam is primarily a religion of oneness. It settles the perfect belief in Allah.  In Islam, the attributes of Allah cannot be associated with people and other beings.  It emphasizes that Allah does not resemble anyone. People and other beings cannot be deified. It is not possible to worship and pray any being except Allah.

8) Approving all prophets: A Muslim believes in all of the prophets sent by Allah. He does not discriminate among them. He accepts them as the messengers and slaves of Allah by keeping away from deifying them and inappropriate descriptions regarding Him.

9) Sovereignty belongs to Allah: It belongs to Allah to determine, laws and principles and to impose laws. Islam constitutes a community where decree, domination, sovereignty and authority are given to Allah and where there are no oppressors, oppressed people and slaves of slaves.

10) Sound source: The main source of Islam is the Quran. The Quran is a book that will not be distorted until Doomsday. All of the copies of the Quran in the world are the same.

11) Harmony with the universe: The universe and everything in it are regarded as Muslims since they surrender to and obey Allah. Man who accepts Islam and surrenders obeys the same rules in harmony with the universe. Thus, the effort and energy of man combine with the facilities of the universe. Islam does not make man conflict and fight with the natural powers in the universe.

12) It constitutes one community (umma): Islam constitutes a community (umma) that is harmonious and loyal and that acts in solidarity. The basic dynamics of this community, which comes together with the bond of creed and which does not discriminate among races, colors, countries and classes are fraternity, solidarity, equality, justice, advising truth and patience, spreading goodness and struggling against evil. It constitutes a virtuous and chaste community where bad characters and ugly traditions like fornication, prostitution, theft, injustice and interest are eliminated, where man's extreme desires for eating, drinking, housing and sex are prevented. Unbelievers are regarded as one nation; similarly, all Muslims constitute one nation that regards one another as brothers. 

13) Ease and glad-tiding: Islam regards anyone that utters kalima ash-shahada and lives accordingly a Muslim no matter what he was like in the past. It is based on the principle of equality and justice. It does not allow anyone to be forced to become a Muslim. It aims to spread by conquering hearts. Its decrees are easy enough to practice. Many conveniences have been introduced regarding worship taking man's stamina into consideration. Tasks or duties that are too difficult are not ordered. Islam’s mercy, pardon and glad-tiding overweigh. Islam views all of man's spiritual and bodily needs with tolerance and finds easy and simple solutions to them. However, those who ignore worshipping and obeying Allah despite all this ease due to laziness and extreme inclination toward the world are warned against the torture of Allah.

14) It gives importance to the mind and knowledge: Islam is a religion of revelation but it gives importance to the mind. It also gives great importance to science and knowledge, stating that learning knowledge is fard for all Muslims; it gives importance to issues like working, learning and thought. It should not be forgotten that Islam is not a rationalist religion but a religion of minds.

15) Human rights: Islam, which cares about human rights in such a way that cannot be seen in any system (religion), protects the following rights of man:

     a. Safety of religion: Islam protects the right of religion and the freedom of practicing religion.

     b. Safety of soul: Islam ensures the right of living.

     c. Safety of mind: Islam, which orders science and meditation, prohibits things that harm the mind like alcohol and drugs; it takes all kinds of measures in order to protect the mind from all kinds of disorders. 

     d. Safety of generation: It takes all necessary measures in order to ensure the protection of chaste and honor and the upbringing of healthy generations.   

     e. Safety of goods: Islam closes the ways that lead to crimes like theft in order to protect property; in addition, it gives man the right and opportunity to have sufficient means of livelihood.

To sum up, Islam guarantees the honor, chaste, freedom, religion, life, livelihood and job of every man.  

Regarding the issue of human rights, Islam is still in a position that cannot be achieved. It encourages the principle of human fraternity. Islam rejects racism and the understanding of superiority except for taqwa. Islam's orders, prohibitions, decrees, worship, understanding of punishment, etc prove equality.  This much equality does not exist in other systems even in theory. Islam does not overlook injustice for the sake of equality. It does not allow the exploitation of sexuality by overlooking sexual differences under the pretext of equality of women and men and the extremism that will lead to the exploitation and oppression of people. 

The Relationship of Islam with the Shari'ahs of the Previous Prophets

a) Islam is the name of all of the religions sent down through all prophets. (see al-Baqara, 130 - 133) Humanity came to the world with a prophet (Hz. Adam). Allah sent prophets with different shari'ahs (laws) based on the conditions of the time and the needs of humanity; however, creed (belief) was the same for all prophets.

b) The religions conveyed by the previous prophets had been sent to certain nations. The religion sent to Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) is a universal religion. That is, it was presented to the whole universe and humanity by Allah; it is a way of life that will be valid until Doomsday.

c) The religion of Islam, which Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) conveyed, abrogated the decrees (shari'ahs) of the religions conveyed by the previous prophets. That is, what is valid today is the shari'ah of Hz. Muhammad (pbuh).

d) The religion of Islam confirms all of the books and prophets sent by Allah before Hz. Muhammad (pbuh).

Some Verses on Islam

“The Religion before Allah is Islam (submission to His will).” (Aal-i Imran, 3/19)

“If anyone desires a religion other than Islam (submission to Allah) never will it be accepted of him; and in the Hereafter he will be in the ranks of those who have lost. (all spiritual good).” (Aal-i Imran, 3/85)

“Whoever submits his whole self to Allah, and is a doer of good, has grasped indeed the trustworthy hand-hold: and with Allah rests the End and Decision of (all) affairs.” (Luqman, 31/22)

“…This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed my favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion...” (al-Maida, 5/3)

The Fundamentals of Islam

The fundamentals (pillars) of Islam are five: To testify that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad (pbuh) is His Messenger, to perform prayers, to pay zakah (alms), to perform Hajj and to observe fast during the month of Ramadan.

In the hadith in which the Prophet defines Islam, which is known as the hadith of Gabriel, which we mentioned at the beginning and which states that Islam is based on five pillars (which ignorant people wrongly call it five conditions of Islam), these five pillars are listed. We will deal with the basic principles of belief which we call kalima ash-shahada or kalima at-tawhid in detail when we explain the issue of oneness (tawhid).  Here, we will briefly mention the principles (pillars) which are stated as prototype examples due to the importance of these kinds of worship and which we can inclusively define as righteous deeds along with other kinds of worship in terms of its aspect related to creed. How to do these deeds are dealt with in fiqh and catechism books and in the subject of fiqh.  

What is righteous deed (amal salih)? Righteous deeds are deeds that are liked by Allah. A righteous deed has two characteristics: The first one is being in compliance with the shari'ah of Islam; the second one is the intention being for the sake of Allah and aiming to worship Him. If a deed does not contain both of them, it is not regarded as a righteous deed by Allah. Such a deed brings no profit and reward. Our Lord states the following:

“…Whoever expects to meet his Lord, let him work righteousness, and in the worship of his Lord, admit no one as partner.” (al-Kahf, 18/110)

The place of righteous deed in Islam is very important because these deeds are the fruits of belief in Allah and the hereafter. The meaning of kalima ash-shahada (tawhid) becomes manifest through doing righteous deeds and being on this way. When we remember that the meaning of Islam is surrendering and submission, and that this submission means obeying and surrendering to Allah's commands, it becomes clear that Islam cannot be without deeds, obedience and worship. Many verses praise righteous deeds due to its importance in Islam. Some of these verses regard them as close to belief; some mention the reward for them and others mention the benefits of them in the hereafter.

“By (the Token of) time (through the Ages), verily Man is in loss, except such as have Faith, and do righteous deeds, and (join together) in the mutual teaching of Truth, and of Patience and Constancy..” (al-Asr, 103/1-3)

For some other verses, see al-Maida, 9 ; ar-Ra’d, 29 ;an-Nahl, 97 ; al-Kahf, 30; Maryam, 76; al-Ankabut, 7, 9.

It is necessary to adopt Islam for the deed to be accepted. Therefore, Allah mentions belief and righteous deeds together. If a person does a righteous deed that is incompliance with the shari'ah of Islam and for the sake of Allah, his deed will be rejected by Allah unless he accepts and adopts Islam as a whole. There is no reward or benefit for such a deed. (see Aal-i İmran, 3/85)

There are several kinds of good deeds. They are all of the things that God Almighty orders, whether they are related to worship or transactions. When a Muslim does a righteous deed by aiming to obey his Lord, surrender to the shari'ah and demand the consent of Allah, he becomes a person of good deed.

The righteous deeds in the first place (in the narrow sense) are the acts of worship. The main acts of worship are daily prayers, hajj and zakah. They are the foundations of Islam. It is definitely impermissible to neglect or to despise their importance. Therefore, they are clearly stated in the famous hadith that defines Islam.   

The importance of worship in Islam is great. Worship arranges a person's relationship with his Lord and shows his servitude to Allah. Worship is the special right of Allah that he demands from His slaves. It is necessary to take care of worship and to invite other people to belief principles and then to worship. When worship is incomplete, man's belief cannot be strengthened and cannot settle in his heart. Furthermore, today, when the sovereignty of unbelief has reached everywhere, the belief of people who act lazily and neglect some kinds of worship especially daily prayers is imperiled. That is, it is very difficult for a person to remain a believer without performing daily prayers and other kinds of worship. Worship is like water for a fish and air for a person.

Among these kinds of worship, daily prayers are especially important in terms of creed. Islam describes prayers as a characteristic that distinguishes between a Muslim and an unbeliever. It s not permissible to neglect prayers even when a person is on a journey, at war or when he is ill. It is the habit of munafiqs (hypocrites) to abandon prayer and to act lazily when it is time to pray. When a person returns to his Lord, the first thing he will be questioned about is prayers. Prayer is a kind of worship that always reminds a person of his servitude to Allah and the meaning of kalima at-tawhid. Prayer prevents a person from committing all kinds of ugly deeds, fornication and evil. Some of the verses of the Quran that are related to the importance of prayers are as follows: ar-Rum, 31; al-Baqara, 1-3, 153 and 238; an-Nisa, 103; 142; al-Ankabut, 45 ...

The Muslim is invited to prayer by “Allahu Akbar”; he starts prayer by it; he often repeats it while praying because Allah is greater than every great being and loftier than every powerful being. If a person adheres to Allah, who is greater and mightier than everything is, he will not be afraid of anyone. He will avoid worshipping others.

Fasting, hajj, zakah and all of the other kinds of worship strengthen belief, purify the soul of evil and make a person adhere to his Lord. In fasting, a person prefers love of Allah to the desires of his body. It makes a Muslim have sincerity, will and patience. Zakah is a kind of financial worship that enables a Muslim to be purified of the disease of stinginess. Thanks to zakah, he understands it better that Allah is the real owner of the property and that he is only a person to whom that property is entrusted. Zakah means to prefer the consent and love of Allah to the love of property. It means to allocate a share of one's property to the poor of the community and hence to contribute to social justice. Hajj is the practical education of a Muslim. We see that a Muslim shows his servitude practically and clearly through the worship of hajj. The commands like obtaining knowledge, making jihad, ordering what is good, prohibiting what is evil, showing patience and tawakkul, having taqwa, loving Allah and fearing His torture  are among the main kinds of righteous deeds that the Quran insistently emphasizes. 

Conveying the Message of Islam

Islam must be conveyed to everybody as long as humanity exists. The real aim of this invitation and conveyance is to save people from being the slaves of other people and making them adhere only to Allah, who is one. There must always be some people who will carry out this duty.

“Let there arise out of you a band of people inviting to all that is good, enjoining what is right, and forbidding what is wrong; they are the ones to attain felicity.” (Aal-i Imran, 3/104)

The verse above affirms this duty. Islam must be conveyed to everybody but especially to those who superficially act like Muslims because what they regard to be Islam is not real Islam. This state must definitely be changed and they should be shown the truth.  

One of the aims of calling people to Islam is to save Islam from the monopoly the people who do not convey it to anybody and inform everybody about Islam. No one can have a monopoly on Islam. No one can dominate some kinds of worship and make them difficult for Muslims to perform. Those who do it, whether they do it on behalf of Islam or on behalf of Ignorance, commit disrespect toward Allah because Allah wants all of the obstacles preventing people from reaching Him to be eliminated. What is more, He rendered it fard to make jihad against those obstacles so that people would know about, learn and accept Islam, which is pure and lucid, of their own accord. To save people from the domination and tyranny of other people, from the landlords, big brothers, ancestors, fathers, masters and the customs that they adhere to, and to make them reach Islam, which is the system and sovereignty of Allah, in all phases of life... That is what Islam is; all of the prophets were sent to realize this.

To Make Islam Sovereign in Life

The basic principle that is the main basis of Islam throughout human history is the principle of “La ilaha illallah”. That is, the rule of allocating divinity, lordship, sultanate and sovereignty to Allah only. This rule should be manifest in the form of belief in the heart, worship in the feelings, and acts and law and system in life. If a person does not testify that there is no god but Allah in such a proper way, it is regarded as disrespect toward Allah and Islam.

This rule is applied fully when man turns toward Allah wholly in his life. Thus, man refers to the decree of Allah in all affairs and all phases of his life; he accepts and prefers Allah's decree to his own view.

The person who tells and conveys the decrees of Allah to people is the Messenger of Allah (pbuh). This rule constitutes the second part of kalima ash-shahada.

“Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.” (al-Fath, 48/29)

This is the second part of the basic principle on which Islam depends. When this rule is practiced fully in all aspects of life, the perfect system will appear. This is the system to which Allah gives consent. 

The aim of Islam is to eliminate Ignorance. It is necessary to form a new and active staff to realize it. This is a group of people that acts in accordance with the Islamic method with their lifestyle, frame of mind, social system, standard of judgment and resource, in short, everything. Only such a staff can form the umma of Islam again and deserve to be the addressee of the following verses:

“Ye are the best of peoples, evolved for mankind, enjoining what is right, forbidding what is wrong, and believing in Allah.” (Aal-i Imran, 3/110)

“Thus have We made of you an Ummah justly balanced That ye might be witnesses over the nations and the Messenger a witness over yourselves...” (al-Baqara, 2/143)

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