What are the responsibilities of man toward Allah regarding the purpose of the creation of man?
Submitted by on Thu, 25/06/2020 - 15:16
Dear Brother / Sister,
6. 3-Being Responsible toward Allah
Man’s responsibility toward Allah related to his purpose of creation can be dealt with under three headings:
a. Knowing Allah
b. Belief in Allah
c. Worshipping Allah
a. Knowing Allah
Once, a firefly was proceeding on a path. However, it was unaware that the light that illuminated his path was reflected from it. After a while, it met some ants. When it saw the ants were looking at it with admiration, it looked into their eyes carefully and curiously. It realized that the light that illuminated its path was reflected from it. Ants admired his light. Thus, the firefly became aware of the light that illuminated its path.
Are we aware of the Creator who created us out of nothing, who put the whole universe under our order, and who fulfilled everything necessary for the continuation of our lives?
Who makes the world rotate, sends down rain from the sky, and make plants grow?
Who takes the night away and brings the day?
Who puts all our organs in their proper places in the mother’s womb, feeds us and makes us grow there?
Who brought us to the world, put the breasts on our mother’s chest and made white, pure milk flow for us?
Who makes our mouths and places teeth like pearls in the mouths?
Who makes our ears and opens our eyes?
Who makes our veins and makes blood circulate in them?
Who makes our hearts and makes them work like a clock for a lifetime?
Everyone knows that a line cannot drawn without a person who draws it, that a letter cannot be written without a scribe, and that a school cannot be managed without an administrator.
Thus, the wonderful creation and administration of all beings in the world shows that they have a creator infinite knowledge, will and power who creates and manages them. The following statement is very important since it clarifies the issue:
"Every village must have its headman; every needle must have its manufacturer and craftsman. And, as you know, every letter must be written by someone. How, then, can it be that so extremely well-ordered a kingdom should have no ruler?”1
Everything in the universe, from an atom to the sun, from a fly to stars, indicates Allah through His meticulous and proportionate creation and perfect management. If there is a work, there will definitely be a master who makes and produces it.
God Almighty states the following in some verses related to knowing Allah:
“Who is it that readies the skies and the earth as though they were two storehouses for your sustenance, and causes one to produce rain and the other, seeds? Is there anyone other than God Who could make them two subservient storekeepers? In which case, thanks should be offered to Him alone”.2
Man is in need of food. We need rain from the sky and cereals from the ground for the continuation of our lives. Man cannot make rain come down from the sky and cereals grow from the ground on his own.Therefore, we need a powerful being who knows our needs, shows mercy to us and pities us, who can make the earth and heaven fulfill all our needs. That being, who has infinite knowledge, will and power, is Allah.
Who Gave Man his Eyes and Ears?
Who is the owner of your eyes and ears, the most precious of your members? From which workbench or shop did you obtain them? It is only your Sustainer that could give you them. Yunus, 30.
Allah states the following in the Quran by attracting attention to the valuable organs like eyes and ears given to man:
“Who is the owner of your eyes and ears, the most precious of your members? From which workbench or shop did you obtain them? It is only your Sustainer that could give you them. It is He Who creates and raises you, and gave you them. In which case, there is no Sustainer but He, and the only one fit to be worshipped is He.”3
The being that has the most valuable organs and feelings is man. Even the mother who carries the baby in her womb does not know the creation of those organs in the womb and their placement. The one that affixes eyes, ears and nose to man in his mother’s womb and puts the stomach in place cannot be anyone except Allah, who knows that man’s seeing in the world, makes him hear, creates odors and prepares food. That is, the one who created vision and eye is the one who created the sun. The one who created sounds and hearing is the one who puts ear into its place. The one who created the apple as sustenance is the one who affixes the stomach to man.
That is to say, all of the organs in man are the work of Allah. Therefore, man is responsible for knowing Allah, who gives them to him.
Some interesting memoirs about knowing Allah
The young man who had a tattoo done on his arm
After a lecture an academician gave in a prison’s youth ward, a teenager raised his hand and asked,
- How can we believe in someone we do not see? The lecturer pointed to the tattoo on the young man’s arm who asked the question:
- Who made that tattoo and how much did you pay for it? The young man said he had it done for a certain amount of money. Thereupon, the academician asked him,
-All right, lad. Who made the arm on which had that tattoo done? The answer that young man gave was very interesting. He raised his hand:
- "Allah... I believe in him now.”
These two examples clearly show that no matter how much the mind denies Allah, the conscience cannot deny the existence of a Creator.
The young people who say, “How can we believe in Allah, whom we do not see?”
An academician narrates a memoir as follows:
“After graduating from the faculty, I worked as a teacher for several years. I taught chemistry in a high school in a lovely town in Eastern Anatolia. My relationship with the people of the town was warm. I was in good terms with everybody, from students to teachers, from administrators to parents and ordinary people of the town.
I had a very good relationship with my students. Encouraged by my closeness to them, they could easily talk to me about their problems.
In those years, there was terror and anarchy in our country. It was worse in the East than the other regions of the country. In my high school, there were several students who were bigger and even older than me. They were big, half-grown boys. Some groups that took advantage of their state filled the minds of our simple-hearted young men with harmful ideas and converted most of them into anarchists.
They stole the belief in the heart of those young people as well as several humane characteristics of them.
* * *
One of them was called Ziya. He was in his senior year and he was older than most of the students in his class. He was a well-built man. They had stolen many of his spiritual feelings, but his respect to teachers had not been completely lost yet.
One day, he shyly asked permission to ask something:
-Sir! I want to ask you something if you allow.
It was obvious that storms broke out in his inner world and his mind was confused. He was overwhelmed with the graveness of the problem in his mind. I understood the situation very well. In order to comfort him as much as I can and to make sure that he expresses the problem in his mind in a sincere way, I said clearly,
-Yes, of course, Ziya. I am here to answer your questions. I’m listening to you.
- But sir, my question is not about chemistry.
-It doesn’t matter. Ask your question sincerely and openly.
-Sir! They say‘We don’t believe in what we don’t see. We do not see Allah; so, how shall we believe in Him?’
I told him that such questions were quite normal, that many people have those questions in their mind and that it was a frequently asked question. Then, I said,
- Look Ziya! Not everything is visible; in other words, not everything is viewed with eyes. Some things are viewed with the tongue, ear, nose or mind.
These statements aroused an atmosphere of confusion in the classroom. What does to view by ear or tongue mean? Their questions were visible in their eyes. I continued:
For example, if I cook a nice meal and say “Ziya! Come taste this food” and if you say, “Sir, I don’t believe in what I don’t see it with my eyes, I will taste it with my eyes ”, and if you put your eyes into the food, your eyes will be burnt and you will be blind. So, the food is tasted with the tongue. Likewise, when I say, “Look at the smell of this perfume”, you can’t look at it with your eyes. When I say, “Look at the beauty of this music”, you look at it with your ear. You can also look at certain things with your mind. If there is a work of art here, you will understand that there is a master of that work. Thus, we see Allah with our minds.
Then, I turned toward the students and continued:
“-Friends, let’s deal with the issue together through the eyes of a scientist. Can a great work of art like Selimiye Mosque be without an architect? Is our body lower than this architectural structure? There are about 100 trillion cells in human body, which looks like a tremendous city. There is a network of blood vessels about 150,000 kilometers long, covering our entire body. The slightest breakdown in an organ can be the end of our lives. In addition to our inner world’s being wonderful, all essential organs in people are common but no man resembles another man. Our faces, voices, characters are different. Can we attribute those things to coincidence/chance?
Let us clarify the issue a bit more. As you know, the realm of living beings has a different place in the universe. The art wonders seen in the non-living beings are inferior to those seen in the living beings. The simplest living beings are bacteria. Among those bacteria, the one that scientists have researched most is Escherichia Coli bacterium. The weight of this living being, which can be seen under the microscope only after it is magnified tens of thousands of times is 500 billionth of a gram and its diameter is one hundredth of a centimeter. 5000 substances have been paced in such a tiny place. In addition, when each bacterium finds the appropriate environment, it uses water, ammonia and sugar as food and the number of substances increases to 10 thousand in 20 minutes by division. This event is something that a perfect chemist cannot even dream of. A chemist can perform only one reaction in one container. Besides, in an era in which science has progressed so much, it takes a very long time. However, 5,000 substances are synthesized in the same container as the Escherichia Coli bacterium in 20 minutes.
Since that is the case in the simplest living being, you can compare the events in other living beings to those of bacteria.
The issue can be viewed from another angle.
Do you think the human eye can see everything? Are our eyes limitless though everything is limited? Just as our ears can hear frequencies between 20 and 20,000, so too can our eyes can see the rays with wavelengths between 450 and 800 nanometers. We cannot see the rays with bigger and smaller wavelengths. Although X-rays, ultraviolet rays, infrared rays, etc. exist, we cannot see them with our eyes. Should we deny their existence then?
We actually look at the universe through a keyhole. That is, the range of our vision is so narrow. After knowing that, is it not ridiculous to say, "I don’t believe what I don’t see."
Throughout the lesson, Ziya was absent-minded and torpid. It was understood that storms broke out in his inner world. He put his hands on his temples, thinking continuously. I let him alone to the end of the lesson.
* * *
3-4 days passed. One evening Ziya came to my house with a friend.
- Sir! can I come in?
- Yes, of course, Ziya. Our house is open to everyone. They sat down and I offered them some tea. Ziya started to talk while drinking tea:
- Sir, I came here for a purpose.
- I hope it is something good.
- Sir, I came here to become a Muslim. I was shocked and startled when I heard it:
- Are you all right, Ziya? You are already a Muslim.
- Sir. I had a lot of questions and doubts in my mind before you spoke. Some of the books I read and the people I met confused my mind completely. I was in a big depression. I thought for days after your talk and could not sleep many nights. However, I have made up my mind; I am a Muslim from now on. The most appropriate ideas for my mind and conscience are Islamic ideas. Living without a faith is no different than living like an animal.
The September 12 coup took my gun from me; you have come and removed the unbelief in my heart. I am grateful to you. Now, I have taken my first step toward humanity. May Allah be pleased with you.Yes, Ziya. The greatest truth in the universe is belief in Allah. Besides, the most astonishing thing is the denial of the Creator. Your decision has made me very happy. I hope you will not leave the path of the truth after that...
The Purpose of Man’s Being Sent to the World
The wisdom behind and purpose of man’s being sent to this world is to know, to believe in and to worship the Creator of the Universe. adh-Dhariyat, 56.
Man did not come to this world by himself; he was created and sent by Allah. The main purpose and duty of man’s being sent to this world is to know Allah truly, that is, to know Him correctly by His names and attributes. In other words, to believe that He is the creator of the whole universe, that everything from atoms to the stars is governed by His power and will, that everything is His property, and that there is no partner in His property, and to believe and approve by the heart the holy statement “La ilahaillallah (there is no god but Allah)” and its realities.
b- Belief in Allah
Belief means to believe, to accept, approve and understand the truth. It means to accept Islam and act accordingly. Belief means to accept all of the realities about the religion and to act accordingly.
Belief is a light obtained from approving the religious obligations conveyed by the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) in detail and the principles other than obligations in brief.
Belief means sincerely believing that the things that are known to have been ordered by Allah and informed by the Prophet (pbuh) are true.
The young people who want to see a miracle
A group of young people said to an academician during a conversation:
-“Let Allah show a miracle and we will believe in Him.” The academician said that all the beings in the universe were miracles. He stated that everything that man was too weak to do was a miracle:
- Is man not a miracle? In fact, every organ of man including a strand of hair is a miracle. Is a tree, every leaf of it, blossoms, and the stone in the fruit a miracle? They said,
- “We had a lot of questions about it. However, in the face of this answer, we have given up asking questions. We will listen to you now.”
There are six pillars (principles) of belief:
- Belief in Allah,
- Belief in His angels,
- Belief in His books,
- Belief in His prophets,
- Belief in the Day of Judgment and resurrection after death,
- Belief in qadar (predestination) and that both the good and the bad come from Allah.
Those six principles of belief are a whole. A person has to believe in all those six principles without doubt in order to be a believer. If he does not accept or doubts even only one of them, he will not be a believer. Just as sunlight consists of a combination of seven colors so too does belief consist of believing in all of those six principles.
According to Sa’dTaftazani’s tafsir, "Belief is the light that God Almighty throws into the heart of a person that He wishes after that person’s use of his free will."
Thus, belief is related to man’s partial free will. Man needs to want and do what is necessary. Then, Allah will grant him belief.
Belief is divided into two as imitative belief and investigative belief.
It is very important to make one’s belief investigative belief
“Now, the most important thing to do is to strengthen belief by turning belief into investigative belief and to save belief. It has become a strict necessity and even an obligation to be engaged in the principles of belief more than anything else…
Yes, to what extent can it be useful a try to repair and decorate a building whose foundations have been worn out in order to prevent it from collapsing? Will it be of any use to try to take precautions by applying pesticides on the branches and leaves of a tree whose roots have been rotten in order to prevent it from drying?
Man is a building like a palace. His foundations are the principles of belief. Man is a tree; his roots are the pillars of belief. One of the most important principles of belief is belief in Allah. Then comes belief in prophethood and resurrection. The science (knowledge) that a person tries to obtain in the first place to obtain it is the science of belief. The essence of sciences and the sultan of sciences is the science of belief.
Belief does not consist of a concise approval. Belief has several levels. An imitative belief, especially in this age, will quickly fade in the face of the storms of heresy. Investigative belief is an unshakable and inextinguishable force. Even if the belief of a person who has attained investigative belief is exposed to horrifying hurricanes of irreligion, those hurricanes are doomed to remain ineffective in the face of the strength of that belief. Even the most irreligious philosophers cannot cause delusions and doubts in a person who has attained investigative belief”.4
Man’s Need to Believe in the Existence of Allah
Man has many inherent emotions and feelings. Unless these feelings are taken into consideration, it is impossible for man to find the true bliss and peace in the world. It is possible to classify these feelings and thoughts under three headings:
Firstly, man has numerous hidden and open needs. He desires an apple as well as a garden, a spring, and the eternal Paradise. His heart and stomach need function; he also needs eyes that see, ears that hear and a mind that thinks. He needs air, water, the ground, the sun, and, in short, the whole universe and its administration for the continuation of his life.
Secondly, man has numerous material and spiritual enemies. Everything that can destroy his life, from an invisible, life-threatening microbe to a comet threatening to crash into the world, is his enemy. Man is a being with gentle and sensitive feelings. He is disturbed by a glance and a slight criticism; he has a spirit that is affected from the suffering of those who are harmed by fire, flood and earthquake.
Thirdly, what distresses man all the time is the worry of separation from his beloved ones and friends through death.
Man is always faced with the eternal separation of his beloved ones. His heart breaks down all the time from the pain of their separation. In order to overcome this desperation, a person who does not believe in Allah and the hereafter will seek entertainment to make him forget them; thus, he will not feel the pain of separation in appearance for a certain time like the severely ill people who are injected morphine. This is nothing but man’s deceiving himself.
Let us consider the pain caused by compassion and affection, which are among hundreds of feelings in man, due to unbelief. For example, even only the thought of how a mother will feel in her heart and conscience due to the loss of her only beautiful child horrifies man. What, other than the light of belief, can comfort her, and tell her that she will be with her child in eternal Paradise?
That is why man is struggling in despair because he does not have the strength and power to meet all these needs. Such a person needs someone who has infinite power, will and knowledge, who will meet all his needs, who possesses endless treasures, who has endless power to secure him from all enemies, who will stop all the separations that hurt him, and who can remove death and give eternal life.
All this can be achieved through belief in Allah and the hereafter.
Death is a Certificate of Discharge
Everyone is proud of the honor and authority of his master. If man attaches himself to Allah, who has infinite power, knowledge, will, wealth, mercy and compassion, with belief, and enters His service with worshipping, and if his death, which appears to be his end is converted into a certificate of discharge and if all of his wishes are fulfilled, he will be so happy, glad, and grateful. What frightens man the most is death. On the other hand, belief makes death loveable by removing it from nothingness because death is a certificate of discharge and a change of place for a believer. It is the beginning of an eternal life and its entrance door. It is a flight from the troubles of the world to the gardens of Paradise. It is a turn to enter into the presence of Allah in order to receive the wages of the good deeds that he has earned in the world. It is an invitation to go to Paradise, which is a place of bliss. It is a reunion with all his beloved friends.
Man’s heart is freed from all of the endless fears, his soul is freed from all sorrows and pains and he gains eternal joy and relief by believing in Allah.
In conclusion, man’s heart is freed from all of the endless fears, his soul is freed from all sorrows and pains and he gains eternal joy and relief by believing in Allah. Such a spiritual strength occurs in his heart that he can withstand every misfortune and every event with that strength. No matter how bad and troubled his world is, he sees his world as the waiting hall of Paradise; therefore, he tolerates all kinds of distress and thanks Allah in patience. Thus, both his world and the hereafter can be turned into Paradise.
If he has no belief, these worries will always give his heart and spirit pain and suffering. Even if his world seems to be like Paradise, the worries about death and eternal separation tear his heart and conscience out. They make him suffer a spiritual Hell penalty.
Is there anything other than belief that can give man this consolation? One of the reasons for the increasing suicide rates and widespread use of drugs and in technically and materially developed societies is the lack of connection to God with belief. The feeling of loneliness and deprivation caused by not being able to recognize Him disturbs people and makes them lose sleep over it.
Rauf, the dentist, narrates:
“During the period of communism, when irreligion and unbelief were dominant in Azerbaijan, we were given lessons of denying God. Because of this education, we did not believe in Allah and the hereafter. However, the worry that our lives would end with death and that we would disappear distressed us very much. We found some remedies for ourselves. One of them was sleeping one night and staying awake one night. We thought we extended our lives by doing so. This solution originated from despair. However, we always had the feeling that there would be a real solution to this. With this feeling, we went to the Western countries such as the Netherlands, England, Germany and France after the fall of communism. We read the books of famous philosophers regarding the issue. However, we could not find the answer there either. None of them gave us a satisfactory answer about death and the hereafter.
In the early 1990s, we met a guest who had come from Turkey. I asked them if there was eternal life. They read us and explained the issue of resurrection after death and resurrection from a book called HaşirRisalesi (Resurrection Booklet). I was satisfied with what was read and explained. Then, I introduced a friend of mine (an academician) to them.They read some passages about the existence of Paradise and Hell.
When I returned home after the talk, I received a telephone call from my friend. He said,
‘Rauf! Rauf! Since there is an eternal life, I have been saved from the worry of disappearing, even if it is Hell. I will be able to sleep peacefully tonight.’”
It is the light of belief that illuminates and comforts the human conscience. Belief comforts man’s spirit by illuminating his past and future. An unbelieving man imagines the past in a way that resembles a terrible, dark graveyard. He sees the future in the form of a large, dark, horrific grave that will decay him and everything and that will make snakes and scorpions eat his body. This state, which squeezes man between two graves, causes him to live a terrible life of Hell in his spirit and conscience hopelessly.
Man’s horizon expands from the creation of the world and the sending of Hz. Adam to the world, to the Day of Judgment, to Heaven and Hell. By informing man of eternal bliss, belief develops and perpetuates the abilities and desires that are like seeds in the conscience of man.
It is the light of belief that illuminates and comforts the human conscience. Belief comforts man’s spirit by illuminating his past and future.
In conclusion, man is responsible for taking what is good and nice and leaving what is evil, the ugly and bad with his will. That is the purpose of the will being given to man. That is, man has been given will so that he will obey Allah’s commands and avoid His prohibitions.
c- Worshipping Allah
Worship means to fulfill the commands of Allah and to avoid His prohibitions. Allah states the following in the Quran regarding the issue:
"O ye people! Adore your Guardian-Lord, who created you and those who came before you, that ye may have the chance to learn righteousness; Who has made the earth your couch, and the heavens your canopy; and sent down rain from the heavens; and brought forth therewith Fruits for your sustenance; then set not up rivals unto Allah when ye know (the truth). ".5
Thus, worshipping our Lord, who created us out of nothing, is our greatest debt of slavery because He made the world like a palace for us. He sent down water from the sky and extracted all kinds of fruits and food from the ground as sustenance. Therefore, it is one of our most important responsibilities to thank Him by worshipping Him.
Prayer, fasting, hajj and zakah are the most important deeds of worship. The reason why we do those deeds of worship is that Allah orders them. All of the benefits and interests originating from those deeds of worship can only be a reason for preference and encouragement.
The Worship of Prayer
Prayer is the pillar of the religion and it is a very comprehensive prayer and deed of worship that includes all other deeds of worship. It is an invitation to the spiritual presence of Allah, who creates people out of nothing and grants them all kinds of blessings, at certain times five times a day. There is a great comfort of the spirit, the heart and mind in prayer.
Allah does not need our worship
Allah does not need anything. He is Samad, that is, everything needs Him, but He does not need anything. It is man who needs worshipping. Worship is like medicine for our spiritual wounds. For example, if a patient says to a compassionate physician who gives him some useful drugs about his illness and insists that the patient should take them, “Why do you insist so much? Do you need it?”, it will be nonsense. For, it is the patient, not the doctor, who needs them. The doctor insists for the benefit of the patient.
Similarly, Allah commands us to worship for the comfort of our hearts, souls, and minds, and for being saved from spiritual diseases.
Belief consists of a mental and conscientious judgment and approval. It is also worship that strengthens belief and shows the signs of belief as deeds. The most comprehensive and general deed of worship is prayer. Therefore, the following is stated in a hadith: “Prayer is the pillar of religion”. What keeps a building upright is the column. Similarly, what keeps the religion of a person upright, that is, keeps him away from sins and draws him closer to Allah by making him an addressee is his prayer.
Besides, worship is a sign that shows the degree and existence of belief.
Deeds of worship are conducive to the happiness of social life
A strong belief is necessary to fulfill the commands and to avoid the prohibitions of Allah. The maintenance and continuity of such belief is possible only through the continuation and repetition of worship.
A slave’s turning toward Allah makes it necessary for him to worship Allah and obey His commands. Obeying the commands of Allah makes the servant attain a perfect order.
For the perfection and progression of the society, an unshakable fraternity and a genuine love among the members of that society are necessary. Believers renew and strengthen the fraternity and love among them seriously and regularly through five daily prayers and duas to one another. What enables it is only worship.6
Deeds of worship are conducive to a person’s perfection
Worship fills the spirit and heart of man with peace and joy, refreshing him. For example, the mind, the spirit and the heart attain great comfort in the worship of prayer. Worship causes the emergence, advancement and development of the abilities that are planted in the form of seeds in the human spirit. For example, deeds of worship such as fasting and zakah develops the feelings like patience, help, generosity, compassion and self-control, which exist in the human spirit.
Man distinguishes the good from the bad with worship, moves away from mistakes and is purified from sins thanks to it. For example, thanks to worship, man keeps away from sins like backbiting, gossiping and having bad thoughts about others.For example, five daily prayers purify man from minor sins committed between two prayers.
It is worship that makes man attain vision and perspective and puts his ideas into a certain order and system. Thanks to worship, the blessing of intellect given to man sees and evaluates the truth as the truth and the wrong as the wrong. Good judgment, which protects man from falling into heedlessness, is attained through worship.
It is worship that purifies man from the spiritual dirt and rust of all sins that he gets with his inner and outer feelings, that is, his eyes and ears from haram things and his mind from doubt and denial.7
Man’s duty is to improve his abilities with worshipping
The most important work of man in this world is to develop his abilities, which are his most valuable things. These abilities are like seeds in the soil. They can develop in both a useful and harmful way. Man’s duty is to cultivate and develop the beneficial ones through worship. For example, the feelings such as ambition, obstinacy, concern for the future, love and curiosity exist in the human spirit. These abilities can be used to gain the life of the world, temporary posts and wealth of the world, and fame; they can also be used in the services that enable man to gain the eternal bliss in the Hereafter through the high and eternal realities of belief and the principles of Islam. Worship increases the devotion of man to Allah.
In conclusion, deeds of worship are signs that show the degree of loyalty and respect of man to Allah. Thus, the more man obeys Allah’s commandments and prohibitions, the higher his acceptance will be in the presence of Allah; and, he will be a beloved servant. The highest rank for man is to be able to attain the love of God Almighty.
The criterion of loving Allah is to act in the way that Allah loves. The way that Allah loves is the deeds of worship that He informed us through His prophet, whom He sent as a guide to humanity. The forms and shapes of those deeds of worship are shown in the Sunnah of the Prophet. The Sunnah consists of the words, deeds and acts of the Prophet.
The spirit of worship is sincerity. Sincerity means doing something just because it is a command of Allah.
1.Nursi, B.S. Sözler. p. 63.
4.Nursi, B.S. Sözler. p. 925.
5.al-Anbiya, 22. Muhammad, 38.
6.Nursi, B. S. İşârâtü’lİ’caz. p. 406.
7.Nursi, B.S. İşârâtü’lİ’caz. p. 408.
Questions on Islam
- What is Rahmani warning?
- What are the causes that lead man to deception?
- INTRODUCTION / EPISTEMOLOGY OF BELIEF
- LIMITS OF SCIENCE AND RELIGION
- SCIENCE, RELIGION AND BELIEF SYSTEMS
- THE LABORATORY OF THE UNIVERSE AS A METAPHOR
- What does belief in Allah mean? Is it possible for us to see Allah and to comprehend His true nature?
- What should we do so as not to lose our belief?