How does a person who has an excuse make wudu and perform prayers?

The Details of the Question

-  When does an excused person in terms of wudu make wudu for Friday prayer?

The Answer

Dear Brother / Sister,

The Decree on Excuse:

An excused person makes wudu at each daily prayer time. During that time, He can perform as many fard and nafilah prayers as he wishes within the period of time for that daily fard prayer unless something else invalidates his wudu except for his excuse. He can perform missed prayers, witr prayer, eid and funeral prayers with that wudu as long as his excuse continues.

Example: If an excused person makes wudu just in time for the morning prayer (fajr), that wudu will continue until the time period for the morning prayer ends. It ends when the sun rises. No more prayers can be performed with that wudu after that time. However, if he has made wudu after his excuse has ceased for a while, and his excuse has not emerged yet, his wudu will not be invalidated when the time period for the morning prayer ends unless something else invalidates his wudu.

However, if an excused person makes wudu after sunrise, his wudu continues until the time period for the noon prayer ends; he can perform as many prayers as he wishes as long as nothing else breaks his wudu.

Conclusion: The wudu of an excused person is not invalidated when the time period for a prayer starts; it is invalidated when the time period for a prayer ends. This decree is according to Abu Hanifa. It is the preferred view. Accordingly, an excused person who makes wudu before the time period for the noon prayer starts can perform the noon prayer or Friday prayer with that wudu.

According to Imam Abu Yusuf, wudu of an excused person is invalidated both when the time period for a prayer starts and ends. Therefore, the wudu made by an excused person after the sunrise is invalidated when the time period for the noon prayer starts. According to Imam Zufar, the wudu of an excused person is invalidated only when the time period for a daily prayer starts; it is not invalidated when the time period for a daily prayer ends. Therefore, the wudu made by an excused person for the morning prayer is not invalidated when the sun rises and the time period for the morning prayer ends. However, it is invalidated when the time period for the noon prayer starts.

According to Imam Shafi’i, the excused person must make wudu separately for each prayer. His wudu is invalidated when he finishes that prayer.

If an excused person’s excuse stops and he makes wudu due to something else that has invalidated his wudu and then his excuse emerges again, his wudu will be invalidated and he has to make wudu again because he has not made that wudu due to his excuse.

However, if he makes wudu due to an excuse or something else that has invalidated his wudu though his excuse has not stopped within the time period of a daily prayer, his wudu will not be invalidated if his excuse emerges again within the time period of that prayer because that wudu is regarded to have been made both for his excuse and the other thing that has invalidated his wudu.

If an excused person can prevent the excuse from emerging by sitting, performing the prayer by gesturing with his head instead of prostrating, and by easily blocking his excuse’ way out, he is no longer regarded as excused. Therefore, if his excuse emerges after making wudu, he cannot pray with that wudu.

The dirt that smears the clothes of an excused person due to his excuse does not prevent the health of his prayers as long as his excuse continues. Even if it exceeds the amount that prevents prayer, it is not considered an obstacle to prayer. However, if that dirt will not touch his clothes again, it is necessary to wash it.

It can be seen that the blessed religion of Islam is a religion of ease. There is ease in all aspects for the excused people. Nobody can make excuses for abandoning the duties imposed by the religion.

(see Ömer Nasuhi Bilmen, Büyük İslam İlmihali)

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