Urine Drop Problem - FUP Question

The Details of the Question

Can a person with post micturation dribble is allowed to TISSUE PAPER in place of coton /cloth. Also, if someone has an excessive FLATUS problem (passing wind).. can he do Wudu before each Salat and continue his prayer?

The Answer

Dear Brother / Sister,

Tissue paper can be used instead of cotton/cloth.

The following questions/answers will be useful

Could you please give information about the subject of "Excuse" in Islam ? In which conditions do we become (mazur) excused about the religious services?

It is described as : happening or non-happening of an action, the reason put forward for pardoning a crime, a shortcoming or a defect  of a property, the cases in which it is difficult to meet the Islamic conditions without causing more harm. About worshipping matters, an excuse describes a situation that causes something canceling the ablution to continue. That person who suffers from it is called an excused man. Some excuses occurring afterwards also affect the covenants.

These cases are excuses: Continually passing gas, dripping urine, bleeding nose or wound. Catamenia that lasts more than ten days or less than three days. Postnatal bleeding that lasts more than forty days.  Menstrual bleeding of a female younger than nine years or older than fifty-five years. Such a male is called “ma’zur (Excused male)” and a female is called “ma’zura (Excused female)”

In order to regard someone excused about the religious services, the excuse must continue without cessation for a period necessary to perform a prayer together with the ablution, within a prayer time. Besides, it must exist in other times of prayers at least once. The state of being excused disappears if it stops for a full prayer time.

The Prophet (PBUH) said to a woman who asked about the continual menstrual bleeding: “ In Allah’s knowledge, you will have six or seven days of period, after that make wudu ( ablution) and then pray and fast for 23 or 24 days. It will suffice you” (Tirmidhi, Cleanliness 95)

An excused person should renew his/her ablution for every time of prayer. The Prophet (PBUH) ordered an excused woman to do so. (Bukhari, Ablution, 63; Abu Dawud, Cleanliness, 110, 112; Tirmidhi, Cleanliness, 93) The ablution of an excused person is cancelled by the end of the prayer time. According to Imam Zufar, the beginning of a prayer time cancels it, while Imam Abu Yusuf thinks that both the beginning and ending of a prayer time invalidate the ablution. A person who makes ablution after the sun rises, he can perform the noon prayer with that ablution because the time for the prayer has not ended

A woman having a non-routine bleeding out of normal menstruation period, may have sexual intercourse with her husband because there is no certain evidence that bans it.
On the other hand, the permit was compared to the permit for praying under the same circumstances. An excused person may pray as much as he/she wants within one certain prayer time, with an ablution taken in that time. He/she may circumambulate the Kaabah, read the Quran. (Sayyid Sabiq, Fikhu's-Sunnah, I, 76, 77).

The Imam that leads the prayer in congregation must be free from any kind of excuses like urinating disorders, nose bleeding and continual gas passing. Such a person may only lead a person having the similar excuses in prayer (Ibn Abidin, Raddul-Mukhtar, I, 541).

In order to perform the Friday prayer and the five daily prayers in congregation, one needs to be free from diseases, to be secure, to be free (not slaves), to be capable of seeing and walking. If one of them does not exist, then, it is a valid excuse not to go to mosque in order top ray in congregation. (Zuhayli, Islamic Jurisdiction and Proofs, II, 270)

The following are valid excuses not to fast in Ramadan :

a) Journey. One may perform the 4-rakah prayers as 2-rakahs if he/she goes on a journey of  90 km long or more. He/she may postpone the Ramadan fasting too. In the verse, the following is stated,  “if any of you is ill or on a journey, the prescribed number (should be made up) from days later. “ (Surah al-Baqara, 2/184)

b) Illness. One does not have to fast if the illness gets worse when he/she fasts or if he/she cannot withstand fasting. The evidence is the aforementioned verse.

c) Pregnancy or nursing. A woman may quit fasting in Ramadan if she supposes that herself or the baby will be seriously harmed due to hunger. The evidence is the following hadith, depending on comparison to the sick and the traveler : “ Allah has called off half of the prayer and fasting from the traveler, and He has called off the fasting from the pregnant and nursing woman" (ash-Shawkani, Naylul-Awtar" IV, 230).

d. Old age. A person too old to fast or a hopelessly sick man who cannot withstand fasting does not have to fast in Ramadan; he does not have to fast later, either because he cannot do it. They must pay a ransom for each day they cannot fast to a poor man. In the verse, the following is stated : “For those who can do it (with hardship) is a ransom, the feeding of one that is indigent “ (al-Baqara 2/184)

e) Fear of death due to hunger and thirst. A person faced with such a situation does not fast. He will fast later. . In the verse, the following is stated : “make not your own hands contribute to (your) destruction” (al-Baqara 2/195)

f) One who is forced to break the fast may break the fast. According to the majority of the scholars, he can fast later. A woman who is raped by force or while sleeping must fast later.  (al-Kasani, Badayiu's-Sanayi', II, 94-97; Ibn Rushd, Bidayatul-Mujtahid, I, 277-285; ash-Shirazi,al-Muhadhdhab, I, 178 ff.; Ibn Qudama,al-Mughni, III, 99 ff.; al-Fiqhul-Islami, II, 641 ff.).

In general sense, an excuse also affects the practical issues; for instance, it might affect the rental contract in the following ways : Bankruptcy of the renter, change of profession, being appointed to work in another city are valid excuses for the cancellation of the contract. Also the owner might annul the contract before due time, in case he has to sell his real estate because of his debts. Sometimes the excuse might be about the rented property. For instance, one who rents a bath in a village may cancel the contract if the dwellers of the village migrate from there.  (as-Sarakhsi,al-Mabsut, XVI, 2; al-Kasani, ibid, IV,197; al-Fatawal-Hindiyya, IV, 198, 458, 462).

In an agricultural partnership, these are valid excuses for annulling the contract: the owner of the land has to sell the estate due to debts, the partner who undertakes the agricultural tasks gets very ill. However, in cases of partnership contracts which are closely related to reaping time of the crop or planting trees, agriculture and horticulture, the cancellation must be done in a manner that will not harm the other partner. For example: There is a contract done for two years. But at the end of the first year, due to an excuse that has occurred later, it is cancelled after harvesting the crop . (al-Kasani, ibid, VI, 183 ff.; Ibnul-Humam, Fathul-Qadir, VIII, 42; Ibn Abidin, Raddul-Mukhtar, V, 196 ff.).

In case of general mobilization, these are the excuses not to join the war: The blind, the lame, the sick, the paralyzed, the elderly, the weak, one whose arms and legs are amputated, one whose family’s livelihood cannot be met, children, women and  slaves are exempted from war. The woman is considered to be busy with his husband’s service and the slave is to be busy with his master’s service. A child does not have the obligation to join the war. Ibn Umar (Son of Umar) said: “ I was presented to the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) on the day of Uhud Battle, and I was fourteen, He decided that I was not competent for war. (Tirmidh, War, 32; Ibn Majah, The Punishments, 4). The others’ painful states are regarded as excuses: “There is no blame on those who are infirm, or ill, or who find no resources to spend (on the Cause), if they are sincere (in duty) to Allah and His Messenger: no ground (of complaint) can there be against such as do right: and Allah is Oft-Forgiving Most, Merciful.” (at-Tawbah, 9/91), “it is no fault in the blind nor in one born lame, nor in one afflicted with illness” (an-Noor, 24/61)

In case of a total attack by the enemy against an Islamic city, a woman may join the war only with her husband’s permission. (al-Kasani, ibid  VII, 97; Ibnul-Humam, ibid IV, 276, 283; Ibn Abidin, ibid III, 238, 241)

Jizyah (a tax collected from non-Muslims) is taken from the fully grown, free and male non-Muslims. The following are exempt from jizyah : women, children, the insane and senile people, those who are chronically ill, the blind, the paralyzed and people who are too oşd. Non-Muslims pay jizyah so that  the muslims will not fight them and they will be protected  against outer dangers. Those excused ones are not capable of fighting. The poor people do not pay jizyah because they cannot afford it. The priests that live a recluse life do not pay jizyah, either. (See at-Tawbah, 9/29; Celal Yeniçeri, State Budget in Islam, İstanbul 1984, p. 32, 33,190; Ziya Kazıcı, Tax System in the Ottomans, İstanbul 1977, p. 35-38; az-Zuhayli, VI, 444). However, the Shafii and Hanbali scholars base their judgments on the conditions of being sane, pubescent and male, for the jizyah; thus, they do not consider the aforementioned excuses valid for exemption from paying jizyah (Zuhayli, ibid VI, 445).

• What does having an excuse for wudu mean?

A continuous state that invalidates wudu is called an excuse. For instance, being unable to control one’s urine, passing wind continuously, frequent nose bleeding, pus continuously flowing out of a wound are states that make one excused for wudu.

A person who has something like that preventing him from retaining wudu is called an excused person

What is the condition for being regarded excused for wudu?

A person can be regarded as excused if the state that invalidates wudu continues during the whole time of a prayer; that is, it must not stop even for a short time that is enough to make wudu and perform the prayer. (It is the condition for the state of being excused to start.) After that, it must take place at least once in each time of prayer. (It is the condition for the state of being excused to continue.)

Let us explain it with an example:

If the nose of a person starts to bleed at the beginning time for the noon prayer and if it continues to flow without interruption until the time for the noon prayer ends, the condition for the state of being excused starts for that person. If he experiences at least one bleeding in each prayer time after that, he is regarded to be excused because the state of being excused is repeated in each time of prayer; so, it becomes clear that the excuse continues, which means the realization of the second condition of being excused. 

If the excuse does not appear during the time limits of a prayer, the state of being excused ends. Such a person is not regarded to be excused any more.

What are the Judgments for those are Excused for Wudu?

Our religion makes it very easy for those who are excused for wudu. Their wudu is not regarded to be invalidated as long as the state that invalidates wudu continues. They perform their prayers in that state. They are not held responsible for cleaning the place again polluted by flows like the blood, pus and urine because they become dirty again immediately after they are cleaned. For instance, a person who cannot control his urine does not have to wash the place polluted by the urine, and the flow of urine does not invalidate his wudu. He can perform his prayers although the urine pollutes his clothes. Our religion makes it so easy for the excused people to be regarded on wudu; however, those people should be very careful about the following issue:

A person who has been determined that he is excused has to make wudu for each prayer time; he can perform with that wudu as many supererogatory or missed prayers as he wants between the time limits of that fard prayer. He can also perform witr and janazah prayers with it.  

The wudu that an excused person makes is valid only between the beginning time and the end of that prayer time. When the time for a prayer ends and the time for the next prayer starts, the wudu of the excused person is invalidated. He has to make wudu again for the new prayer time that starts. For instance, if an excused person makes wudu for the morning prayer, his wudu is valid until the time for the morning prayer ends. When that time ends, that is, when the sun rises, his wudu becomes invalid. He cannot perform any prayers with that wudu. 

Another issue that the excused people should pay attention to is the fact that they cannot lead prayers in front of the people who are not excused. Therefore, it is not appropriate to force the excused people to lead prayers.

Since the wudu that excused people make for the morning prayer becomes invalid when the sun rises, they have to make wudu again for the eid and duha prayers.

The urine, blood, etc that pollute the clothes of an excused person do not invalidate his prayer as long as his excused states continues. The state of menstruation and puerperium for women have different fiqh decrees; the bleedings other than menstruation and puerperium and the continuous bleedings are regarded as excuses. 

According to Imam Shafii, an excused person has to make wudu for each prayer to be performed.

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Could you please give information about the subject of "Excuse" in Islam ? In which conditions do we become (mazur) excused about the religious services?

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