How did the Pledge of Ridwan taken before Treaty of Hudaybiyyah take place?

Details of the Question

How did the Pledge of Ridwan taken before Treaty of Hudaybiyyah take place?

The Answer

Dear Brother / Sister,

When the Messenger of Allah heard the news that Hazrat Uthman had been martyred by the polytheists, he felt very depressed. Upon this act of the Qurayshis, he had nothing else to do but to attack them. He said,

“In that case, we will never leave this place unless we fight them.”1

Besides, there was nothing else to do. They did not accept the peace offers; what is more, they dared to martyr the envoy of the Prophet.

He said to his Companions, “Allah ordered you to pay allegiance to me.”

The Messenger of Allah stood under the Samura Tree (it was named as the ‘the Ridwan Tree’ after the Allegiance). The Muslims paid allegiance to him, one by one, that they would not avoid fighting and that they would fight until they sacrificed their lives in the way of Allah and His Messenger.2 Only one person avoided the allegiance: Jadd b. Qays, one of the munafiqs.3

This allegiance gave a new courage and a fresh excitement to the Companions. They were not able to sit still. They wanted either to circumambulate the Kaaba or to fight the polytheists. 

Allah Almighty states in the Quran that He is pleased with those Muslims who paid allegiance to the Prophet under the tree as follows:

“Allah's Good Pleasure was on the Believers when they swore Fealty to thee under the Tree: He knew what was in their hearts and He sent down Tranquility to them and He rewarded them with a speedy Victory; And many gains will they acquire (besides): and Allah is Exalted in Power, Full of Wisdom.”4

Therefore, this allegiance was called “the Allegiance of Ridwan”.

The Messenger of Allah expressed the virtue of the Muslims who were present during this allegiance in a hadith as follows:

“None of those who really paid allegiance under the tree will go to Hell.”5

When the Qurayshi polytheists heard about the allegiance, they released Hazrat Uthman, whom they had been retaining for three days. Hazrat Uthman immediately went to the presence of the Messenger of Allah; thus, it was understood that the news about his martyrdom was not true.

However, the allegiance had been completed. The Companions said to Hazrat Uthman, “You probably circumambulated the Kaaba.” Hazrat Uthman said,

“By Allah, If I stayed in Makkah for one year when the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) was in Hudaybiyah, I would not circumambulate the Kaaba unless he did.”6

Footnotes:

1. Sirah, 3:330; Tabari, 3:77.
2. Sirah, 3:330.
3. Ibid, 3:330.
4. Surah al-Fath, 18-19.
5. Musnad, 3:350.
6. Ibn Qayyim, Zadu’l-Maad, 2:137.

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