The Treaty of Hudaybiyah

(6th year of the Migration, the month of Dhulqada / 628)

The Peace Delegation:

The Allegiance of Ridwan intimidated the Qurayshis a lot. They were worried that the Prophet would attack them; so, they sent a delegation immediately to make peace. The delegation consisted of the following people:

Suhayl b. Amr (head), Huwaytib b. Abdu’l-Uzza and Mik­raz b. Hafs...

The Qurayshi polytheists said to this delegation of three people, “Go and make peace with Muhammad on the condition that he returns home this year. If he does not accept this condition, do not sign a treaty.[1]

When the Prophet saw that Suhayl, whose name meant easy or soft, was coming, he said to his Companions, “Things are getting easy now. Whenever the Qurayshis wanted to make peace, they always sent this man as an envoy.”[2]

The Peace Delegation in the Presence of the Prophet

Suhayl b. Amr, the envoy of the Quraysh, came to the presence of the Messenger of God. He knelt down in front of him. The Prophet was sitting cross-legged. The Muslims were sitting around him.   

Suhayl b. Amr talked for a long time; then, he made a peace offer. The Prophet accepted to make peace.

Then, they negotiated the articles of the peace treaty. They agreed on them, too. Hazrat Ali was appointed as the scribe to write the articles of the treaty.

The Messenger of God said to Hazrat Ali, “Write! ‘Bis­mil­la­hir­rah­manirrahim’ (In the name of God, the most Merciful, the most Compassionate)!”

Suhayl b. Amr objected: “We do not know Bismil­lahir­rah­manir­ra­him. Do not write like that.”

The Messenger of God asked, “How shall we write, then?”

Suhayl said, “Write, ‘Bismika Allahumma’ (In the name of you, O God).”

The Qurayshis used to say, ‘Bismika Allahumma’ instead of ‘Bis­mil­la­hir­rah­manirrahim’.[3]

The Prophet said, “‘Bismika Allahumma’ is also nice.”Then, he said to Hazrat Ali, “Write, ‘Bismika Allahumma’.”

Hazrat Ali wrote as the Prophet said.[4]

Then, the Messenger of God ordered Hazrat Ali to write, “These are the articles of the peace treaty that Muhammad, the Messenger of God, and Suhayl b. Amr agreed on and signed.”

Suhayl, the leader of the Qurayshi delegation, objected again, “By God, if we accepted that you were the Messenger of God, we would not prevent you from visiting the Kaaba and we would not try to fight you.”

The Prophet asked, “How shall we write, then?”

Suhayl said, “Write your name and your father’s name as ‘Muhammad b. Abdullah’.”

The Prophet said, “It is also nice.” Then, he said to Hazrat Ali,

“O Ali! Delete it and write ‘Muhammad b. Abdullah’.”[5]

Hazrat Ali said, “No! By God, I will never delete the phrase ‘the Messenger of God’.”[6]

Meanwhile, the Muslims started to talk loudly due to their love and respect toward the Messenger of God: “We will not allow anything other than Muhammad, the Messenger of God to be written. Why should we accept this insult about our religion?”

The Messenger of God signaled the Muslims with his hand to lower their voices and to keep silent. Thereupon, they kept silent.

Then, the Prophet said to Hazrat Ali, “Show me where the phrase is.”

Hazrat Ali showed him the place where the phrase, “the Messenger of God” was written. The Messenger of God deleted it with his own hand. Then, he had “Ibn Abdullah” (son of Abdullah)” written instead of it.[7]

It is possible to understand how seriously the Prophet wanted peace and how hard he tried to eliminate the barriers on the way to peace from those examples.

The Articles of the Treaty

After the objections of the delegation of the polytheists, the objections of the Muslims and the reconciliation as a result of the efforts of the Prophet, it was time to write the articles of the treaty.

After the negotiations between the Messenger of God and the delegation of the polytheists, the following articles were agreed on:

1) The Muslims and polytheists will not fight each other for ten years in order to live in peace and security.

2) The Prophet and the Companions will not enter Makkah this year and they will return; however, next year, they will come only carrying swords, which are regarded as travelers’ weapons, and circumambulate the Kaab; they will stay in Makkah only for three days; the polytheists will leave the city for three days when they arrive. 

3) The Muslims of Madinah that take refuge in Makkah will not be returned to the Muslims but the Makkans who take refuge in Madinah will be returned even if they are Muslims if the polytheists demand them.

4) The Arab tribes will be free to join the Prophet or the Quraysh.[8]

The Fury and Objection of the Companions

The Messenger of God wanted to bind the Qurayshis with a peace treaty no matter how; thus, he wanted to show them and the people of the whole Arabia the political power and existence of Islam.[9]Therefore, he accepted the offers and articles of Suhayl, the leader of the Qurayshi delegation, which were seemingly against Muslims. The Companions, who could not understand this subtlety, were furious and they objected to it from time to time.  

When Suhayl, the leader of the Qurayshi delegation, said to the Prophet, “If one of you comes to us, we will accept him but if a person from us goes to you, you will return him even if he is a Muslim”, the Muslims suddenly became very furious and said, “Subhanallah! How can we return a Muslim who comes to the Muslims to the polytheists? Then, they asked the Prophet in astonishment, “O Messenger of God! Will you accept this condition, too?”

The Prophet, who wanted to make the Qurayshi polytheists recognize the Islamic state officially by signing a peace treaty despite everything, answered the objections and questions of the Muslims as follows:

“Yes, May God keep those of us who will go to the polytheists away from us. God definitely knows those who will come to us and whom we will have to return. He will definitely create a way to save them.”[10]

The Incident of Abu Jandal

The articles of the treaty had been written but they had not been signed yet.

Meanwhile, somebody in chains ran toward the Muslims. He was Abu Jandal, the son of Suhayl b. Amr, the leader of the Qurayshi delegation. When he embraced Islam, the polytheists chained his feet and imprisoned him. Abu Jandal escaped from the place where he was imprisoned and came to the presence of the Messenger of God. Meanwhile, his father, Suhayl, was still in the headquarters of the Muslims.

In order to be saved from the tortures and oppression inflicted by his own father, Abu Jandal knelt down before the Messenger of God, took refuge in him and said, “Save me.”

However, the treaty prepared a few minutes ago made it impossible. As a matter of fact, Suhayl, who saw that his son arrived, wanted him from the Prophet by saying,

“There! He is the first person that you will return to me in accordance with the articles of the treaty.”

The Prophet said, “We have not signed the peace treaty yet.”

Suhayl insisted: “By God, I will not sign the treaty then.”

The Messenger of God said, “Forgive him for my sake and sign the peace treaty.”

Suhayl had no intention of accepting it. He said, “I will not regard it as out of the treaty and I will not give him to you.”

The Prophet said, “No! You will do it for my sake.”

However, Suhayl still insisted: “I will not accept it.”[11]

The Messenger of God was faced with a dilemma: To return Abu Jandal meant to send him to oppression and torture; if he did not return him, The Qurayshi delegation would annul the agreement. However, the Prophet did not want the treaty to be annulled due to several reasons.

The Prophet had to return Abu Jandal to his father in sorrow.

The screams of Abu Jandal affected the Muslims very badly; he was yelling, “O Messenger of God! O Muslims! Are you going to return me to them so that they will oppress and torture me?”[12]

Unfortunately, Abu Jandal was returned to the merciless hands of his father. His screams and call for help made the Muslims cry. However, they could not object to it and had to accept the oppression because the Messenger of God had surrendered him. If the Messenger of God had not surrendered him, they would definitely have answered his call and saved him from the merciless hands.  

The Prophet consoled Abu Jandal, who was taken by his father, saying, “Show patience a bit more; put up with the torture that you suffer. Ask God to reward you for it. God will definitely create a way out for you and for the Muslims that had nobody to help.” Then, he said, “We have to keep our promise, which we have made.”[13]

Hazrat Umar Asks the Prophet a Question

While Abu Jandal was being taken by the polytheists, Hazrat Umar went to the presence of the Prophet and asked, “O Messenger of God! Why are we returning him to the Qurayshis? Why do we accept this insult?”

The Messenger of God answered, “We have made an agreement with them. We cannot break our promise.”[14]

When the Prophet gave this answer, Hazrat Umar approached Abu Jandal showed his sword to him and said, “O Abu Jandal! The blood of polytheists is worthless like the blood of dogs. A person can kill his father in the way of God. Kill your father!”

Abu Jandal asked, “Why do you not kill him?”

Hazrat Umar said, “The Messenger of God (pbuh) prevented me from killing him and the others.” Abu Jandal said, “I obey the Prophet as much as you do.”[15]

The Loyalty of Muslims is Tested

The Companions were prevented from visiting and circumambulating the Kaaba though they wanted it so much. On the other hand, they were disturbed by the articles of the treaty that were seemingly against them because they could not understand those articles very well. It was clear from their attitudes that they were disturbed and disappointed. 

Hazrat Umar could not justify the reasons why the Prophet had signed the treaty and he could not help going to the presence of the Prophet. He asked the Prophet, “Are you not the true prophet of God?”

The Messenger of God said, “Yes, I am the prophet of God.”

Hazrat Umar asked, “Are we, Muslims, on the right way and are the polytheists, our enemies, on the wrong way?”

The Messenger of God said, “That is right.”

Thereupon, Hazrat Umar said, “Then, why do we allow our religion to be humiliated?”

The Messenger of God said, “O son of Khattab! I am the slave and Messenger of God. I cannot act contrary to God’s orders. I did not disobey God when I accepted the articles of this treaty. He will never harm us.”

Thereupon, Hazrat Umar said, “Did you not tell us that God would make us victorious and that we would circumambulate the Kaaba together?”

The Messenger of God said, “Yes, I did. However, did I say that we would circumambulate the Kaaba this year?”

Hazrat Umar said, “No, you didn’t.”

Thereupon, the Messenger of God said, “Then, I am saying it again: You will definitely go to Makkah and circumambulate the Kaaba.”[16]

Hazrat Umar Talks to Abu Bakr

Hazrat could not soothe his feelings in his inner world despite his talk with the Prophet.

This time, he went to Hazrat Abu Bakr and said, “O Abu Bakr! Is he not the true prophet of God?”

Hazrat Abu Bakr said, “Yes, he is the true prophet of God.”

He asked, “Are we, Muslims, on the right way and are the polytheists, our enemies, on the wrong way?”

Hazrat Abu Bakr answered, “Yes, we are on the right way and our enemies are on the wrong way.”

Thereupon, Hazrat Umar said, “Then, why do we allow our religion to be humiliated?”

Hz. Abu Bakr, who was a symbol of loyalty, said, “O Umar! He is the Messenger of God. He did not disobey God when he signed this treaty. Obey his orders.”

Hazrat Umar said, “Did he not tell us in Madinah, ‘We will go to the Kaaba and circumambulate it?’”

Hazrat Abu Bakr said, “Yes, he did.” Then he asked Hazrat Umar, “Did he say, ‘You will go to the Kaaba and circumambulate it this year?”

Hazrat Umar said, “No, he didn’t.”

Thereupon, Hazrat Abu Bakr said, “You will definitely go to the Kaaba and circumambulate it soon.”[17]

The Confession and Regret of Hazrat Umar

Hazrat Umar later stated his mood that day and the regret he felt as follows:

“I had never suffered a misfortune like that day. I talked to the Prophet (pbuh) in a style that I had never done before. If I had found a group that had the same view as me, I would have left those who supported the peace and the treaty and would have acted together with them. Eventually, God made it better for us. The Messenger of God (pbuh) knew that it was going to turn out like that. I fasted, gave sadaqah, performed prayers and freed slaves due to the fear I felt because of the words that I uttered in the presence of the Messenger of God that day hoping that it would turn out to be good.”[18]

Sacrificing Animals and Having Haircuts

After signing the treaty and making peace, the Messenger of God called out to the Companions, “Stand up, sacrifice your animals and have haircuts.”[19]

However, despite the endless respect and love of the Companions toward the Prophet, nobody moved when they heard the order. The Prophet had to repeat his order for the second time: “Stand up, sacrifice your animals and then have haircuts!”

However, the Companions acted as if they had not heard the order; they did not start to sacrifice the animals and have haircuts.

The Messenger of God repeated his order for the third time: “Stand up, sacrifice your animals and then have haircuts!”[20]

The Companions did not move.

When the Messenger of God saw that nobody from the Companions moved though he repeated his order three times, he went to Umm Salama, one of his wives and said, 

“O Umm Salama! What is the matter with them? I said to them repeatedly, ‘Sacrifice your animals and have haircuts but they do not fulfill my order!”[21]

Umm Salama, who was exceptionally intelligent and virtuous said, “O Messenger of God! Do you want to do it? Then, go out and do not say even one word to the Companions until you slaughter your animal and your barber gives you a haircut. If you slaughter your animal and have your hair cut, they will do so, too.”[22]

Thereupon, the Prophet went out. He removed his ihram under his right armpit and put it on his left shoulder; he sacrificed his camel and called his barber, Khirash b. Umayya; Umayya cut his hair.[23]

Thereupon, the Companions started to sacrifice their camels and have their hair cut.

Umm Salama narrates,

“They ran toward the animals to be sacrificed so fast that they nearly ran over one another.”[24]

It cannot be said that the Companions did not fulfill the repeated order of the Messenger of God to oppose him. They probably thought the articles of the peace treaty were too harsh and expected that the treaty would be annulled by revelation; they expected that the Messenger of God would annul his order. At least, they thought they would be allowed to enter Makkah so that they would complete their umrah. They waited for it to happen. As a matter of fact, when they saw that no revelation was sent down regarding the issue, that the Messenger of God sacrificed his camel and that he had his hair cut, they started to sacrifice their camels quickly and had their hair cut so as not to oppose the Messenger of God.

We understand from this incidence that Umm Salama had exceptional intelligence and virtue. It was even said, “No woman in the history of Islam showed the sagacity and foresight that Umm Salama showed in Hudaybiyah.[25]

The Prophet Says a Prayer

Some of the Companions were having their hair shaved and others were having their hair trimmed. The Prophet said, “May God show mercy on those who have their hair shaved.”[26]

The Companions who had their hair trimmed hesitated for a moment when they heard this prayer. They asked the Prophet to say the same prayer for them, too. The Prophet said, “May God show mercy on those who have their hair shaved.”

The Companions said, “O Messenger of God! Pray for those who have their hair cut or trimmed, too. The Messenger of God said, “May God show mercy on those who have their hair cut or trimmed!”[27]

The Companions asked, “O Messenger of God! Why did you ask for mercy for those who had their hair shaved but excluded those who had their hair trimmed first?”

The Messenger of God gave the following answer:

“Because those who had their hair shaved fulfilled the order fully; they did not hesitate like the others.”[28]

After the Companions had their hair cut, a wind sent by God blew their hair toward the Kaaba. They regarded it as the acceptance of their umrah and gave the glad tidings to one another.

Leaving Hudaybiyah

After staying in Hudaybiyah for about twenty days with his Companions, the Messenger of God left Hudaybiyah in order to return to Madinah.

The Companions were very sorry because they had to return without visiting the Kaaba.

Meanwhile, when the Messenger of God was in the place called Kurau’l Ghamim, which is between Makkah and Madinah, the chapter of al-Fath, which gave the Muslims the glad tidings that they would attain great conquests: “Verily We have granted thee a manifest Victory”[29]

God Almighty also stated in the chapter He sent down that the Messenger of God and the Muslims would soon go and visit the Kaaba, confirming the dream that the Prophet had seen: 

“Truly did God fulfill the vision for His Messenger: Ye shall enter the Sacred Mosque, if God wills, with minds secure, heads, shaved, hair cut short, and without fear. For He knew what ye knew not and He granted besides this a speedy victory.”[30]

Hz. Umar’s Situation

Hazrat Umar described his mood while returning to Madinah and the revelation of the chapter al-Fath as follows: 

“While returning from Hudaybiyah, I was walking next to the Messenger of God (pbuh). I asked him something but he did not answer me. I asked again but he did not answer. I asked for the third time but he did not answer. I said to myself, ‘O son of Khattab! May your mother lose you. You asked the Messenger of God (pbuh) three times but he did not answer any of your questions. You deserved verses to be sent down against you’. I was afraid that verses would be sent against me; so, I led my camel and went to the front of the people.  

It was as if something was squeezing me. After a short while, I heard somebody call out, ‘O Umar b. Khattab!’. I said to myself, ‘I was afraid that verses would be sent against me.’ I was so afraid that only God knew its degree. I returned and went to the presence of the Messenger of God. I greeted him. He greeted me. He was very happy.

He said to me, ‘O son of Khattab! Tonight, I was sent down a chapter; it is more beloved to me than anything in the world.’ Then, he recited it:

‘Verily We have granted thee a manifest Victory.’”[31]

The Fear of the Muslims

While the chapter of al-Fath was being revealed to the Messenger of God, the Muslims became very worried, thinking that the revelation was related to their attitudes.

Mujammi’ b. Jariya narrates that moment as follows:

“People were standing near the camels in fear. Everybody was asking one another, ‘What is the matter with the people?’

They said, ‘The Messenger of God (pbuh) has received a revelation.’

We went to the presence of the Messenger of God in fear. The Messenger of God (pbuh) was standing. When people gathered, he started to read the verses of the chapter al-Fath: ‘Inna fatahna laka fathan mubinan’ (Verily We have granted thee a manifest Victory).

Meanwhile, one of the Companions asked, ‘O Messenger of God! Is this treaty a conquest?’

The Messenger of God (pbuh) said, ‘Yes, I swear by God, in whose hand of power my life is that this treaty is definitely a conquest.’”[32]

The Prophet Repeats that the Treaty is a Great Conquest

While the Messenger of God was returning to Madinah with his Companions, he was told that somebody said, “We were prevented from circumambulating the Kaaba; we were prevented from sacrificing our animals at the Kaaba. The Messenger of God returned the Muslims who took refuge in us to the polytheists. What kind of a conquest is it?”

Thereupon, the Prophet said, “What a bad statement it is!” Then, he explained why Hudaybiyah wa a great conquest as follows:

“Yes, the Treaty of Hudaybiyah is the greatest conquest. The polytheists agreed that you would enter their land, perform umrah there and that you would be safe while going there and returning from there. Thus, they will see and learn Islam, which they have not liked up to now, from you. God will make you defeat them and will make you return safely and with benefits. It is the greatest conquest.”[33]

After this definite talk of the Messenger of God, the Companions felt relieved. Admitting that Hudaybiyah was the greatest conquest, they said, “What God and His Messenger say is right. This treaty is the greatest conquest. Oh Messenger of God! We did not think as you did. You definitely know God’s orders better than us!”[34]

Returning to Madinah

After the expedition that lasted about a month, the Messenger of God and his Companions returned to Madinah at the beginning of the month of Dhulhijjah.[35]

A Short Glance at the Treaty of Hudaybiyah

The Companions, who had prepared themselves to visit and to circumambulate the Kaaba and who desired the truth and righteousness, thought that the Peace Treaty of Hudaybiyah was against them. However, when the results of the peace started to be seen in the course of time, they understood how right the Messenger of God was in his decision and that they did not have to worry about it. 

First of all, he Qurayshi polytheists, who were the fiercest enemy of Islam, recognized the Islamic state officially through this peace treaty.

Besides, this treaty became a stepping stone for other conquests and served as a key to open other doors of conquest. As a matter of fact, this treaty, or rather, this conquest was followed by the conquest of Khaybar after a while and then by the conquest of Makkah.   

Furthermore, thanks to this peace treaty, the Muslims found a suitable environment to convey the message of Islam peacefully and safely without fighting and clashing. Due to the fights between the Muslims and the polytheists aiming to kill one another, they could not meet and talk. Thanks to this peace period, Islam and the Muslims had a good opportunity to convey the message of Islam. 

Although the material swords were in their sheaths for a while, the bright, spiritual sword of Islam emerged and started to conquer the hearts and the minds. Thanks to the treaty, the Muslims and the polytheists had the opportunity to meet and talk freely. The beauties of Islam displayed by the lives of the Muslims attracted the polytheists. The undying lights of the Quran eliminated the obstinacy and bigotry of the tribes and clans, performing its spiritual prevalence. For instance, people like Khalid b. Walid, who was a genius of war and Amr b. As, who was a genius of politics, did not want to be defeated by the sword; thanks to the peace, they were impressed by the spiritual sword of the Quran and embraced Islam in the presence of the Messenger of God.

Similarly, thanks to the opportunities provided by the peace treaty, visits from Makkah to Madinah and from Madinah to Makkah, and trade relations started. The Qurayshi polytheists had the opportunity to know the Muslims closely: they witnessed their honesty and righteousness; they observed how they lived in freedom. Meanwhile, many polytheists embraced Islam thanks to the suggestions of the Muslims. Some of them softened their enmity toward Islam and started to have a tendency toward Islam.

During the period of two years between the Treaty of Hudaybiyah and the Conquest of Makkah, the number of the people who embraced Islam was much higher than those who embraced Islam during the twenty-year period between the prophethood of the Messenger of God and the peace treaty. The number of the Companions that had set off with the intention of umrah was one thousand and four hundred but two years later about ten thousand Companions set off for the conquest of Makkah. This fact clearly shows what an appropriate treaty the Treaty of  Hudaybiyah was.  

It is remarkable that the Quran describes the Treaty of Hudaybiyah as  “fath mubin = a manifest victory”. In fact, the Muslims had several significant victories before that. However, the reason why the Quran described the Treaty of Hudaybiyah to them as a manifest victory was to show that the real victory for Islam was in the spiritual field. As a matter of fact, Imam Zuhri said, “There was no conquest greater than the Treaty of Hudaybiyah before it in Islam”[36], indicating this fact.

The narration of Ibn Mas’ud is similar: “You regard the conquest of Makkah as conquest whereas we regard the Treaty of Hudaybiyah as the real conquest.”[37]

The Peace Treaty of Hudaybiyah was also a great political victory. It isolated Khaybar Jews from the Qurayshi polytheists, who were their strongest allies. From then on, the Qurayshi polytheists did not virtually exist for Khaybar Jews. Therefore, the conquest of Khaybar was made easier due to the Treaty of Hudaybiyah. As a matter of fact, the Messenger of God conquered Khaybar a few weeks after he returned to Madinah.  

After those outcomes were seen, it was clearly understood how miraculous and concise the verse of the Quran regarding the Treaty of Hudaybiyah was: “Verily We have granted thee a manifest Victory.”

We should also remind you the following verse of the Quran:

“…it is possible that ye dislike a thing which is good for you, and that ye love a thing which is bad for you. But God knoweth and ye know not.”[38]

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[1]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 331; Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 325.

[2]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 331.

[3]According to narrations, the first person to utter the phrase “Bismika Allahumma” is Umayya b. Abi Salt, the famous Arab poet and one of the leaders of the people of Taif. Then, Arabs liked this phrase and started to write it at the beginning of their books. (For detailed information, see the first volume of this book.

[4]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 332; Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 325.

[5]Muslim, Sahih, Vol. 3, p. 1410; Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, ibid, Vol. 1, p. 342.

[6]Muslim, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 1410; Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 291.

[7]Muslim, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 1411.

[8]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 3,p. ?; Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 97; Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 325; Tabari, Tarikh, Vol. 3, p. 79.

[9]az-Zabidi, Tajrid Sarih, Translation, Kamil Miras, Vol. 8, p. 164.

[10]Muslim, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 1411; Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 268.

[11]Ibn Hisham, Sirah, Vol. 3, p. 332; Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. 4, p. 325.

[12]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 333; Tabari, Tarikh, Vol. 3, p. 79.

[13]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 333.

[14]Balazuri, Ansab, Vol. 1, p. 221.

[15]Waqidi, Maghazi, Vol. 2, p. 609.

[16]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 331; Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 330; Muslim, Sahih, Vol. 3, p. 1412.

[17]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 331; Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 330; Muslim, Sahih, Vol. 3, p. 1412.

[18]Suhayli, Rawdu’l-Unf, Vol. 6, p. 490; Ibn Sayyid, Uyun al-Athar, Vol. 2, p. 119.

[19]Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 326; Bukhari, Sahih, Vol. 3, p. 182.

[20]Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 326; Bukhari, Sahih, Vol. 3, p. 182.

[21]Waqidi, Maghazi, Vol. 2, p. 613.

[22]Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 326; Bukhari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 182.

[23]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 333.

[24]Waqidi, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 613.

[25]az-Zabidi, Tajrid Sarih, Translation, Kamil Miras, Vol. 8, p. 171.

[26]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 334.

[27]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 334.

[28]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 334; Tabari, Tarikh, Vol. 3, p. 81.

[29]al-Fath, 1.

[30]al-Fath, 27.

[31]Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. 1, p. 31; Tirmidhi, Sunan, Vol. 5, p. 385.

[32]Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat, Vol. 2, p. 105.

[33]Halabi, Insanu’l-Uyun, Vol. 2, p. 715.

[34]Halabi, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 715.

[35]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 337; Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 1, p. 258.

[36]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 336; Tabari, Tarikh, Vol. 3, p. 81.

[37]Ibn Kathir, Tafsir, Vol. 4, p. 182.

[38]al-Baqara, 216.

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