Does the 113th verse of Surah Hud threaten only Muslims?

The Details of the Question

And do not be inclined to the wrongdoers or you will be touched by the Fire. For then you would have no protectors other than Allah, nor would you be helped. (Surah Hud, 113)
The verse above threatens is only Muslims; unbelievers and hypocrites (munafiqs) are not friends of Allah anyway.
Is it correct to understand the verse like that?

The Answer

Dear Brother / Sister,

The addressees in verse 113 of Surah Hud are Muslims. (see Qadi Baydawi, interpretation of the relevant verse)

What is meant by the “wrongdoers” in the verse is polytheists or all those who commit crimes and are oppressors, whether they are unbelivers or not. (see Qurtubi, interpretation of the relevant verse)

For, when a person rebels against Allah and becomes cruel, it is necessary for us to stay away from him no matter who he is because consent to sin is a sin, just as consent to unbelief is unbelief.

The concept of "rukn" in the verse means sitting next to unbelievers or rebellious people, having a chat with them, nurturing love for them wholeheartedly, flattery towards them, and tendency to look at them with sympathy. (Mawardi, Qurtubi, Ibn Kathir, interpretation of the relevant verse)

Islam does not only prohibit cruelty, but also forbids sincere inclination towards the oppressors and having a keen interested in them because the real meaning of avoiding injustice is as follows: not to be unfair, to try not to be subjected to injustice, not to support unjust people, and not to have a keen interest in them.

On the other hand, wise people have divided wrongdoing into three parts:

1.  Wrongdoing between man and Allah. The biggest of them is unbelief, shirk (polytheism) and hypocrisy. Therefore, Allah Almighty states the following in the Quran: “Never associate anything with Allah in worship, for associating ˹others with Him˺ is truly the worst of all wrongs.” (Surah Luqman 31/13)   

2.  Persecution between people. "Allah does not like the wrongdoers." (Surah Ash-Shu’ara 26/40) What is meant by wrongdoers in the verse of the Quran above is generally "those who are unfair to others".

3.  Wrongdoing between a person and his own soul.  It is mentioned in several places in the Quran. For example, "We did not wrong them, but they wronged themselves." (Surah Hud, 11/101) In the verse above, the wrongdoing done by a person to himself is mentioned. (see Razi, interpretation of the relevant verse)

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