Could you please define Kufr and Shirk ?

The Details of the Question
Could you please define Kufr and Shirk ?
The Answer

Dear Brother / Sister,

KUFR

Author: İslam Fıkhı Ansiklopedisi,

It means to cover, to cover the bounties due to not thanking for it, to show ingratitude. Therefore, in Arabic, the night is called kafir (coverer; covering) because it covers everything with darkness. As a term, kufr is the opposite of belief; that is, it is unbelief. In other words, it means to deny the existence and oneness of Allah, prophethood and the things that are definite to have been brought by Hazrat Muhammad from Allah. In Islam, a person who does not believe in what is necessary to be believed is called a kafir since he covers the truth. It is not necessary no to believe in all of the things that are necessary to be believed to become a kafir. It is kufr not to believe even in one or some of them.  

Kufr can be through the heart, words or acts. A person who utters something that can make him a kafir without any force, or a person who despises and makes fun of the things that are necessary to be believed or a person who commits things that do not comply with belief becomes a kafir. However, if a person utters a word of kufr although his heart is full of belief due to a death threat in order to save his life, he is not regarded to have exited Islam. (Hamdi Yazır, Hak Dini Kur`an Dili, Istanbul 1960, v.1, p. 207-208; Asım Efendi Kamus Tercümesi, v.2, p. 662).

SHIRK

Author: İslam Fıkhı Ansiklopedisi,

The root of the verb "Sha-ri-ka" means to share, to become a partner. As a religious term, shirk means associating partners with Allah.

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